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Non traditional technologies

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Non traditional technologies description.
Ez-ohiko teknologia prozesuen deskribapena.
Descripción de tecnologías no-convencionales.

Non traditional technologies

  1. 1. BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES NON-TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES by Endika Gandarias
  2. 2. 2by Endika Gandarias Dr. ENDIKA GANDARIAS MINTEGI Mechanical and Manufacturing department Mondragon Unibertsitatea - www.mondragon.edu (Basque Country) www.linkedin.com/in/endika-gandarias-mintegi-91174653 Further presentations: www.symbaloo.com/mix/manufacturingtechnology
  3. 3. 3 CONTENTS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  INTRODUCTION  NON-TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES:  Ultrasonic Machining (USM)  Jet Machining (AJM / WJM / AWJM)  Chemical Machining (CM)  Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM)  Plasma Arc Machining (PAM)  Laser Beam Machining (LBM)  Electro Discharge Machining (EDM)  Ion Beam Machining (IBM)  Electron Beam Machining (EBM)  SUMMARY  GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias
  4. 4. 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY by Endika Gandarias
  5. 5. 5 The author would like to thank all the bibliographic references and videos that have contributed to the elaboration of these presentations. For bibliographic references, please refer to: • http://www.slideshare.net/endika55/bibliography-71763364 (PDF file) • http://www.slideshare.net/endika55/bibliography-71763366 (PPT file) For videos, please refer to: • www.symbaloo.com/mix/manufacturingtechnology BIBLIOGRAPHY by Endika Gandarias
  6. 6. 6 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION by Endika Gandarias
  7. 7. 7 INTRODUCTION • Non-traditional technologies refer to a group of processes that remove material NOT using a sharp cutting tool like in conventional machining. In contrast, non-traditional technologies use other type of energies to remove material: IMPORTANCE OF NON-TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES • To machine newly developed difficult to cut materials: high strength, high hardness and high toughness. • When workpiece is too flexible or slender to support conventional cutting/grinding forces. • To machine complex part geometries which are difficult or impossible to machine by traditional methods. • To avoid surface damage, such as stresses, created in conventional processes. MECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL THERMO-ELECTRICAL CHEMICAL by Endika Gandarias
  8. 8. 8 INTRODUCTION by Endika Gandarias Low HAZ No HAZ HAZ HAZ: Heat Affected Zone
  9. 9. 9by Endika Gandarias 1980, Machining data Handbook INTRODUCTION
  10. 10. 10 NON-TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES NON-TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES by Endika Gandarias
  11. 11. 11 ULTRASONIC MACHINING (USM) Dimensional tolerance: ± 0,0025mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,1-0,8µm by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL ULTRASONIC MACHINING (USM)
  12. 12. 12 ULTRASONIC MACHINING (USM)  A vibrating tool oscillates at ultrasonic frequencies (f=20-30kHz & A=15-50µm).  The tool never contacts the workpiece, and the abrasive slurry flows freely between the tool and the workpiece (20-50 µm gap).  Abrasive grains (100-800 grit size) – SiC, Al2O3, CBN, diamond  Abrasive slurry – abrasive grains (20-60%) + usually water  PRO:  Low HAZ.  Suitable for hard and brittle non-conductive materials: ceramics, glass or carbides (otherwise EDM or ECM is used).  Holes and cavities with various shapes can be produced.  Excellent surface finish.  CON:  Low MRR (Material Removal Rate).  Small depth of holes and cavities can be produced.  Tool wear rate is fast (tool is usually softer than the workpiece as it needs to be tough: soft steel or stainless steel). by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL VIDEOVIDEOVIDEO
  13. 13. 13 ULTRASONIC MACHINING (USM) Types of parts made by this process by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL
  14. 14. 14 JET MACHINING (AJM / WJM / AWJM) THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL AJM: Dimensional tolerance: ± 0,05mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,15-1,5 µm WJM / AWJM: Dimensional tolerance: ± 0,025mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 1,6-6.3 µm by Endika Gandarias JET MACHINING (AJM / WJM / AWJM)
  15. 15. 15 JET MACHINING (AJM / WJM / AWJM) Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)  It is an abrasive blasting machining process that uses abrasives (SiC, Al2O3 or glass bead of Ø15-40µm) propelled by a high velocity (150-300m/s) gas (air or inert gas) to erode material from the workpiece.  It is mainly used for finishing operations: deburring, cleaning and polishing (cutting thin plates too).  PRO:  Low HAZ.  It can be easily automated for high production volumes.  Ability to machine hard and brittle materials.  Good surface finish.  CON:  Low MRR.  Tends to round off sharp edges and it produces tapered cut. by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL BLASTING VIDEO
  16. 16. 16 JET MACHINING (AJM / WJM / AWJM) Water Jet Machining (WJM)  It uses a fine, high pressure, high velocity (540-1400m/s) stream of water (~ Ø0.1-0.4mm) directed at the work surface to cause cutting of the workpiece.  Cutting of all non-metallic materials (food, composites, plastics, fabrics, rubber, wood, paper,…).  PRO:  Low HAZ.  It can be easily automated.  Ability to machine flexible materials.  Burr produced is minimum.  CON:  Limited number of materials can be cut economically.  It produces tapered cut.  Noisy. by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL VIDEOVIDEO
  17. 17. 17 JET MACHINING (AJM / WJM / AWJM) Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM)  The water jet contains abrasive particles (quartz sand, SiC or Al2O3 at 60-120 grit size, up to 900 m/s) to increase the material removal rate and enable cutting of thick and hard materials.  Cutting of metallic and non-metallic materials (marble, granite, stone, composites, wood, titanium alloys,…).  Same PROs and CONs as WJM. by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL VIDEO
  18. 18. 18 JET MACHINING (AJM / WJM / AWJM) Various non-metallic parts (WJM) 5-axis waterjet cutting head (WJM) Cutting food (WJM) Marble waterjet cutting (AWJM) by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL VIDEO
  19. 19. 19 CHEMICAL MACHINING (CM) CHEMICAL Dimensional tolerance: ± 0,08mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,1-6,3 µm by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL CHEMICAL MACHINING (CM)
  20. 20. 20 CHEMICAL MACHINING (CM)  This process is also called etching.  The metal is removed by the chemical attack of an acidic or alkaline etchant (FeCl3, H2SO4, HNO3). The portion of workpiece where no material is to be removed is masked (maskant: polymer or rubber) before chemical etching. The process is usually carried out at high temperature.  Steps: Cleaning  masking  etching  demasking  PRO:  No HAZ and no forces.  It is not workpiece hardness dependent.  Complicated shapes can be produced.  Good surface quality.  Simple to implement, low tooling and equipment cost.  Suitable for low production runs.  No burr formation.  CON:  Very low MRR, limited to thin layers.  Difficult to get sharp corners.  Low dimensional accuracy. by Endika Gandarias CHEMICAL THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL VIDEOVIDEOVIDEO
  21. 21. 21 CHEMICAL MACHINING (CM) Missile skin-panel section contoured by chemical milling to improve the stiffness-to- weight ratio of the part. Weight reduction of space-launch vehicles by the chemical milling of aluminum-alloy plates. by Endika Gandarias CHEMICAL THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL
  22. 22. 22 ELECTRO-CHEMICAL MACHINING (ECM) ELECTRO-CHEMICAL Dimensional tolerance: ± 0,05mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,1-6,3 µm by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALCHEMICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL MACHINING (ECM)
  23. 23. 23 ELECTRO-CHEMICAL MACHINING (ECM)  Electrochemical machining removes material from an electrically conductive workpiece by anodic dissolution. Workpiece geometry is obtained by a formed electrode tool which is in close proximity but separate.  An electrolyte acts as a current carrier, and high electrolyte movement in the tool-workpiece gap washes metal ions away from the workpiece (anode) before they are deposited on the tool (cathode).  Tool – generally made of bronze, copper, brass or stainless steel.  Electrolyte – salt solutions in water.  Power – DC supply 5-25V & 1000A.  PRO:  High MRR  No HAZ & no mechanical distortion.  There is almost no tool wear.  It is not workpiece hardness dependent.  Complex shapes with deep cavities.  Burr free surface.  CON:  Workpiece electrically conductive.  Expensive tooling and equipment.  High power consumption. by Endika Gandarias ELECTRO-CHEMICAL THERMO-ELECTRICALCHEMICALMECHANICAL VIDEOVIDEOVIDEO
  24. 24. 24 ELECTRO-CHEMICAL MACHINING (ECM) by Endika Gandarias ELECTRO-CHEMICAL THERMO-ELECTRICALCHEMICALMECHANICAL Its industrial application has been extended to: • ECM machining • ECM drilling • ECM deburring • ECM grinding • ECM polishing VIDEO VIDEO
  25. 25. 25 PLASMA ARC MACHINING (PAM) Dimensional tolerance: ± 1.3mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,8-6,3 µm by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL PLASMA ARC MACHINING (PAM)
  26. 26. 26  A plasma is a ionized gas typically formed when heating the gas at high temperatures (>5000ºC). Plasma state: Molecules are separated into atoms, and atoms are disaggregated into free electrons and positive atom nucleus.  It uses a high velocity jet of high temperature gas (Ar, N, H, He or mixtures of them) called plasma that melts the metal and then removes the molten material to form a kerf.  The electrode (W) and nozzle of the gun create a strong electric arc  gases collide the arc and become into plasma.  It is used to cut flat metal sheets and plates and it can be used manually or by CNC.  PRO:  Highest MRR among non-traditional processes.  Very hard and brittle metals can be machined.  CON:  Relatively large HAZ.  Generally used for conductive materials (Plasma is highly conductive).  High cost equipment.  Safety precautions are needed.  Rough surface finish. PLASMA ARC MACHINING (PAM) by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO
  27. 27. 27 PLASMA ARC MACHINING (PAM) by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO
  28. 28. 28 LASER BEAM MACHINING (LBM) Dimensional tolerance: ± 0,08mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,2-6,3 µm by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL LASER BEAM MACHINING (LBM)
  29. 29. 29 LASER BEAM MACHINING (LBM)  LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.  It uses the light energy from a laser to remove material by vaporization and ablation. Laser beam melts the material by focusing a coherent beam of monochromatic light on the workpiece.  Energy of the coherent light is concentrated not only optically, but also in terms of time. The type of laser used in LBM is typically the CO2 gas laser.  It is used to perform cutting, drilling, slotting or scribing.  PRO:  Unlimited range of materials: high hardness metals, ceramics, glass, rubber, wood, cloth, food,…  Does not require a vacuum.  No tool wear.  Easy to be automatized.  CON:  Low MRR.  HAZ exists.  High reflectivity materials (mirror) may be a problem.  Expensive equipment.  High energy consumption.  It produces tapered cut. by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEOVIDEO
  30. 30. 30 LASER BEAM MACHINING (LBM) Sheet metal cutting by Endika Gandarias PHB stent Coronary Stent THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL Tube cutting VIDEO VIDEO
  31. 31. 31 ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) Dimensional tolerance: ± 0.025mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,05-12,5 µm by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM)
  32. 32. 32  The workpiece is removed by a series of sparks that cause localized melting and evaporation of the material in the presence of a dielectric fluid.  The workpiece is typically submerged in a dielectric bath of deionized water or oil. ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO
  33. 33. 33 ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM)  A formed electrode tool produces the shape of the workpiece.  Electrode – copper, tungsten, graphite or brass.  PRO:  It is one of the most widely used non-traditional processes.  It is not workpiece hardness dependent.  Complex geometries can be produced.  CON:  Low MRR.  HAZ exists.  Workpiece needs to be electrically conductive.  Not capable to produce sharp corners.  Tool wear affects dimensional accuracy. Sinking EDM by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO
  34. 34. 34 ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) Wire EDM  It uses a small diameter wire (Ø0,08-0,3mm) to cut a narrow kerf in the work.  Wire – brass, copper, tungsten or molybdenum  PRO:  It is one of the most widely used non-traditional processes.  It is not workpiece hardness dependent.  It is well-suited to produce: gears, dies, cams,…  CON:  HAZ exists.  Workpiece needs to be electrically conductive.  Expensive equipment. by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO VIDEO
  35. 35. 35 ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) by Endika Gandarias Sinking EDM dieWire EDM parts Sinking EDM: screw thread Sinking EDM: cavities produced by shaped electrodes Sinking EDM: fuel injection nozzle THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL
  36. 36. 36 ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM) Dimensional tolerance: ± 0,08mm Surface finish: Ra ~ 0,2-6,3µm by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM)
  37. 37. 37 ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM)  It is a metal removal process that uses a high velocity focused stream of electrons (Ø~25µm).  Electrons are created when high voltage is applied to a Wolframium filament  Accelerated by a strong electric field (200.000km/s)  Focused by magnetic fields  Kinetic energy of the electrons is transformed into thermal energy which melts and vaporizes the material.  Vacuum chamber is necessary to avoid electron-air molecules collisions.  It is used for drilling small holes, cutting, engraving, heat treatments, and improving surface roughness.  PRO:  Works on any material.  It is not workpiece hardness dependent.  Very small holes and slots can be machined  No tool wear.  CON:  Low MRR.  HAZ exists.  Vacuum requirements limit part size.  Expensive equipment. by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO
  38. 38. 38 ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM) EBM in a vacuum EBM in ambient air by Endika Gandarias Surface roughness improvement Material: 316L SS Hole: Ø~0,1mm Thickness: ~1,5mm THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO VIDEO
  39. 39. 39 ION BEAM MACHINING (IBM) THERMO-ELECTRICAL Dimensional tolerance: ± ??mm Surface finish: Ra ~ <0.0001 µm by Endika Gandarias MECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL ION BEAM MACHINING (IBM)
  40. 40. 40 ION BEAM MACHINING (IBM)  This process is also called Focused Ion Beam (FIB).  A stream of charged atoms (ions) of an inert gas (Ar, He, Ga) is accelerated in a vacuum chamber by electrical means and directed toward the workpiece to remove (or add) atoms. When an atom strikes a cluster of atoms on the workpiece, it dislodges between 0.1 and 10 atoms from the workpiece material. Spot size Ø~2-20nm  Electrons are created when high voltage is applied to a Wolframium filament (high temperature)   Accelerated by a strong electric field  those interact with inert gas atoms to produce ions: Ar + e− → Ar+ + 2e-  It is used in micro/nanofabrication for smoothing of laser mirrors, polishing optical & shaping surfaces,…  PRO:  Capable of modifying any material at micro/nano scale.  CON:  Low MRR.  HAZ exists (< 1 μm).  Vacuum chamber is required.  High cost equipment. by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO VIDEO
  41. 41. 41 ION BEAM MACHINING (IBM) Photonics by Endika Gandarias THERMO-ELECTRICALMECHANICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICALCHEMICAL VIDEO
  42. 42. 42 SUMMARY SUMMARY by Endika Gandarias
  43. 43. 43 SUMMARY by Endika Gandarias
  44. 44. 44 SUMMARY by Endika Gandarias
  45. 45. 45 SUMMARY by Endika Gandarias
  46. 46. 46 GLOSSARY GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias
  47. 47. 47 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Ablation Ablación Ablazio Bead Abalorio Beira ale Beam Haz Sorta Blasting Chorreado Jariaketa Brass Latón Letoia Breakdown Ruptura Haustura Brittle Frágil Hauskor Bubble Burbuja Burbuila Burr Rebaba Bizar Cam Leva Espeka Cardboard Cartón Kartoi Chamber Cámara Ganbera Cladding Aporte Aportazio Close Cerca Gertu Cloth Tela Oihal Cluster Grupo Multzo Coating Recubrimiento Estaldura Coil Bobina Bobina Collide Chocar Talka egin Conductive Conductor Eroale Copper Cobre Kobre Debri Desecho Hondakin Deburring Desbarbado Bizar kentze Die Molde Molde Dielectric Dieléctrico / No conductor Dielektriko / Ez eroale Disaggregated Disgregado Sakabanatuta Dislodge Dislocar Dislokatu Drain Desagüe Hustubide
  48. 48. 48 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Drilling Taladrado Zulaketa Electro discharge machining Mecanizado por electroerosión Elektrohigadura bidezko mekanizazio Electron Beam Machining Mecanizado por haz de electrones Elektroi sorta bidezko mekanizazio Engraving Grabado Grabazio Etchant Atacante Erasotzaile Etching Ataque químico Eraso kimiko Exhaust Campana de humos Kanpai Fabric Tela Ohial Fair Justo Justu FeCl3 Cloruro de hierro Burdin kloruro Focal length Longitud / Distancia focal Foku distantzia Focus Enfocar Enfokatu Gap Hueco Hutsune Gear Engrane Engranai Glass Vidrio Beira Glazing Vidriado Beiratze Grain Grano Ale Grid Rejilla Bursin sare / Sareta Grit Grano abrasivo Ale urratzaile Gun Pistola Pistola H2SO4 Ácido sulfúrico Azido sulfuriko Hardening Temple Tenple Hardness Dureza Gogortasuna Heat Calor Bero Heating Calentador Berogailu HNO3 Ácido nítrico Azido nitriko Insulating Aislante Isolatzaile Ion beam machining Mecanizado por haz de iones Ioi sorta bidezko mekanizazio
  49. 49. 49 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Jet machining Mecanizado por chorro Zurrusta bidezko mekanizazio Kerf Canal de corte Mozte bide Leek Puerro Porru Len Lente Lente Machining Mecanizado Mekanizazio Marble Mármol Marmol Maskant Enmascarante Estalki / Maskaratzaile Melt Derretir Urtze Mirror Espejo Ispilu Molten Derretido Urturiko Non traditional technologies Tecnologías no tradicionales Teknologia ez ohikoak Nozzle Boquilla Aho / Pita Plasma arc machining Mecanizado por plasma Plasma bidezko mekanizazio Plate Placa Plaka / Xafla Polishing Pulido Leunketa Powder Polvo Hauts Propel Impulsar Bultzatu Pump Bomba Bonba Reel Carrete / Bobina Bobina Removal rate Tasa de eliminación Ezabapen tasa Rough Basto Trauskil Rubber Goma / Caucho Goma / Kautxu Scribing Trazado a mano Eskuz idatzia Shaping Dar forma Forma eman Sharp Afilado Zorrotz Shear Cizallado Zizailaketa Sheet Chapa Xafla Sinking EDM Electroerosión por penetración Sartze elektrohigadura
  50. 50. 50 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Skin Piel Azal Slender Esbelto Lerden Slot Ranura Arteka Slurry Pasta / Lodo Ore / Lokatz Spark Chispa Txinpart Spot Punto Puntu Sputter Escupir Jaurti Stainless steel Acero inoxidable Altzairu erdoilgaitz Standoff distance Distancia de alejamiento Urruntze tarte Stands for Significa Adierazi / Esan nahi Stiffness Rigidez Zurruntasun Stone Piedra Harri Stream Chorro Zurrusta Strength Resistencia Erresistentzia Surface roughness Rugosidad superficial Gainazal zimurtasuna Tapered cut Corte inclinado Mozte inklinatu Tough Resistente Iraunkor Toughness Tenacidad Zailtasun Transducer Transductor Transduktore Ultrasonic machining Mecanizado ultrasónico Ultrasoinu bidezko mekanizazio Vacuum Vacío Huts Wash Limpiar Garbitu Wear Desgaste Higadura Welding Soldadura Soldadura Wire EDM Electroerosión por hilo Harizko elektrohigadura Workpiece Pieza Pieza
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Non traditional technologies description. Ez-ohiko teknologia prozesuen deskribapena. Descripción de tecnologías no-convencionales.

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