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Axis of efficacy (part 2) - By Dan Bensky and Chip Chace

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SECOND PART of this article where Dan Bensky and Charles (Chip) Chace discuss in depth the Ling Shu chapt.1
Don't miss PART 1 of this article!

Publicada em: Educação, Saúde e medicina
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Axis of efficacy (part 2) - By Dan Bensky and Chip Chace

  1. 1. feature The Ling Shu Précis from chapter one of the Ling Shu The range of Please tell me of the way [of needling]. meaning in The essentials of the small needle are the Ling Shu easy to explain but difficult to engage. chapter one The crude attend to the form, the superior attend to the spirit. Spirit oh spirit! There is a guest at the door. Without observing the disease, how can one know its origin? The subtleties of needling lie in its speed. The crude attend to the junctures and the superior attend to the dynamic. The movement in the dynamic is not separate from its empty spaces; The dynamic within this empty space An axis of is clear, still and subtle. Its coming cannot be met and its going cannot be pursued. efficacy Those who understand the way of the dynamic, will not impede it and thus it manifests. Not understanding the way of the dynamic, one detains it and thus it fails to show itself.By Charles Chace & Dan Bensky To understand its goings and comings, emphasise its periodicity.In the last issue, authors Charles Chace and Dan Bensky began a The crude are in the dark about this;discussion of the first section of Chapter 1 of the Ling Shu. In the sublime! Only practitioners have it.second part of this article, they continue the translation of this sec- Going away from it is contrary, promoting its arrival is goingtion, which they call the Ling Shu Précis. They also further explore with the flow.the subtle concept of ji in this text, which suggests that the me- If one clearly understands the contrarychanics of needling, while important, are secondary to the manner and normal [flow of qi], then you canand intention with which they are engaged by the practitioner. act correctly and without doubt or question. By meeting it and taking it away, how could one not achieve depletion [of . [5] the qi]? The subtleties of needling lie in its speed. According to Ling Shu-3.1, “That the subtleties By pursuing and assisting it, how could one not achieve repletion [of of needling lie in its speed, means slow or fast 45 the qi]? [needle manipulation].” If it is the crude who attend to the mechanics Whether meeting it or following it, by means of one’s attention, one of needle technique, then how is it that “the harmonises it. subtleties of needling lie in its speed”? This is a relative statement, predicated upon the This is all there is to say with regard to sensibilities established in the first four lines. It the way of needling. a. . The Lantern 45
  2. 2. feature ‘’ is not that technique is unimportant, only they refer to the overall life activity.d48 that it is useless without the proper level According to Su Wen-70, “What is at the and quality of attention. centre, is called the spirit-dynamic; if the The first five lines establish that the spirit departs then the dynamic ceases.”e49It is not that technique is superior way to practice is to develop a Zhang Jie-Bin explains this as: “What isunimportant, only that relationship with spirit that is played out at the centre of things takes the spirit asit is useless without the through one’s engagement with the patient’s primary, and one’s conscious activity is qi, blood and corporeal form, and is also the expression of the spirit-dynamic. Forproper level and quality of expressed in one’s application of needle this reason, if the spirit departs, then theattention. technique. The text now presents a new dynamic also follows and ceases.” f50. dichotomy, one that echoes the formulation One might equally say that the superior described in Line 2 that “the crude attend to attend to the situation or disposition (shi ). the form, the superior attend to the spirit.” As Zhang Jie-Bin points out, this is not a static state of affairs, but a fluid ebb and . [6] flow of circumstance that is played out in The crude ttend to the junctures nd the qi. The job of the physician is to discern the superior ttend to the dynmic. the precise moment, place and manner to This line is the crux of the passage. Ling intervene. Perhaps the most important Shu-3.1 explains: characteristic of this intervention is that it too, will issue from the spaces between That the crude attend to the junctures means phases of activity, a place of stillness. that they attend to the four extremities and do not understand the departure . [7] and arrival of the correct and pathogenic The movement in the dynmic is not [influences] within the qi and blood. That seprte from its empty spces; the the superior attend to the dynamic means dynmic within this empty spce is b46 that they know how to attend to the qi. cler, still nd subtle. Ling Shu-3.1 continues its interpretive Zhang Jie-Bin comments on this line in thread in reading this line both as a his Lei Jing ( Classified Classic, 1624) simple statement of one’s understanding saying: “That the superior protect the of deficiency and excess, while also dynamic, means that one must examine the acknowledging the deeper thread that the movement and quiescence of the arrival of quality of one’s intention is pivotal to the qi.”c47 For Zhang, ji is primarily a reflection efficacy of one’s needling. of the activity of the qi. At this point in the discussion, the state of the correct or That the movement in the dynamic is not pathogenic qi, its excess or deficiency is separate from its empty spaces means that secondary to a more general appreciation one understands the state of deficiency of the qi’s comings and goings, a mode of or excess within the qi, and the speed perception that is defined by the focused with which to wield the needle. That the concentration of the spirit within one’s dynamic within this empty space is clear, self. One attends to the ji by means of one’s still and subtle means that when needling spirit and one’s attention. to obtain the qi one must be extremely It is no accident that the superior focused, attending to the qi so as not to practitioner attends both to the spirit and lose it.g51 to the dynamic. As already discussed, they are two sides of the same coin. The dynamic Zhang Jie-Bin endorses the interpretation is the way the spirit expresses itself and the of the second passage. “This means that way to truly engage the spirit is through the one must examine [the patient] with dynamic. The two words are closely linked d. in the Nei Jing. When they appear together, e. . f. b. . g. c. . .46 Vol 6–2
  3. 3. feature ‘’ hdetail and circumspection.” 52 The modern known axiom that one must not drain acommentator Guo Tian similarly deficiency or supplement an excess. “Thatemphasises the state of mind essential to a its arrival cannot be met means that thecareful examination. “The physician must qi is brimming and cannot be tonified”j …maintain a high degree of concentration and “that its departure cannot be pursued It is, of course, ill-advised iand quietude.” 53 means that the qi is deficient and cannot be to tonify excesses and drained.”56 drain deficiencies, but theThe dynmic is defined by spce nd There is some debate as to just what manner and timing withemptiness kind of qi is being referred to here. ZhangThe crux issue, however, as the next line Zhi-Cong interprets the unspoken topic of which one acts is equallymakes clear, is that the ji is defined by the Line 8 to be specifically pathogenic qi. “If important.space or emptiness around which all this this qi has just arrived, then the pathogenicactivity hinges. It is the axis of quiescence qi will become properly exuberant. If thefrom which activity springs. This is the pathogenic qi is exuberant then the correctreason why one must quiet oneself in order qi is greatly deficient. If one cannot availto perceive it. On one hand, ji is the overall oneself of the qi’s arrival then one shouldstate of the qi and blood, and relative balance meet and tonify it.”l 57of healthy and pathogenic qi. As such, it is Line 8 introduces another aspect of jithe disposition or propensity (shi ) of relating to the timing of one’s intervention.the situation. An appreciation of the initial It is, of course, ill-advised to tonify excessespropensity of a situation allows one to act and drain deficiencies, but the mannereffectively. Of equal importance, it allows and timing with which one acts is equallyone to intervene at the beginning of things important. This emphasis is apparent inwhen they are still nascent or incipient (ji the explanation provided in Su Wen-27.3. ) so that it appears to be effortless (wuwei ).54 If one awaits the pathogenic qi and does not Then again, ji resides in the spaces between examine it until the great [pathogenic] qiactivity. It is the quiescence between phases has already passed, and then drains it, theof activity, and it is from here that one’s true qi will collapse. If it collapses, it willintervention must be based. On another not recover. The pathogenic qi will returnlevel, ji is the incipient point of stillness again and the disease will worsen. This isfrom which health arises and it is the job why its going cannot be pursued.m58of the physician to discover that withinthe patient. Even the most materialistic Zhang Zhi-Cong also stresses one’scommentaries acknowledge that because awareness of the “the subtleties of bothji resides in “empty spaces,” its engagement coming and going”.requires a certain kind of attention.55Therefore, physicians must themselves be One cannot avail one’s self of the [correct] qi’sclear, quiet and focused to competently departure, but [still] pursues and drainsassess the stillness of the dynamic that it, the concern is that one may damagealso expresses itself in the empty spaces [the patient’s] correct qi. The crux is inwithin the matrix of qi. Such a perspective the subtleties of its nascent coming andencompasses the viewpoints of existing going.n59commentaries, even as it lends continuityto the entire passage. Ji lies in the spaces of quiescence between things which in this context are the comings . [8] and goings of the qi. When one works fromIts coming cnnot be met, nd its going j. .cnnot be pursued. k. .Line 8 is another pivotal line in the l. .interpretation of this text. Ling Shu-3.1 , .reads the line as an expression of the well- m. , .h. . n. ,i. . . The Lantern 47
  4. 4. feature ‘’ the ji and one’s action becomes effortless not impede it. By impeding the dynamic it (wu wei ) and even the most subtle fails to manifest itself. If the dynamic, and influence has a significant impact. Once consequently the qi, fails to manifest itself, again, the state of one’s mind or spirit is one cannot even begin to comprehend the One must neither go a crucial part of the equation. According intricacies of tonification and drainage.rushing to meet, nor to Zhang Zhi-Cong, “[one must] calmly This is the central message of the Ling Shu-chasing after the qi, but attend to the intervals between the comings 3 commentary. “One detains it, and thus it and goings [of the dynamic] and tonify or fails to show itself, means that one has noremain instead with the drain it. Even the slightest error of a hair’s knowledge of the meaning of tonificationdynamic. breadth and it will be lost!”o 60 and drainage. Once the qi and blood One’s attention to the periodicity of the are exhausted, the qi cannot be directed qi and its relation to the dynamic is an downward.”r65 This is what happens when important thread in the Ling Shu Précis that one is too aggressive in one’s intervention, is reiterated in Line 11. Before one can hope or even one’s intention. to execute any needle technique one must By perturbing the dynamic, one creates attune oneself with the timing of the qi unfavourable circumstances for its itself. One must neither go rushing to meet, expression. How does one allow the dynamic nor chasing after the qi, but remain instead to express itself? The following line explains with the dynamic. The superior practitioner the way in which one must attend to the executes the techniques of tonification and intervals of its comings and goings. drainage from the within the empty spaces between the comings and goings of the qi , . [11] in a calm and focused state of mind. The To understnd its goings nd comings, idea is to stay out of the way of the healthy emphsise its periodicity. functioning of the qi. This principle is then This and the next four lines concern the stated explicitly in the following line. concept of goings and comings (wang lai ) that define the qi dynamic and , . [9] its relationship to meeting and following Those who understnd the wy of the (ying sui ). Ling Shu-3.1 picks up its dynmic, will not impede it nd thus it interpretive thread reading Line 11 in mnifests.61 terms of flow and counterflow, excess and Ling Shu-3.1states: “That one cannot impede deficiency. “To understand its goings and it and thus it manifests means that the qi is comings means that one knows the qi’s easily lost.”p62 Subsequent commentators states of contrary and normal [movement] link the ji, the subtle interval between the and whether it is brimming or deficient.”s66 comings and goings of the qi to the goal of Yet even this text acknowledges that such its overall unification. Ma Shi, in particular, considerations are dependent on one’s emphasises the single-pointed nature of attunement to the periodicity of the qi. ji. “For those who know the way of the “One who emphasises its periodicity knows dynamic, there is only this unifying qi, and the opportune moment when the qi can be it is as if it cannot be impeded by so much taken.”t67 as the space of a single hair’s breadth.”63 Zhang Jie-Bin emphasises proper timing In interacting with it, one must match the in accordance with the comings and subtlety of the dynamic as the incipient goings of the qi even as he articulates the initiator of activity. mechanical details of tonification and drainage techniques. “One should tonify , .64 [10] and one should drain according to the Not understnding the wy of the opportune moment in the instant when dynmic, one detins it nd it thus fils one meets the qi.”u68 to show itself. Those who comprehend the dynamic do r. . o. . s. . p. . t. . q. . u. .48 Vol 6–2
  5. 5. feature ‘’ Ling Shu-8.2 directly links one’s attunement That miraculous qi within the mindto ji to various aspects of the spirit. “Whatfollows the coming and going of the spirit One moment it arrives, the next it departsis called the ethereal soul and essence.That which goes out and in together with So fine there is nothing within it, The Nei Ye repeatedlythe essence is called the corporeal soul.”v69 identifies tranquillitySuch a reading broadens the scope possible So vast there is nothing outside it, as a prerequisite formeanings considerably. the appearance of this The topic of line 8.2 is still the ji. There is We lose it essential vitality. Moreover,no question that the goings and comings ofthe qi are nothing more than an expression of Because of the harm caused by mental agitation, it fixes the qi both withinji, which is what Isabelle Robinet describes the heart-mind and withinas “the dynamic aspect of the Way” 70 The . When the mind can hold on to tranquillity, the corporeal body.Nei Ye ( Inner Workings) chapter of the ,Guanzi ( Guanzi, 26 BCE), an early text The way will become naturally stabilised.of Chinese mysticism, describes the goings .75and comings of the Way in terms thatpresage the language used in the Ling Shu In practising acupuncture, physiciansPrécis and elsewhere in the Nei Jing.71 must certainly attend to the relatively Where the Nei Ye asserts, “The way is what mechanical goings and comings of the qi,fills the body, yet people are unable to fix it its pacing and its intervals. But it is essentialin place. It goes forth but does not return. It to remember that this is the most superficialcomes back but does not stay.”w72 Su Wen- expression of a much deeper dynamic15 echoes this sentiment in asserting that, playing itself out in the interaction between“the spirit changes and does not revert, if one’s patients and oneself.it reverts it cannot change, and so loses itsji.”73 The expression of ji is necessarily in a . ! . [12]constant state of flux even as it remains still The crude re in the dr boutwithin itself. this. How sublime! Only [silled] The Nei Ye repeatedly identifies tranquillity prctitioners hve it.as a prerequisite for the appearance of this The topic of this line is the goings andessential vitality. Moreover, it fixes the qi comings of the qi dynamic that are essentialboth within the heart-mind and within the to effective needling. Yet in light of thecorporeal body. broader perspective on ji detailed above, it is not surprising that the author of the LingThere is a spirit naturally residing in the body, Shu-1.1 would consider the principles he , has presented to be sublime. According toone moment it goes, the next it comes, Ling Shu-3.1, “That the crude are in the dark , means that they are benighted and do notAnd no one is able to conceive of it. understand the subtleties of the qi. That it is . sublime and practitioners alone have it meansIf you lose it you are inevitably disordered. that they have an exhaustive knowledge of . the implications of needling.”y76 Su Wen-26.2If you attain it you are inevitably well ordered. uses remarkably similar language in pointing . out that it is not the outward appearanceDiligently clean out its lodging place , that one must attend to. “Examination by , the benighted means that the circulation ofAnd its vital essence will naturally arrive. qi, nutritive, and defensive is not manifested .74 externally and [superior] practitioners alone know it.”77 Up to this point the Ling Shu Précisv. .w. y. . .x. . . The Lantern 49
  6. 6. feature ‘’ has established that one must attend The Ling Shu Précis goes on to make two to the ji by means of the spirit. The ji is much more general statements as to how characterised as an empty space and as a such an understanding promotes effective place of quiescence between the intervals intervention.One’s appreciation of of activity. Attention to these intervals is thethe ebb and flow of qi is key to an effective needle technique. These , ?[15] are the true essentials of needling. Here the , ?80 [16]crucial to effective needling. two interpretive threads begin to merge. By meeting it nd ting it wy, how The focus of the discussion now shifts to could one not chieve depletion [of the address more specifically the way in which i]? one should interact with the movement By pursuing nd ssisting it, how aspect of the qi. could one not chieve repletion [of the i]? [13] The descendent texts in the Nei Jing and Going wy from it is contrry, the commentary literature are fairly clear promoting its rrivl is going with the as to the meaning of these lines. Ling Shu- flow. 3.1 succinctly states: “Meeting and taking Line 13 introduces the opposing concepts it away is drainage,”d and “Pursuing and of ni and shun , which are defined in assisting it is tonification”e.81 Only if you relation to the departure and arrival of the follow and assist the qi, acting as a midwife qi. Ni here does not necessarily suggest a to the qi, will you make the qi flourish. state of “counterflow” or a going against the “normal” (shun ) flow of things. Ling , . [17] Shu-3.1 suggests that ni refers to the normal Whether meeting it or following it, ebbing of the qi as it departs. The qi is ni by mens of one’s ttention, one in that it is relatively deficient during this hrmonises it. phase of its cycle. “That going away from The crux of line 17 is yi , generally it is contrary, refers to the qi’s deficiency translated as intention, denoting an and its frailness. To be ‘frail’ is contrary” expression of volition or purposefulness that and “promoting its arrival is going with the is closely linked to will (zhi ). The Mencius flow, refers to a balanced state of the form states: The will is the general of the qi; qi is qi. ‘Balanced’ is going with the flow.”b78 what fills the body. When the will arrives, qi The emphasis here is that one must act in follows. Thus it is said; “Maintain your will accordance with the normal cycles in the and do no violence to your qi.” f82 flow of qi. Mencius’ point is that people should be governed by their will and not their qi, , . [14] but his statement has resonance for those If one clerly understnds the contrry involved in medical practice as well. For nd norml [flow of i], then one cn some physicians, intention is the key to ct correctly nd without doubt or regulating the qi and it is brought into uestion. harmony by the force of their willpower. One’s appreciation of the ebb and flow of This reading of yi works but it is at least qi is crucial to effective needling. Ling Shu- somewhat at odds with the principles laid 3 makes the interesting point that such an out previously in the Précis. understanding informs one’s selection of Before yi becomes intention, it is first acupuncture holes, as well as the timing an awareness or an attention in the sense and the needle technique one will use. “If already described above. This use of the one clearly understands the contrary and word is prominent in the Nei Ye which normal [flow of qi] one can act correctly asserts the primal nature of yi in no and without errors, means that one knows uncertain terms. how to select the place [for needling].”c79 ad. . aa. . ae. . ab. . af. ac. . .50 Vol 6–2
  7. 7. feature ‘’That mind within the mind: One’s capacity for efficacy resides in the , effortless activity and influence of one’sit is an awareness that precedes speech. consciousness resides in quiescence. .Only after there is an awareness does it take Relaxed and unwound, yet benevolent, Form matters; in theshape; , process of needling one ; In solitude you delight in your own person. cannot be sloppy in one’sOnly after it takes shape is there a word. . structural alignment. . This is called “revolving the qi”:Only after there is a word is it implemented; : ; One’s attention and actions seem heavenly.Only after it is implemented is there order. .86 .Without order you will always be chaotic. Finally, the text even outlines the means . by which we attain this tranquillity.If chaotic, you die. . 83 When the four limbs are aligned, , Yi is what occurs before one thinks in and the blood and qi are tranquil,words. Before one forms an intention one ,first becomes aware. Prior to exercising One may unify one’s attention, andone’s intention in needling, one must first concentrate one’s mind.refine one’s attention. . In contrast to Mencius, the author of the Ones eyes and ears will not be sullied.Nei Ye asserts that qi is not so much governed .as it is stabilised, and this is accomplished [To attain this,] though it seems distant, it isnot by the force of one’s willpower but by close at hand.the stabilisation and attentive awareness of .87one’s consciousness. Anyone who has ever practised acupunct-Once the qi is attended to and apprehended, ure will appreciate the truth of this , statement. Form matters; in the processThe sub-celestial realm will submit. of needling one cannot be sloppy in one’s . structural alignment.And once the mind’s attention is stabilised, This is an essential means for unifying , one’s mind, and thereby one’s own qi andThe sub-celestial realm will listen. blood. It allows one to place oneself in the .84 optimal position to appreciate the ji of the patient and to act both effortlessly and Using language that is remarkably similar efficiently.to that used in the Ling Shu Précis, the Nei For all its subtlety, ji is fundamentallyYe explains that the qi cannot be bent to grounded in substance. That may well beone’s will using force of any kind, why subsequent Ling Shu commentators have tended to focus on its mostTherefore, as for this qi, materialistic attributes; they are the easiest , to talk about.it cannot be halted by force, Be that as it may, when all is said and , done, regardless of whether one is meetingand yet it can be calmed by virtue, or following, tonifying or draining, whether . one is working with qi, blood, the channels,It cannot be called by sound, or the subtleties of one’s needle technique, , the harmonisation of the qi depends onbut it can be met with attention. one’s attention to the ji. .85 The Lantern 51
  8. 8. feature ‘’ concept of shi in Chinese culture, see . [18] Francois Jullien (1995) and (2004). This is ll there is to sy with regrd to the wy of needling. 55. Ma Shi is a holdout who is content to interpret the “empty spaces” in very concrete Conclusion terms. “The Su Wen has a ‘Discourse on the“Going to meet” or Bone Holes’ (Chapter 60) that indicates this“following after” the qi is means the empty spaces along each channel The final line of the Précis may be takennot a headlong thrust in quite literally. That really is all there is to ( , .)” Ling Shuone direction or another so say about the art of acupuncture. The rest Zhu Zheng Fa Wei .much as a nod or a wink of the Ling Shu is exegesis. The import of 56. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shiat just the right moment this initial passage has less to do with the : v.1, p.68.and in just the right way. mechanics of excesses and deficiencies, 57. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi tonification and drainage than it does with : v.1, p.3. the fundamental sensibility with which 58. In many editions si is hou . Huang they must be engaged. This sensibility Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi is intimately connected to the resonance : v.1, p.371. between one’s spirit and the dynamic. 59. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi Whatever else the notion of spirit may : p.3. encompass, it most certainly involves 60. ibid. focused quiescence on the part of the practitioner. At the core of the concept of ji 61. An alternative translation might be “The is a state of quiescence occurring between way of knowing the dynamic, is that it cannot the comings and goings of qi. Ji is the pivot be impeded and thus it is expressed.” around which the qi organises itself. By 62. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi attuning oneself to the ji one can most v.1, p.67. profitably assess and exploit the disposition 63. Ling Shu Zhu Zheng Fa Wei of a situation. From here, one need do very . little to exert a profound influence, and 64. Kou is alternately be read as kou for this reason, one’s intervention becomes “to knock” “One knocks [on its door] but it . very subtle. “Going to meet” or “following does not show itself.” after” the qi is not a headlong thrust in one 65. The implication is that the qi cannot direction or another so much as a nod or a be directed downward, lest it counterflow wink at just the right moment and in just upward regardless of the practitioner’s the right way. In moving from the ji, it is not intention (Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao only the needle that becomes the Ling Shu Shi : v.1, p.68). , the divine pivot, but the practitioner. 66. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi : v.1, p.68. Endnotes 67. ibid. 45. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi 68. Zhang Jie-Bin v.2, p.641. , v.1, p.68. 69. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi 46. ibid. : v.1, p.174. 47. Zhang Jie-Bin (1964), p.627. 70. Robinet (2008): pp.536-37. 48. Guo Tian, p.433. 71. The Nei Ye appears as a chapter in the Guanzi , however, it is generally 49. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi considered an independent text in its own , v.2, p.1008. right. 50. Zhang Jie-Bin, v.2, p.887. 72. Translations of the Nei Ye are our own, 51. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi with reference to Harold Roth (1999) and W . , v.1, p.68. Allyn Rickett (1998). Guan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin 52. Zhang Jie-Bin v.2, p.628. : 16.1/115/26. 53. Guo Tian, p.433. 73. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi 54. For two excellent discussions of the : v.1, p.190.52 Vol 6–2
  9. 9. feature74. Guan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin : Aids Service Center/ Harvard Yenching Institute.16.1/116/14. Jullien, Francois (2007), Vital Nourishment, Departing from Happiness, trans. Arthur Goldhammer. New York;75. Guan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin : Zone Books.16.1/117/29. _____ .(2004). A Treatise on Efficacy, Between Western and76. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi Chinese Thinking, trans. Janet Lloyd. Honolulu; University of Hawaii Press. : v.1, p.69. _____ .(1995). The Propensity of Things, Toward a History77. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi of Efficacy in China, trans. Janet Llyod. New York; Zone : v.1, p.360. Books.78. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi Keegan, Joseph.(1988). The Huang-ti nei-ching: the Structure of the Compilation; the Significance of the Structure, : v.1, p.70. doctoral diss. Berkeley; University of California.79. ibid. Ma Shi . (2004). Ling Shu Zhu Zheng Fa Wei80. In other editions ying is ni . and zhui in Zhong Hua Yi Dian , section 3. CD- ROM. Changsha; CD-ROM. Changsha; Hunan Diani is sui . The meaning is the same. Yinxiang Chubanshe .81. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi Mair, Victor, trans. (1994). Wandering on the Way, Early : p.67. The reading of Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu, New York;these lines here is based on the version that Bantam Books.appears in the Systematic Classic. Pregadio, Fabriio, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Taoism, Fabriio Pregadio, ed. Oxford; Rutledge, v.1.82. Meng Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin : Qing Xi-Tai . (1994). Zhong Guo Dao Jiao3.2/15/20. . Shanghai; Zhishi Chubanshe , pp. 305-308.83. Guan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin : Rickett, W Allyn. (1998). Guanzi, Political, Economic, .16.1/116/20-25. and Philosophical Essays from Early China, A Study and Translation. Princeton New Jersey; Princeton University84. Guan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin : Press.16.1/117/3-4. Alternately, Rickett translates Robinet, Isabelle, (2008), in Encyclopedia of Taoism,this passage as “When qi’s attention is Fabriio Pregadio, ed. Oxford; Rutledge, pp. 536-37.apprehended, the sub-celestial realm is _____(1995). Introduction a l’alchemie interieure taoiste;served, When the mind’s attention is fixed, De l’unite et de la multiplicite. Paris; Les Editions Du Cerf, pp. 105-120.the sub-celestial realm is heard.” W Allyn. Roth, Harold. (1999). Original Dao, Inward Training andRickett: 51. the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism, New York; Columbia85. Guan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin : University Press.16.1/115/18-19. Here attention (yi ) is an Schuessler, Axel. (2007). ABC Etymological Dictionaryalternate reading for yin . of Old Chinese, Honolulu; University of Hawaii Press. p. 293.86. Guan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin : Slingerland, Edward. (2003). Effortless Action, Wu-wei As16.1/117/25. Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China,87. Both Harold Roth and W Allyn Rickett . Oxford; Oxford University Press.translate yi as awareness. Guan Zi Zhu Zi Tombo Genki . (2004). Ling Shu Shi ( , Zhong Hua Yi Dian ), section 3, CD-ROM.Suo Yin : 16.1/117/10. Changsha; Hunan Diani Yinxiang Chubanshe .Bibliography Yamata, Kenji. (1979). The Formation of the Huang-ti Nei-Cao Deng-Zhang , ed. (1988). Zhong Guo Yi Xue ching, Acta Asiatica 36, pp. 67-89.Da Cheng , v.1. Shanghai; Shanghai Kexue Zhang Dai-Nan. (2002). Key concepts in Chinese philosophy,Jishu Chubanshe . trans. Edmund Ryden. New Haven, Conn; Yale UniversityD.C Lau , and Chen Fong-Ching , eds. Press.(1996-2004). The ICS Ancient Chinese Texts Concordance Zhang Deng-Ben and Wu Chang-chun ,Series. Hong Kong; Commercial Press. eds. (1990). Nei Jing Ci Dian , Beijing: RenminGuo Tian .(1984). Nei Jing Jiang Yi , Beijing: Weisheng Chubanshe , p. 277.Renmin Weisheng Chubanshe . Zhang Jie-Bin . (1964). Lei Jing v. 2. Beijing:Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi Renmin Weisheng Chubanshe , p. 627.(1980). Beijing: Renmin Weisheng Chubanshe Zhang Zhi-Cong . (1988). Ling Shu Ji Zhu . in Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da Cheng , CaoHuang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi . Deng-Zhang , ed, vol. 2. Shanghai; Shanghai Kexue(1980). Beijing: Renmin Weisheng Chubanshe Jishu Chubanshe . . Zhou Yi-Mou , ed. 1983. Li Dai Ming Yi Lun Yi DeHou Han Shu Ji Zhu Shi Zong He Yin De . Chang Sha: Hunan Kexue Chubanshe ; (1966). Taipei: Chinese Materials and Research , pp. 63-65. The Lantern 53