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03/17/1503/17/15
RESEARCH INRESEARCH IN
INFORMATION SYSTEMSINFORMATION SYSTEMS
MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT
(IMS 603)(IMS 603)
Top...
03/17/1503/17/15
What is Research Design?What is Research Design?
Is the plan and structure ofIs the plan and structure of...
03/17/1503/17/15
What is Research Design?What is Research Design?
Is the plan and structure ofIs the plan and structure of...
03/17/1503/17/15
What is Research Design?What is Research Design?
The design module described whatThe design module descri...
03/17/1503/17/15
Research DesignResearch Design
PROBLEMSTATEMENT
Purpose of
Study
•Exploration
•Description
•Testing
Types...
03/17/1503/17/15
What data to collect?What data to collect?
Issue of measurement:Issue of measurement:
Measurement must be...
03/17/1503/17/15
MeasurementMeasurement
““Development of science is nothingDevelopment of science is nothing
but the devel...
03/17/1503/17/15
MeasurementsMeasurements
Empirical research often implies measurementsEmpirical research often implies me...
03/17/1503/17/15
Working DefinitionsWorking Definitions
 MeasurementMeasurement is a process through which theis a proces...
03/17/1503/17/15
Working DefinitionsWorking Definitions
Example:Example:
•
The Theoretical Concept:The Theoretical Concep...
03/17/1503/17/15
How are Variables Measured?How are Variables Measured?
Objective – precise measurementObjective – precise...
03/17/1503/17/15
OperationalizationOperationalization
Concept
Operational
Definition
Dimensions
A generalized idea about a...
03/17/1503/17/15
Operationalizing: LearningOperationalizing: Learning
Learning
Understanding Retention Application
Answer
...
03/17/1503/17/15
Operationalizing: MotivationOperationalizing: Motivation
Achievement
Motivation
Driven by
work
Unable
to ...
03/17/1503/17/15
Operational definition isOperational definition is
NOTNOT
CorrelateCorrelate
AntecedentsAntecedents
Conse...
03/17/1503/17/15
ScalesScales
A tool or mechanism by whichA tool or mechanism by which
individuals are distinguished on ho...
03/17/1503/17/15
Levels Of MeasurementsLevels Of Measurements
Empirical
Scale
Basic
Operations
Measures of
Typical use
Ave...
03/17/1503/17/15
Nominal ScaleNominal Scale
Classificatory or Categorical
e.g. Sex – Male/Female
Colour
Mutually exclusive...
03/17/1503/17/15
Ordinal ScaleOrdinal Scale
Categorize and rank
e.g. Preference in job attributes
Please rank from 1 most ...
03/17/1503/17/15
Interval ScaleInterval Scale
Allows for measurement of distance between
two points on the scale
e.g. Pref...
03/17/1503/17/15
Ratio ScaleRatio Scale
Has absolute zero; thus allowing for not
only differences but also proportions in ...
03/17/1503/17/15
Properties of the 4 ScalesProperties of the 4 Scales
Characteristics
Difference Order Distance Unique
Ori...
03/17/1503/17/15
Scaling MethodsScaling Methods
Rating Scales
•Dichotomous Scale
•Category Scale
•Likert scale
•Numerical ...
03/17/1503/17/15
Examples: Rating ScaleExamples: Rating Scale
Likert
Do you own a car Yes NoDichotomous
Where do you stay ...
03/17/1503/17/15
Examples: Rating ScaleExamples: Rating Scale
How would you rate your work partners
Responsive __ __ __ __...
03/17/1503/17/15
Examples: Rating ScaleExamples: Rating Scale
Graphic
Rating Scale
On a scale of 1
to 10 how
would you rat...
03/17/1503/17/15
Examples: Ranking ScaleExamples: Ranking Scale
When comparing a small number of objects,
respondents are ...
03/17/1503/17/15
Examples: Ranking ScaleExamples: Ranking Scale
Comparative
Scale
In a volatile financial environment, com...
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Topic 4 research design

  1. 1. 03/17/1503/17/15 RESEARCH INRESEARCH IN INFORMATION SYSTEMSINFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT (IMS 603)(IMS 603) Topic 4:Topic 4: Research DesignResearch Design
  2. 2. 03/17/1503/17/15 What is Research Design?What is Research Design? Is the plan and structure ofIs the plan and structure of investigation so conceived as toinvestigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research questions.obtain answers to research questions. The design is a plan for selectingThe design is a plan for selecting the sources and types of informationthe sources and types of information used to answer the researchused to answer the research question.question. It is a framework for specifying theIt is a framework for specifying the relationship among the study’srelationship among the study’s variablesvariables
  3. 3. 03/17/1503/17/15 What is Research Design?What is Research Design? Is the plan and structure ofIs the plan and structure of investigation so conceived as toinvestigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research questions.obtain answers to research questions. It is a blueprint that outlines eachIt is a blueprint that outlines each procedure from the hypotheses to theprocedure from the hypotheses to the analysis of data.analysis of data.
  4. 4. 03/17/1503/17/15 What is Research Design?What is Research Design? The design module described whatThe design module described what you are going to do in technicalyou are going to do in technical terms.terms. Provide information such as sampleProvide information such as sample selection and size, data collectionselection and size, data collection method, instrumentation, procedures,method, instrumentation, procedures, and ethical requirements.and ethical requirements.
  5. 5. 03/17/1503/17/15 Research DesignResearch Design PROBLEMSTATEMENT Purpose of Study •Exploration •Description •Testing Types of Investigation •Relationship •Correlation •Group differences Unit of Analysis •Individual •Dyads •Groups •Organizations Sampling Design •What/Who? •How many? Study Setting •Contrived •Noncontrived Researcher Interference •Minimal •Manipulation / control/ simulate Time Horizon •Cross-sectional •Longitudinal Measurement •Items •Scaling •Categorizing •Coding Data Collection •Observation •Interviews •Physical •Unobstrusive DATAANALYSIS •Feelfordata •Goodnessofdata •Testing
  6. 6. 03/17/1503/17/15 What data to collect?What data to collect? Issue of measurement:Issue of measurement: Measurement must beMeasurement must be validvalid andand reliablereliable Source:Source:  LiteratureLiterature  Self-developSelf-develop
  7. 7. 03/17/1503/17/15 MeasurementMeasurement ““Development of science is nothingDevelopment of science is nothing but the development of measurement”but the development of measurement” ““Whenever you can, count”Whenever you can, count” ““Everything that countsEverything that counts should be counted”should be counted”
  8. 8. 03/17/1503/17/15 MeasurementsMeasurements Empirical research often implies measurementsEmpirical research often implies measurements Quality of information depends on theQuality of information depends on the measurement processmeasurement process Measurement Defined:Measurement Defined:  The mapping of some propertiesThe mapping of some properties  Rules for assigning numbers to empirical propertiesRules for assigning numbers to empirical properties  Rules: specify the procedure according to whichRules: specify the procedure according to which numbers are to be assigned to objectsnumbers are to be assigned to objects
  9. 9. 03/17/1503/17/15 Working DefinitionsWorking Definitions  MeasurementMeasurement is a process through which theis a process through which the kind or intensity of something is determined: i.e.kind or intensity of something is determined: i.e. measurement ismeasurement is  the process of linking abstract concepts to empiricalthe process of linking abstract concepts to empirical indicants.indicants.  DimensionalityDimensionality refers to the number of differentrefers to the number of different qualities inherent in a theoretical concept.qualities inherent in a theoretical concept.  AA conceptconcept is a general idea referring to ais a general idea referring to a characteristic of an individual, group, or a nation.characteristic of an individual, group, or a nation.
  10. 10. 03/17/1503/17/15 Working DefinitionsWorking Definitions Example:Example: • The Theoretical Concept:The Theoretical Concept: Social StatusSocial Status • Dimensions:Dimensions: Occupational Prestige,Occupational Prestige, Ethnicity, Popularity, EducationalEthnicity, Popularity, Educational Prestige, Financial Resources, and so on.Prestige, Financial Resources, and so on.
  11. 11. 03/17/1503/17/15 How are Variables Measured?How are Variables Measured? Objective – precise measurementObjective – precise measurement Subjective – nebulous & abstract; e.g.Subjective – nebulous & abstract; e.g. attitude, beliefs, involvement,attitude, beliefs, involvement, satisfactionsatisfaction Concept ofConcept of “Thirst”“Thirst” Process of reducing abstract concept toProcess of reducing abstract concept to measurable items is calledmeasurable items is called OperationalizationOperationalization
  12. 12. 03/17/1503/17/15 OperationalizationOperationalization Concept Operational Definition Dimensions A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes e.g. sex, loyalty Gives meaning to a concept by specifying the activities or operations necessary to measure it Elements Broad characteristics to ensure coverage or scope of the concept Specific items about the identified measurement, which are easily measured
  13. 13. 03/17/1503/17/15 Operationalizing: LearningOperationalizing: Learning Learning Understanding Retention Application Answer questions correctly Give appropriate examples Recall material after some lapse Solve problems applying concepts understood and recalled Integrate with other relevant material e e e e e d d d
  14. 14. 03/17/1503/17/15 Operationalizing: MotivationOperationalizing: Motivation Achievement Motivation Driven by work Unable to relax Impatience with ineffectiveness Constantly working Reluctance to take time off e d Seeks moderate challenges Seeks feedback Persist despite setbacks Work at home No hobby Swears at small mistakes Does not like to work with incompetent people Opt for challenging not routine Opt for moderate rather than overwhelming challenge Ask for feedback about job done Wants immediate feedback
  15. 15. 03/17/1503/17/15 Operational definition isOperational definition is NOTNOT CorrelateCorrelate AntecedentsAntecedents ConsequencesConsequences ReasonsReasons …… of the conceptof the concept 
  16. 16. 03/17/1503/17/15 ScalesScales A tool or mechanism by whichA tool or mechanism by which individuals are distinguished on howindividuals are distinguished on how they differ from one anotherthey differ from one another E.g. how do we distinguish individualE.g. how do we distinguish individual A from B in terms of learning?A from B in terms of learning? Also refers to level of measurementAlso refers to level of measurement
  17. 17. 03/17/1503/17/15 Levels Of MeasurementsLevels Of Measurements Empirical Scale Basic Operations Measures of Typical use Averages Nominal Determination of equality Classification Male-Female Occupations Mode Ordinal Determination of greater or less Ranking Preference Attitude Median Interval Determination of equality of intervals Index numbers Temperature Mean Ratio Determination of equality of ratios Sales Unit produced No. of customers Mean Geometric
  18. 18. 03/17/1503/17/15 Nominal ScaleNominal Scale Classificatory or Categorical e.g. Sex – Male/Female Colour Mutually exclusive & collectively exhaustive
  19. 19. 03/17/1503/17/15 Ordinal ScaleOrdinal Scale Categorize and rank e.g. Preference in job attributes Please rank from 1 most important to 5 least important the following attributes: Interacting with others Using multiple skills Completing a task from beginning to end Serving others Work independently
  20. 20. 03/17/1503/17/15 Interval ScaleInterval Scale Allows for measurement of distance between two points on the scale e.g. Preference in job attributes Using a scale of 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (neither agree nor disagree), 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree), please indicate the extent of your agreement by circling the appropriate number. The following are very important to me Interacting with others 1 2 3 4 5 Using multiple skills 1 2 3 4 5 Complete a task from beginning to end 1 2 3 4 5 Serving others 1 2 3 4 5 Working independently 1 2 3 4 5
  21. 21. 03/17/1503/17/15 Ratio ScaleRatio Scale Has absolute zero; thus allowing for not only differences but also proportions in the differences e.g. Number of years in the organization
  22. 22. 03/17/1503/17/15 Properties of the 4 ScalesProperties of the 4 Scales Characteristics Difference Order Distance Unique Origin Measure of Center Measure of Dispersion Scale Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Mode Median Mean Arithmetic &Geometric mean Semi- interquartile range Standard deviation Standard deviation, Coefficient of variation
  23. 23. 03/17/1503/17/15 Scaling MethodsScaling Methods Rating Scales •Dichotomous Scale •Category Scale •Likert scale •Numerical Scale •Semantic Differential Scale •Itemized rating scale •Graphic rating scale Ranking Scales •Paired Comparison •Forced Choice •Comparative Scale
  24. 24. 03/17/1503/17/15 Examples: Rating ScaleExamples: Rating Scale Likert Do you own a car Yes NoDichotomous Where do you stay Kedah Penang Perlis Category My work is very interestingMy work is very interesting Strongly agreeStrongly agree AgreeAgree Neither agree nor disagreeNeither agree nor disagree DisagreeDisagree Strongly disagreeStrongly disagree
  25. 25. 03/17/1503/17/15 Examples: Rating ScaleExamples: Rating Scale How would you rate your work partners Responsive __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Unresponsive Semantic Differential Numerical Rating Scale How please are you with your insurance agent Extremely Extremely Pleased __ __ __ __ __ __ __ displeased Itemized Rating Scale Very netiher unlikely Very Likely likely nor likely unlikely unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 I will be changing my job within the next 3 months __ I will take on new assignment in the near future __
  26. 26. 03/17/1503/17/15 Examples: Rating ScaleExamples: Rating Scale Graphic Rating Scale On a scale of 1 to 10 how would you rate your supervisor 1 Very bad 5 all right 10 Excellent
  27. 27. 03/17/1503/17/15 Examples: Ranking ScaleExamples: Ranking Scale When comparing a small number of objects, respondents are asked to choose between two objects at a time Paired Comparison Forced Choice Rank your preferences among the following magazines, which you would like to subscribe to, 1 being the most preferred choice and 4 being the least preferred: Asiaweek __ Economist __ Fortune __ Newsweek __
  28. 28. 03/17/1503/17/15 Examples: Ranking ScaleExamples: Ranking Scale Comparative Scale In a volatile financial environment, compared to stocks, how wise or useful is it to invest in bonds? Please circle the appropriate response. More usefulMore useful About the sameAbout the same Less usefulLess useful 11 22 33 44 55
  • HeatherSewell6

    Nov. 27, 2021
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    Mar. 2, 2016

RESEARCH IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

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