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Axis of efficacy (Part 1) - By Dan Bensky and Chip Chace
feature The Ling Shu Précis from chapter one of the Ling Shu Please tell me of the way [of needling]. The essentials of the small needle are easy to explain but difficult to engage. The crude attend to the form, the superior attend to the spirit. Spirit oh spirit! There is a guest at the door. Without observing the disease, how can one know its origin? The subtleties of needling lie in its speed. The crude attend to the junctures and the superior attend to the dynamic. The movement in the dynamic is not An axis of separate from its empty spaces; The dynamic within this empty space is clear, still and subtle. efficacy Its coming cannot be met and its going cannot be pursued. Those who understand the way of the dynamic, will not impede it and thus it The range of meaning in the Ling Shu chapter one manifests. Not understanding the way of the dynamic, one detains it and thus it fails to show itself.by Charles Chace and Dan Bensky To understand its goings and comings, emphasise its periodicity. The crude are in the dark about this;In this first of a two-part article, the authors analyse the first section of sublime! Only practitioners have it.chapter one of the Ling Shu as the foundation for understanding ap- Going away from it is contrary,proaches to needling. The authors begin their discussion by first ori- promoting its arrival is goingenting the book within the Nei Jing and outlining the structure of the with the flow.text. This is followed by translations and commentaries of the text itself. If one clearly understands the contrary and normal [flow of qi], then you canPreceding the translation is an interesting in-depth examination of the act correctly and without doubt orconcept of ji and its central relevance for understanding the Ling Shu. question. By meeting it and taking it away, how could one not achieve depletion [of the qi]? A ny serious effort to understand the approaches to needling described in the Huang Di Nei Jing (Yellow Emperor’s In- By pursuing and assisting it, how could one not achieve repletion [of the qi]? ner Classic, 3rd–2nd century BCE), demands a close examination of the first chapter of one Whether meeting it or following it, of its component texts, the Ling Shu (Divine by means of one’s attention, one Pivot).1 A book devoted largely to the practi- harmonises it. calities of acupuncture practice, the first chap- This is all there is to say with regard to ter of the Ling Shu outlines the fundamental the way of needling. principles of needling that are developed and The Lantern
feature applied in different contexts throughout line differently. “When one slowly removes the text. Following an introductory pream- the needle and quickly presses the point ble that establishes the chapter as part of [to prevent bleeding], this will make the qi the Huang Di lineage of medical texts,2 this replete.”6 first chapter presents a short passage that Other writings within the Nei Jing are stands by itself as an introductory overview also effectively commentaries on the Jiu of the most basic principles of needling. It Zhen (Nine Needles). Descendent texts may is the foundation of all further discussion appear in close proximity to their ancestral on needling within the chapter and argu- texts as does Ling Shu-1.3, or they may be ably within the entire Nei Jing. This paper scattered in apparent random throughout is an analysis of the first section of chapter the Nei Jing as is the case with Su Wen-54.1. one of the Ling Shu and an assessment of its This raises a relevant point regarding the ramifications for understanding the needle dating to the various texts within the Nei techniques presented in that book. To make Jing. It is commonly believed that the Ling sense of how the passage in question relates Shu postdates the Su Wen but in fact neither to the rest of the treatise, it is helpful to un- one, as a whole, is earlier or later than the derstand something about the structure other. Su Wen-54.1 is clearly a descendent of and organisation of the Nei Jing. Ling Shu-1.3, and Ling Shu-3, a distinct text in its own right known as the Explanation Ancestral texts of the Small Needles is also a descendent of Ling Shu-1.3.7 From all of this it is evident The two books of the Nei Jing, the Su Wen that even at the time of its compilation (Basic Questions) and the Ling Shu (Divine there were multiple lines of interpretation Pivot) are by no means a homogenous associated with the Nei Jing. or consistent text. They constitute an It is debatable whether this initial passage anthology of many independent writings in the first chapter of the Ling Shu can be by many different authors that may or may considered an independent text in its ownn Dan Bensky is a well-known not have any relation to one another. Each right. Nevertheless, it is unquestionablypractictioner of Chinese medi- chapter may contain multiple subsections a succinct précis of the core conceptscine and osteopathy, as well that constitute complete texts in their own that are subsequently developed later inas the author and translator of right. For instance, the first two thirds of Ling Shu-1 and throughout the Ling Shu.several of the most important Ling Shu chapter one, referred to here as Ling However one chooses to label this passage,textbooks in english, includ- Shu-1.1, constitute a discrete text known hereafter referred to as the Ling Shu �ré-ing Chinese Herbal Medicine: variously as the Jiu Zhen (Nine Needles), cis, it is worthy of critical examination. ItsMateria Medica and Formulas the Xiao Zhen (Small Needles) or simply content bears directly on our fundamental Strategies, soon to be the Zhen (Needles). This text is considered understanding of what it means to performreleased in a second edition. an “ancestral text” in that it most likely acupuncture and the interpretation of this predates other texts in the Nei Jing that are passage inevitably influences one’s reading ’s sn Dan is co-presenter of a effectively commentaries on it.3 These later of the rest of the Ling Shu.three-week seminar series texts, known as “descendent texts,” include The most common interpretations ofin Australia in 2009, Core but are not limited to the last section of the the Ling Shu �récis, although plausible,Patterns of the shang Han Lun first chapter of the Ling Shu, referred to here coherent and informative, are not entirely– a clinical approach. More as Ling Shu-1.3, or first section of the 54th satisfactory. A number of intriguing state-details in this issue. chapter of the Su Wen, referred to here as Su ments that form the core of the passage are Wen-54.1 either reduced to triviality by these standardn Charles Chace has been a Different descendent texts frequently interpretations or ignored entirely. We willstudent of Chinese medicine posit different interpretations of an examine this précis in detail and considerand its literature for over 25 ancestral text.4 For instance, the line xu er ji its possible range of meaning. In the process,years. He graduated from ze shi in Ling Shu-1.1 is interpreted in Ling we will demonstrate that the text containsthe new england school of Shu-1.3 as “When one slowly inserts and at least two intertwined interpretive threadsAcupuncture in 1984. He is the quickly removes the needle this will make or layers, one of which has been largelyauthor and translator of a vari- the qi replete.”5 Su Wen-54.1 interprets theety of books and maintains a b. Xiao Zhen-Jie ( ).clinic in Boulder, Colorado. a. 6 Vol 6–1
feature ‘’ overlooked in the commentary literature. correct and pathogenic qi is the tip of an The basis for this neglected interpretive iceberg, a relatively minor aspect of a much thread is the text’s use of the concept ji larger scope of awareness that is essential to ( ). We will examine this concept in some effective needling.It stresses the importance detail and consider its ramifications forof one’s awareness of our understanding of the passage and the The trigger of activity chapter as a whole.the ‘spaces’ or intervals The word ji ( ) is an ancient term for theof stillness within the ji. A pivotal concept firing mechanism of a crossbow,9 and byFrom this perspective, extension, it is the crux or hinge of a thing.one’s attention to the The interpretation of the Ling Shu �récis This root meaning of ji is especially apt whenrelationship between the hinges on the word ji ( ) and what it the word is used in the early acupuncturecorrect and pathogenic means that “the superior attend to ji” Most . literature, which often makes use of archeryqi is the tip of an iceberg, commentators take “ji” in Ling Shu-1 to imagery. For instance Ling Shu-1 counselsa relatively minor aspect mean the “qi mechanism” or “qi dynamic.” that at the moment the qi arrives, one mustof a much larger scope of This, of course, begs the question of what “withdraw [the needle] like [loosing anawareness that is essential precisely a qi mechanism or dynamic is and arrow] from a bowstring.”,10 Ji exerts its how it pertains to the rest of this passage. influence by virtue of its position at theto effective needling. The Ling Shu suggests two interpretations, beginning of things. For this reason, ji may one narrow, and one broad. be the trigger or cause of a disease as in Su Wen-74, which states: “Carefully examine 1) Ling Shu-3 is among the most the appropriateness of the [seasonal] qi, comprehensive and least ambiguous and do not lose [sight] of the trigger [ji] of commentaries on Ling Shu-1, and it disease.”, 11 exemplifies the most common reading of Ji also refers to the articulations (guan ji ( ). The qi mechanism is the interactive ji 關機) and may refer specifically to the relationship between the correct and acupuncture hole Circular Jump (Huantiao pathogenic qi. In practical terms, it is our GB-30). Su Wen-60 states: “What cleaves awareness of and interaction with that close to the hip is the ji.”,12 The hip is, of dynamic that determines whether one course, a major hinge or pivot point in the will administer tonification or drainage body but it is also the initiator of movement techniques. This interpretation will be through the lower extremities, harkening discussed in greater detail below. For back to a more fundamental meaning of the present it is sufficient to say that the word. this straightforward explanation allows the Ling Shu �récis to be read as a basic Incipience cipience ipience discussion of excess and deficiency, correct and pathogenic qi, and tonification and Ji is cognate with “incipience” (ji ), the drainage. That said, if one reads the text “heavenly mechanism” (tian ji ), the with an open mind, this simple equivalency “divine mechanism” (shen ji ). The Lantern t he leads to many questions. In this it is similar to another common interpretation that ji is Classic of Change uses the word incipience (ji ) to denote an initial tendency toward Errata: in Vol. 5:3 (sept. a simple reference to the channel qi.8 change that is more minute than and 08) of The Lantern, an end- precedes active transformation.,13 According note was missing from the 2) The Ling Shu �récis itself describes to the Great Commentary in the Classic of article ‘Cooling blood and the qi mechanism as an expression of the Change: “The Changes are the means by relieving toxicity’ by Greta pacing of the qi, its goings and comings. It which the sages search the profound and young Jie De, stating that stresses the importance of one’s awareness examine incipience. Only by the profound the case studies located on of the “spaces” or intervals of stillness can one penetrate to the purpose under the pages 26-27 were sourced from Shaanxi Zhong Yi 1995 within the ji. From this perspective, one’s Vol 16: (4) by Lin Liu ru of attention to the relationship between the f. qu ru xuan jue g. jin hou qi yi, wu shi bing ji Guangxi Liu Zhou shi Zhong c. shang shou ji h. yi yuan (545000) . d. qi ji i. Yi Jing 9-7th centuries BCE. e. wang lai j. hua Vol 6–1
featureheaven; only by incipience can one perfect the hinge of the body centre” , 20 Ji may also . ?the tasks under heaven.”, 14 denote a specific situation or state of affairs The Great Commentary also states: (ji shi ), and by extension it denotes the opportunity inherent in a situation or The Master said: “ Ah, to know the disposition. Similarly, ji may be both an incipience, how divine!” The gentleman in indicator of change and a source of change dealing with his betters does not flatter, in within something. According to the Great dealing with his inferiors is not rude, for Learning in the Han dynasty Record of Rites: does he not know incipience? Incipience is the most minute aspect of movement and From the benevolent example of one family the first appearance of good fortune, the an entire state becomes benevolent, and gentleman sees incipience and inaugurates; from its courtesies an entire state becomes he does not wait until the ending of the courteous, while from the ambition and day. , 15 perverseness of one man, an entire State may be led into rebellious disorder; its RiddleThe expression of natural endowment dynamic is such as this., 21 me this!One’s ji ( ) is linked, at least to some The Zhuang Zi expresses a similar Answer The Lanternextent, to one’s relationship with the world sentiment. “The ten thousand things allat large. In the Zhuang Zi, tian ji is a come out from the wellsprings and all re- riddle and win anatural endowment or disposition, and a enter the wellsprings.”, 22 year’s subscription!capacity to be in accord with the universe. This translation by Victor Mair highlights ???“Those whose desires are deep-seated will the aspect of ji that lies at the source and ishave a shallow natural endowment”, 16 In the “wellspring” of things.the Huai Nan Zi “the divine mechanism is Just as ji is situated at the centre of events,hidden and closed. Its marks and imprints Isabelle Robinet notes that: “Physiologi- Physiologi-lack all trace, and it is the subtlety behind cally, ji is located in the centre of the body , What tCM patternhuman ingenuity.”, 17 which is in turn related to yi intention and corresponds to an Where shen and ji appear together in the to the Spleen, or it can be identified withNei Jing it is often a general term for the life the interval between breathing in and out, imprisoned ewe?force, but Su Wen-70 understands them as corresponding with the ‘closing and openingseparate though inextricably related things.“Qi Bo said: The root at the centre is called of the world in the instant that preceded the movement of breath.’ ” In this it is evident that even in its most ??? the spirit dynamic. When the spirit leaves material manifestations ji is associated Be first to answer it then the dynamic ceases.” 18 with the empty spaces or intervals between correctly and you will win phases of activity. Robinet also notes that a year’s free subscriptionThe wellspring at the centre of things ji is synonymous with the heart-mind (xin to The Lantern. ) and the spirit or spirit (shen ). ThisJi lies not only at the beginning of actions association is central to the interpretation n email us your answer:but at their centre (shu ji ) insofar as it of the Ling Shu �récis where they are linked firstname.lastname@example.org the crux of a thing. This use of the word by the parallelism of its sentence structure.appears in Ling Shu-69.1 which states: “the According to Robinet, those involved in n Last issue’s answer wastongue is the key to speech.”, 19 and Ling Shu- internal cultivation aim at uniting their75.5 which states: “the penis and testicles are human ji with heavenly ji. 23k. An axis of quiescencel. As a hinge or pivot, ji refers to a point ofm. stillness around which effective interventionn. .o. Huai Nan Zi (79-8 BCE) s.p. t.q.r. u. The Lantern
feature ‘’ turns. It is equated with the “unbounded one harmonises the excesses or deficiencies infinite,” and the “great ultimate.” It is in the states of the correct and pathogenic “the wondrous movement that unites qi, and it frames the way in which one movement and quiescence, the true spring approaches tonification and drainage.It was clearly that moves spontaneously by itself and What follows is a translation of the Lingacknowledged that the without intention and acts without action Shu �récis accompanied by an overview and interference., 24 In light of this, it is of representative commentaries includingneedle itself is the pivot or worth mentioning that the book we are those appearing within the descendentaxis of healing. The task discussing is entitled the Divine �ivot. At texts of the Nei Jing itself.of the acupuncturist is to least by the Tang dynasty when the text was This essay will illustrate how the concept ofmake maximal use of this given this title, it was clearly acknowledged ji as described above establishes a coherentpivot or ji. that the needle itself is the pivot or axis of train of meaning throughout entire passage healing. The task of the acupuncturist is to that both complements and deepens the make maximal use of this pivot or ji. import of the established commentaries. It Synthesising these layers of meaning, is not so much an alternative interpretation Robinet describes ji as the “spring of the of the material as a subtle but significant world, its activating force … the extreme shift in emphasis. We have omitted the degree of quiescence and purity which is introductory paragraphs to Ling Shu-1.1 .1 on the verge of changing into movement.”25 that do not bear directly on the content of The wealth of meanings associated with the chapter and numbered the lines for easy ji in the early literature of China suggests reference. that whatever it is that the superior practitioner must attend to, it both includes and transcends the relatively mundane The Ling Shu �r�ci�� relationship between the correct and Translation and commentaries pathogenic qi, the state of qi in the channels. Ji is a reflection of the overall health or .  disposition of the patient; it determines P [ ]. whatever opportunities that might be T 27 available for improving the situation, it fi . is closely associated with the spirit and What are the essentials of needling? They according to Robinet, it subsequently came are apparently easy enough to describe, a to be associated with source qi in the sense simple idea that is difficult to implement. of a primordial breath., 26 According to Ling Shu-3.1, “what is referred From the discussion above it is apparent to as easy to explain, means that it is easy that no single English word does justice to to talk about,” and “difficult to engage ji’s full scope of its meaning. For the present, means difficult to apply to people.”, 28 however, we have provisionally translated ji Whatever this means, it is unlikely that as “dynamic” to amplify its fundamental it is a mere needle technique. As Ma Shi characteristic as the impetus of effective articulates in his Commenting on the action, movement and transformation. Evidence and Explicating the Details in the That said, it is most productive to keep Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic Divine �ivot, its full range of meanings in mind when mere needle techniques are an expression contemplating the Ling Shu �récis. When of “the crude attending to the form.”29 approached from this perspective the focus of this passage shifts significantly. One’s .  engagement with ji is clearly the overall T , , topic of the passage. It is through the ji that . . . The word shou means to guard or protect, v. wu ji w. tai ji and by extension, to attend to. Its use here x. zi ran y. wu xin ac. zheng . wu wei ad. xie aa. shen ae. ab. yuan qi af.10 Vol 6–1
featuresuggests that the physician must not person’s spirit, and must be carefully the patient will survive or perish.”, 38just protect the integrity of the form nourished.” The spirit here includes, but clearly ,and the spirit, but must also attend to The descendent texts within the Ling transcends, a simple awareness of the ,and somehow engage it. Shu inform us that needle techniques state of a patient’s qi and blood. It is ’s s are useless without an appreciation the way in which one is aware of theThe crude and superior of the state of the qi and blood. Yet, patient’s condition. ’s s if we take Ling Shu-3, and Ling Shu-18 Line two can then be summarised nThe distinction between the crude and seriously, then spirit in this context is as meaning that while the inferiorthe superior is central to the structure nothing more than the qi and blood practitioner attends to the externalof the passage. Appearing again in line itself, or more specifically, the overall mechanics of his/her needle technique,six, the crude and the superior frames state of excess or deficiency of the qi the superior practitioner quite literallytwo sets of related ideas, and the and blood. From this perspective, the attends to the spirit within themselvesparallelism it creates links the notions message of line two is that one must as well as that of the patient. It willof form (xing ) to the junctures attend to the state of qi and blood become apparent in the lines below(guan ), and the spirit (shen ) to rather than the physical form or the that spirit in this sense is intimately piritthe dynamic (ji ). It will become mechanics of needle technique. related to one’s appreciation of and ’s sapparent that the essentials of needling interaction with the ji-dynamic thattranscend the mechanics of its forms. Shen and the focus of one’s mind will be introduced in line eight.. According to Ling Shu-3.1, “Thatthe crude attend to the form means The rather circumscribed interpretation Shen as a knack or capacity for efficacythat they attend to the methods of of spirit propounded in Ling Shu-needling.”, 30 Zhang Zhi-Cong’s 3.1 and Ling Shu-18 is by no means Finally, shen may refer to something orCollected Commentaries on the Ling Shu definitive. The following lines from someone with a remarkable capacity(1670) interprets form not in terms of later in Ling Shu-1.1 itself clearly adopt for efficacy. Its defining characteristicneedle technique but as the corporeal a broader understanding of the spirit. is that it is somehow more than sim-body of the patient. He explains that: “The spirit resides in an autumn ply an expression of consummate skill.“When needling, the crude attend hair.”,36 Autumn hairs or down are One story in Fan Ye’s Histories of theto the skin, vessels, flesh, sinew, and extremely fine, so this means that Latter Han illustrates this use of thebone.”,31 the spirit resides in paying attention word specifically as it relates to acu- to the smallest details. In another puncture. When Emperor He calledShen as qi and blood interpretation, the term “autumn hair” upon the physician Guo Yu to de- is also thought to refer to focusing on scribe his approach to needling, GuoMost commentators and the the tip of the needle. The successive explained:descendent texts within the Nei Jing lines in Ling Shu-1.1 clarify the role ofitself interpret spirit in terms of the qi the practitioner’s spirit at least to the As for doctors talking about intention, theand blood or the correct qi. Ling Shu- extent that one must be highly focused interstices and pores have extremely3.1 states “That the superior attend to and concentrated. “Those who would subtle divisions, so to follow the qithe spirit means that they attend to examine disease must calm their requires skill. When inserting needlesa patient’s surplus or insufficiency of minds when gaing upon a patient, and the stone [probes] betweenqi and blood, and this enables them looking neither left nor right.”,37 This them, being a hair off means failure.to tonify or drain.”, 32 It goes on to focused and concentrated state allows The knack exists in the connectionexplain that, at least in this context, the practitioner to comprehend the between the heart-mind and hand. It“the spirit is correct qi.”, 33 Where spirit within the patient and make a can be understood, but it cannot beLing Shu-3.1 identifies the spirit as the diagnostic assessment. According to spoken of., 39correct qi,34 Ling Shu-18 links the spirit Zhang Zhi-Cong, “If when needling,to the blood. “The blood is the spirit one attains it [spirit] in the heart-mind, The language of this passage bearsqi.”, 35 This is confirmed in Su Wen-26 then when the spirit connects to thosewhich says: “Blood and qi make up a who are sick, one will know whether a p .ag. aq. (398-455), Hou Han-Shu .ah. ar. Emperor He (fl. 89-105), Physician Guo Yuai. zheng qi .aj. am. as.ak. an.al. ao. The Lantern 11
feature ‘’ some remarkable similarities to that used Yet, Su Wen-26 uses the phrase “Spirit oh pirit in the Ling Shu, and it makes a crucial point spirit,” in quite a different context that again pirit,” ” regarding the nature of needling. Shen here suggests it is something more and perhaps resides in the subtle relationship between more subtle than simply the correct qi.The knack for needling the mind and the hand, which both includes and transcends mere skill and technique. It Spirit oh spirit! Although my ears cannotthat is so difficult to talk is a “knack” insofar as it is particular skill hear it, if my eyes are keen, the heart-of hinges on the quality of that can be learned but is often innate or mind open and the will luminous, then Ione’s attention and one’s intuitive. That is why “it can be understood will be the only one to be conscious of it.capacity to utilise it when but not spoken of.” In line , the crude The mouth cannot speak of it, and manyneedling. attend to the forms of needle technique but look at it, but I alone perceive it. Although the superior go beyond this to make use of it is appropriately obscure, it is clear to me a subtle knack that is necessarily grounded alone, like the wind blowing the clouds. in technique. For this reason it is called the spirit., 42 This understanding of shen amplifies the shadings of the word discussed above. As mentioned above, ji and shen are nearly The knack for needling that is so difficult synonymous in many contexts. Central . to talk of hinges on the quality of one’s at- to the appreciation of both is a state of tention and one’s capacity to utilise it when open awareness�a presence�that is itself �a a needling. This is something one must ulti- spirit. It is this state of awareness that is mately discover and develop for oneself. emphasised in line three. . Where line two contrasts a spirit of .  attention with a preoccupation with external S , , , forms, line three may be understood as . emphasising the importance of a certain Most commentaries read this line as quality of attention in assessing states of a statement regarding the correct and health and disease. pathogenic qi. Ling Shu-3 contains three statements to this effect. .  “The ‘spirit and guest’ is the conjoining of W , the correct and pathogenic qi.” ? “The ‘spirit’ is the correct qi. The ‘guest’ is In interpreting this line, Ling Shu-3.1 the pathogenic qi.” emphasises the importance of examining “ the door’ means that the pathogenic At the state of correct and pathogenic qi within [qi] travels along the exits and entries of the the channels prior to treatment. “Without correct qi.”, 40 observing the disease means that one must Ling Shu-32 corroborates this inter- 32 first know about the pathogenic and correct pretation of spirit, emphasising its pirit, and in which channels there is disease … physiological basis. how can one know its origins, means that “Therefore, the spirit, is the essence qi of one must first know how to identify the the water and grains.”41 Ma Shi adopts location of the diseased channels.”, 43 a similar perspective, defining the “door” Following this interpretive thread through as an afflicted channel. “ An affliction by these first four lines we learn that one must pathogenic qi is at times like the periodic assess the state of the qi and blood prior to coming and going of a guest, so it is called actually needling. This is fine as far as it goes, by the name ‘guest’. The guest at the door is however, we have already established that the pathogenic guest [qi] at the gate of each there is another layer of meaning embedded channel.” in this rather self-evident message. The preceding lines of the Ling Shu �récis first at. clarify that not only must one observe a au. av. ay. aw. ax. a.12 Vol 6–1
feature 11. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi, v.2, p. 1155. 40. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.1, p.67.disease to identify its cause, one must 12. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi, v.2, p. 745. 41. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.1, p. 509.do so in a very particular way; with 13. Translation by Zhang Dai-Nan and Edmund 42. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi, v.1, ,concentration, focus and attention to Ryden. Zhang Dai-Nan, p. 207. �nless otherwise -Nan, an,, pp 364-65.the spirit. Later in Ling Shu-1.1 we are noted, all references to classic texts are keyed to 43. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.1, p.67. ,informed that the “the spirit resides the ICS Concordance Series. This concordance 44. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.1, p.11. 11. series is based on a database of all Chinese clas-in an autumn hair,”44 suggesting that Bibliography sical texts and ancient writings, and is producedthe focus, concentration, or spirit one at the Institute of Chinese Studies, Chinese �ni- Cao Deng-Zhang , ed. (1988). Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da Cheng , 2 vols. Shanghai; Shanghaibrings to the diagnostic process must versity of Hong �ong. See the bibliography for Science and Technology Pressbe maintained through the needling a table of titles with characters. Zhou Yi Zhu Zi s . D.C Lau , and Chen Fong-Ching , eds.process. As already mentioned, Suo Yin, 66/79/22. (1996-2004). The ICS Ancient Chinese Texts Concordance 14. ibid, p. 207. Zhou Yi Zhu Zi Suo Yin, bid,, Series. Hong �ong; Commercial Press.“autumn hair” may be understood 66/79/22. Guo Tian (1984). Nei Jing Jiang Yi , Bei-as both the quality of one’s attention 15. ibid, Zhou Yi Zhu Zi Suo Yin, 66/83/13-14. bid, , jing; Peoples’ Health Publishing .in needling and as the needle itself. 16. ibid, Zhou Yi Zhu Zi Suo Yin, 6/16/3. bid, , . Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi .This makes perfect sense in that the 17. Huai Nan Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin 11/101/25. in, (1980).Beijing: Peoples’Health Publishing . Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi .process of diagnosis and treatment 18. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi, v.2, (1980).Beijing: Peoples’Health Publishing .are inextricably intertwined. One’s p.1008. Hou Han Shu Ji Zhu Shi Zong HeYin De 19. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.2,attention to what is happening around ; (1966). Taipei: Chinese Materials and Research Aids p.259. 259. Service Centre/ Harvard Yenching Institute.the needle in the course of treatment 20. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.2, �eegan, Joseph.(1988). The Huang-ti nei-ching: the Struc-becomes a means by which one assesses p.332. 332. ture of the Compilation; the Significance of the Structure,the state of the qi and blood in the 21. Li Ji Zhu Zi Suo Yin, 43.2/165/25. doctoral diss. Berkeley; �niversity of California.channels. Only once we have grasped 22. Victor Mair, p. 173. Zhuang Zi Suo Yin, Ma Shi . (2004). Ling Shu Zhu Zheng Fa Wei 18/49/17. A similar passage also appears in the in Zhong Hua Yi Dian , sectionthis can we turn our attention to the 3. CD-ROM. Changsha; CD-ROM. Changsha; Hunan Lie Zi. Lie Zi Zhu Zi Suo Yin: 1/3/1.mechanics of needle technique. Dian Zi Yin Xiang Chu Ban She ºþ . 23. Isabelle Robinet (2008)., pp.536-37. ., . Mair, Victor, trans. (1994). Wandering on the Way, Early 24. ibid. bid. Taoist Tales and �arables of Chuang Tzu, New York;n The second half of this article will 25. ibid. Bantam Books.appear in the next issue of The Lantern! 26. Robinet (1995). pp.105-120. See also Qing Xi- Pregadio, Fabriio, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Taoism, Tai, pp.305-308. -308.. Fabriio Pregadio, ed. Oxford; Rutledge, v.1.Endnotes 27. Xiao (small) is generally understood to Qing Xi-Tai . (1994). Zhong Guo Dao Jiao mean (fine). . Shanghai; Zhi Shi Chu Ban She ,1. We are grateful to professors Matthias and pp 305-308. 28. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.1, p.66. 66.Antje Richter, Stephen Birch, Diane Sommers, ichter, chter, phen en , Robinet, Isabelle, (2008), in Encyclopedia of Taoism,Sharon Weienbaum and Craig Mitchell for their eienbaum ienbaum 29. Ma Shi (1586). Ling Shu Zhu Zheng Fa ing hu hu heng a Fabriio Pregadio, ed. Oxford; Rutledge, pp. 536-37.helpful comments, questions and criticisms in Weiei _____(1995). Introduction a l’alchemie interieure taoiste;the course of preparing this manuscript. 30. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.1, p.67. De l’unite et de la multiplicite. Paris; Les Editions Du2. Joseph �eegan identifies the Huang Di lineage 31. Zhang Zhi-Cong (1670). Huang Di Nei Cerf, pp 105-120.of medical texts as an “assemblage of a group Jing Su Wen Ji Zhu (Collected Schuessler, Axel. (2007). ABC Etymological Dictionaryof texts composed, exchanged and transmitted Commentaries on the Ling Shu), in Cao Deng-, of Old Chinese, Honolulu; �niversity of Hawai’i Press.among a group which perceives itself to have Zhang 曹燈章 (1988), ed. Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da 1988),), , p. 293.some common interests and identity.” Most of Cheng , vol. 1. Shanghai; Shang Hai Slingerland, Edward. (2003). Effortless Action, Wu-weithe other texts in this tradition have since been Ke Xue Ji Shu Chu Ban She , As Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early p. 3. China, Oxford; Oxford �niversity Press.lost but they included one fifth of the medicaltexts recorded in the Han Shu (History of 32. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi: v.1, p. 67. Tombo Genki . (2004). Ling Shu Shi , 33. ibid. Zhong Hua Yi Dian , section 3, CD-ROM.the Han, 1st century) bibliography. Despite its Changsha; Hunan Dian Zi Yin Xiang Chu Ban Sheidentification with the Huang Di lineage, the 34. ibid. .Nei Jing itself refers to few of these texts. Joseph 35. ibid. Yamata, �enji. (1979). “The Formation of the Huang-ti�eegan, pp. 21-29. 36. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, v.1, p.11. , 11. Nei-ching,” Acta Asiatica 36, pp 67-89.3. This collection of texts was not titled the Ling 37. ibid. bid. Zhang Dai-Nan. (2002). Key concepts in Chinese phi-Shu until the Tang. ibid, pp. 208-209. bid,, 38. Alternately, this may be read as “one will one losophy, trans. Edmund Ryden. New Haven, Conn; Yale4. ibid, pp. 170-219. know whether the disease will persist or resolve.” ” �niversity Press.5. The edition used for references to the Ling Zhang Zhi-Cong (1670). Huang Di Nei Zhang Deng-Ben and Wu Changchun ,Shu is Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi Jing Su Wen Ji Zhu (Collected eds. (1990). Nei Jing Ci Dian , Beijing; Peoples’ Commentaries on the Ling Shu), in Cao Deng-, Health Publishing , p. 277.6. The edition used for references to the Su Zhang (1988), ed. Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da Zhang Zhi-Cong (1670). Huang Di Nei Jing Su Cheng , vol. 2. Shanghai; Shang Hai Wen Ji Zhu (Collected CommentariesWen is Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Jiao Shi u en iao hi on the Ling Shu), in Cao Deng-Zhang (1988), v.2, p. 674. Ke Xue Ji Shu Chu Ban She , ed. Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da Cheng , 2 vols.7. �eegan, pp 208-209. p. 5. . Shanghai; Shanghai Science and Technology Press8. Zhang Deng-Ben and Wu Chang-Chun, 39. Hou Han Shu Ji Zhu Shi Zong He Yin De .p. 277. (1966), Taipei: Chinese Zhou Yi-Mou , ed. 1983. Li Dai Ming Yi Lun Yi9. Axel Schuessler, p. 93. Materials and Research Aids Service Centre/ De . Changsha: Hunan Scientific Press10. Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu Jiao Shi, 1.1. Harvard Yenching Institute: 112 ÏÂ /5b-6b. , pp 63-5. The Lantern 13