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English Grammar Adjective clause

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Student Development Institute
Core English 1
Adjective clause
A relative pronoun is used to connect a clause or phrase to ...
Student Development Institute
Core English 2
Relative pronouns are similar to conjunctions in that they provide a link bet...
Student Development Institute
Core English 3
In both examples containing non-restrictive clauses, the material between com...
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English Grammar Adjective clause

  1. 1. Student Development Institute Core English 1 Adjective clause A relative pronoun is used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. You see them used everyday with the most common relative pronouns being: who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that. I. Defining Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun is usually seen in a sentence at the beginning of an adjective clause. An adjective clause functions as an adjective, modifying nouns and pronouns. An adjective clause starts with either a relative adverb:  where, when, and why or a relative pronoun such as:  that, who, whom, whose, or which Example (with relative pronoun underlined and adjective clause in italics): The driver who ran the stop sign was careless. Here is a full list of relative pronouns: that, when, which, whichever, whichsoever, who, whoever, whosoever, whom, whomever, whomsoever whose, whosesoever whatever, whatsoever Following are examples of sentences that have adjective clauses starting with relative pronouns (relative pronouns are underlined).  Spaghetti, which many of us enjoy, can be messy.  This is the book that everyone is talking about.  She wrote to the person whom she had met last month.  We didn’t bring the receipt, which was a big mistake.  I have a friend whose cat is annoying.  People who are clever can always find a way.  Grandma remembers a time when radio shows were popular.  Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died. - Erma Bombeck
  2. 2. Student Development Institute Core English 2 Relative pronouns are similar to conjunctions in that they provide a link between a clause and the balance of the sentence. The difference from a conjunctions is that a relative pronoun doesn't just bring attention to the clause. The relative pronoun actually plays the role of a noun in the clause. II. Nonrestrictive and restrictive of adjective clause A nonrestrictive is set off from the other clause by commas and a restrictive clause is not. Who, which and whom can be used in restrictive and nonrestrictive. That can’t only be used in a restrictive- Ex. Families whose incomes are below a certain level pay non income tax Ex. My family, whose income is more than $500, pays about 10% income tax. Ex. High-risk students who attended extra tutoring sessions had significantly higher grades than students who did not attend. (The clause in italics is necessary to the sentence. If we took it out, the meaning of the sentence would change drastically; therefore, there should be no punctuation to set off the restrictive element here.) Look at the difference when the sentence is written incorrectly. High-risk students, who attended extra tutoring sessions, had significantly higher grades than students who did not attend. Correct: Students who have not signed in at the desk will not receive assistance. Incorrect: Students, who have not signed in at the desk, will not receive assistance. Correct: Students who have done or attempted to do their homework can check their answers against the professor’s answer sheet. Incorrect: Students, who have done or attempted to do their homework, can check their answers against the professor’s answer sheet. A clause is non-restrictive if it is not strictly necessary to the meaning of the sentence. It can be left out and the sentence will still be logical. The non-restrictive clause merely gives the reader extra information. Imagine that you could lift the non-restrictive clause out of the sentence, using the commas as handles, and the sentence could still function. That is why the clause is called “non-restrictive”: it does not restrict the sentence, or the sentence is not restricted to containing the clause. Examples: Non-traditional students, who are generally highly motivated, tend to do well on the sample tests. The cat, who had already spent eight of his nine lives, was spared from tragedy once again.
  3. 3. Student Development Institute Core English 3 In both examples containing non-restrictive clauses, the material between commas could be “lifted” out without changing the general meaning of the sentences. That material gives extra but not essential information. In sentences containing restrictive clauses, the material cannot be “lifted” out and should not be enclosed by commas. III. Reductionof Adjective clause An adjective clause—also called a relative clause—is a group of words that modify or describe a noun. Remember that adjective clauses contain a subject and a verb, begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, which), and are dependent clauses, which means that they cannot stand alone because they have no meaning without an independent (main) clause. She is the woman + who works at the bakery. (Independent clause) (Adjective clause) We reduce sentences when you have the same subject in the main clause and the adjective clause. Adjective clauses contain relative pronouns like who, which, or that. The reduced adjective clause becomes an adjective phrase, which does not have a subject. An adjective phrase does not have a subject and a verb. Instead, it has a present participle (base verb + ing) for the active voice or a past participle for the passive voice. Normal Sentence The girl who is standing by the table is my sister. Reduced Sentence The girl standing by the table is my sister. Normal Sentence The watch that was found in the lobby belongs to Lilly. Reduced Sentence The watch found in the lobby belongs to Lilly. Normal Sentence People who live in large cities have many resources. Reduced Sentence People living in large cities have many resources. Normal Sentence Lee Davis, who is a business teacher, wrote this book. Reduced Sentence Lee Davis, a business teacher, wrote this book.
  4. 4. Student Development Institute Core English 4 Verb Subject A quick note about Active and Passive Voice We use the passive voice when we want to focus on the object (the person or thing receiving the action) and NOT the agent (the person or thing doing the action). Active: A dog bit the man. Passive: The man was bitten by a dog. (object) (be + past participle) *See the Passive Voice DLA for more information. Remember that only sentences with a verb immediately after the relative pronoun can be reduced. If there is a subject after the relative pronoun, the clause cannot be reduced. ExThe man who is smoking by the door is my professor. (Can be reduced) The man whom was I talking to is my professor. (Can’t be reduced) If you want to reduce an adjective clause, make sure that the same subject is present in both clauses, and then follow these steps: 3.1 Omit the relative pronoun (who, that, which) of the adjective clause Students who need extra help should see a tutor. The words that are underlined in red have errors. Roquefort, which is a type of cheese, comes from France. 3.2 Omit the BE form of the verb if there is one Students need extra help should see a tutor. (no be) The words are underlined in red have errors. Roquefort, is a type of cheese, comes from France.
  5. 5. Student Development Institute Core English 5 3.3 Changing rule Change the verb to its present participle form (–ing) for the active voice, or leave it as the past participle for the passive voice. Sometimes after deleting be, there is no verb. Students needing extra help should see a tutor. (active voicepresent participle) The words underlined in red have errors. (passive voicepast participle) Roquefort, a type of cheese, comes from France. (no verb) The rule of reducing adjective clause 1. be + _____ ing. the man who is sitting next to you is my cousin. the man sitting next to you is my 2. appostive . Dara ,who is the president of the spring internation, has an office in littlelon Dara, the president of 3. Simple tense. The criminal who robbed the bank last night got $1million The criminal robbing the 4. passive verb. Hamlet, which was written by william Shakespere, is the most famous English play. Hamlet, written by 5. The author, who has already written 10 books, is already working on number 11. The author, having already wrtten 6. Mary, who is happy with her decision to attend UCD, is doing very well there Maey, happy with 7. The runner who is in the lead at the Denver Marathon won an olympic gold The runner in the lead at the de
  6. 6. Student Development Institute Core English 6 Exercises A. Combine the two sentences in each pair, changing the second sentence into an adjective clause of time or place. Add commas if necessary. The first one has been done for you. 1. Germany had been divided into two countries since 1945. It was defeated in World War Two in 1945. 2. 1989 was the year. The Berlin Wall was torn down in that year. 3. In 1990, Germany became one county again. East and West Germany were reunited in 1990. 4. East Germany became of the Federal Republic of Germany. People had lived under communist rule in East Germany. 5. There was anxiety in places. People feared losing their jobs in some places. B. Change the second sentence in each pair to an adjective clause. 8. Puerto Rico attracts thousands of visitors. Most of them come for sunny weather, the beautiful beaches, and the Spanish atmosphere. 9. Peter has many historic sites. The most famous of them are in the Old San Juan area of the capital city. 10. Peter’s economy is growing. The most important sector of the economy is clothing manufacturing. 11. Puerto Ricans have strong ties to the USA. All of them are U.S citizens. 12. Puerto has three political parties. One of them favors Puerto Rico’s becoming state. C. Exercise on Reduction of Adjective clause A. The woman who is waiting for the train over there is my boss. 1. who waiting for the train 2. who waits for the train 3. waiting for the train B. Secretariat, who was at the back of the pack at the start of the race, won the Kentucky Derby easily at the end. 1. being at the back of the pack at the start of the race, 2. who at the back of the pack at the start of the race, 3. at the back of the pack at the start of the race, C. The Golden Gate Bridge, which was finished in 1937,is one of the most famous in the world.
  7. 7. Student Development Institute Core English 7 1. being finished in 1937, 2. which finished in 1937, 3. finished in 1937, D. Fran, who is my oldest sister, works for Sony Corporation in Japan. 1. being my oldest sister, 2. who my oldest sister, 3. my oldest sister, E. Apple, which has created a number of successful products, is thinking about selling a smart watch in 2014. 1. having created a number of successful products, 2. has created a number of successful products, 3. creating a number of successful products, F. The dictionary --- that is sitting on the table --- is mine. 1. that sitting on the table 2. sitting on the table G. Mrs. Lawrence, --- who is worried about her sick daughter, --- can’t concentrate at work today. 1. worried about her sick daughter, 2. worrying about her sick daughter, 3. having worried about her sick daughter, H. George Washington, --- who was the first President of the U.S., --- was a general in the army before he became President. 1. the first President of the U.S., 2. who the first President of the U.S., 3. was the first President of the U.S., I. Japanese is a written language --- that consists of 3 types of writing, --- kanji, hiragana, and katakana. 1. which consists of 3 types of writing, 2. consists of 3 types of writing, 3. consisting of 3 types of writing, J. The house --- which is behind ours --- burned down last week. 1. behind ours 2. being behind ours 3. behinding ours K. Abraham Lincoln, --- who had lost 8 elections before, --- eventually became President of the U.S. the first time he tried. 1. had lost 8 elections before,
  8. 8. Student Development Institute Core English 8 2. losing 8 elections before, 3. having lost 8 elections before, L. None of us were impressed by the politician --- who gave the speech last night --- at the convention. 1. giving the speech last night 2. having given the speech last night 3. that gave the speech last night M. The rich woman, --- who was tired of losing her keys, --- decided to hire an assistant to carry them around for her. 1. tiring of losing her keys, 2. having tired of losing her keys, 3. tired of losing her keys, N. The Grand Canyon, --- which is located in the southwestern United States, --- is the largest canyon in the world but not the deepest. 1. located in the southwestern United States, 2. locating in the southwestern United States, 3. having located in the southwestern United States, D. Exercise on Preposition of Adjective Combine the two sentences into one sentence using an adjective clause. 1) I know the doctor. The nurse is working with her. 2) This is the computer. The repairman worked on it yesterday. 3) The concert was good. We listened to it last night. 4) She is the woman. I gave a book to her. 5) She is the woman. I told you about her. 6) The man was very kind. I spoke to him on the phone. 7) I must thank the teachers. I got advice from them.
  9. 9. Student Development Institute Core English 9 8) The little girl is sitting over there. I was telling you about her. 9) That is the building. I live in that building. 10) They are the students. The teacher yelled at them. E. Choose the correct letter to fill in the appropriate form. 1. I will never forget the time _____________ I lost the keys to my house. a. where b. when c. during which d. who 2. Harry got fired from his job, ________ meant that he could collect unemployment insurance for 26 weeks a. that b. which c. who d. whose 3. The doctor treated the wounded man at the hotel ________ he had been shot. a. who b. where c. which d. on which 4. The house _____________ Mary grew up is now owned by a minister and his wife. a. where b. that c. which d. when 5. I have three brothers living in Texas, one of _________ is a meditation teacher in Houston. a. whom b. who c. which d. them 6. Giovanni has a cousin _______________ nose is incredibly long. a. who b. who’s c. whose d. who their 7. The people ___________ the singer danced along to the music. a. watching b. who watching c. who watch d. who watches 8. Vincent Van Gogh was the type of painter ______________ use of colors was extraordinary. a. who his b. that c. who
  10. 10. Student Development Institute Core English 10 d. whose 9. I discussed the ethical question with Prof. Mayer _______________ teaches philosophy and religion a. , who b. who c. that d. who he 10. Hyenas ________________ are rather small animals, are able to get food through cunning. a. that b. , which c. which d. who 11. France ______________ people eat a great deal of cheese and drink much red wine, has a low incidence of heart attacks. a. where b. , where c. which d. that 12. I would never sit next to a person _____________ like raw garlic. a. who he smelled b. whose smell c. who smelled d. that smell 13. Jose played soccer for a team ___________ lost every game it played. a. who b. that c. which is d. that it 14. The movie ________________ last Saturday was incredibly dull a. I went to it b. I went to c. that I went d. which I went 15. The performer _____________ at the concert yesterday danced better than Janet Jackson. a. I saw her b. that I saw her c. whom I saw d. I see F. The following sentences contain clauses that may or may not be restrictive. Supply commas for the non-restrictive clauses. 1. The man who had the handlebar mustache pressed Adam for an answer. 2. Mr. Hoffer whose family lives in Germany will be our guest this weekend. 3. The explanation that she had given them seemed too horrible to be true. 4. Mr. Johnson whose son attends the University is our friend. 5. Thomas Jefferson who was born on the frontier became President. 6. A person who loves to read will never be lonely. 7. My father who was a country boy has lived in the city for years.
  11. 11. Student Development Institute Core English 11 8. The girl by whom I sat in class is an honor student. 9. Jet pilots who are not in excellent physical condition should not be allowed to fly. 10. She is a woman who is respected by everyone. Answers: 1. Correct 2. , whose family lives in Germany, 3. Correct 4. , whose son attends the University, 5. , who was born on the frontier, 6. Correct 7. , who was a country boy, 8. Correct
  12. 12. Student Development Institute Core English 12 References Adjective Clause. Nonrestrictive and restrictive of Adjective clause. Retrieved from http://english-zone.com/members/grammar/adj-clz1.html Faculty of Arts, Humanities Languages Department of English. SDI. (2015). Writing Skills. Phnom Penh: Author.

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