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Chapter5 PP HDEV MJC

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Chapter5 PP HDEV MJC

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5CHAPTER 5 Infancy: Cognitive DevelopmentInfancy: Cognitive Development
  2. 2. Cognitive Development: Jean PiagetCognitive Development: Jean Piaget
  3. 3. Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget • Piaget hypothesized that cognitive processes develop in an orderly sequence of stages (4). • Stage 1: Sensorimotor • Stage 2: Preoperational • Stage 3: Concrete operational • Stage 4: Formal operational
  4. 4. Piaget Basics • Schemes -Children’s concepts of the world • Cognitive development -Way of perceiving and mentally representing the world • Assimilation -Absorbing new events into existing schemes • Accommodation -Modifying existing schemes when assimilation does not allow the child to make sense of novel events
  5. 5. Sensorimotor Stage • Refers to 0-2 years of cognitive development • First substage (1st month after birth) -Dominated by assimilation of sources of stimulation into inborn reflexes such as grasping, visual tracking. • Second substage (1 to 4 months) P
  6. 6. My hands are fascinating!
  7. 7. Sensorimotor Stage (cont’d) • Third substage (4 to 8 months) S
  8. 8. Sensorimotor Stage (cont’d) • Sixth substage (18 to 24 months) -Transition between sensorimotor development and the development of symbolic thought -External exploration replaced by mental exploration -Use imitation to symbolize or stand for a plan of action • Object permanence -Recognition that an object or person continues to exist when out of sight -Advances in the development of the object concept by about the sixth month
  9. 9. Fig. 5-1, p. 95
  10. 10. Evaluation of Piaget Confirmation • Remains a comprehensive model of infant cognition • Many of his own observations of his own infants have been confirmed by others. • Pattern and sequence of events he described have been observed among American, European, African, and Asian infants
  11. 11. You have my attention
  12. 12. Piaget Criticisms – Cognitive development not as tied to discrete stages – Emphasis on maturation with exclusion of adult and peer influences on cognitive development – Underestimation of infants’ competence • Infants display object permanence earlier than Piaget believed. • Infants display deferred imitation as early as 9 months and not 18 months as Piaget believed.
  13. 13. Which book will I like best?
  14. 14. Information ProcessingInformation Processing
  15. 15. Information Processing Memory • Memory improves between 2 and 6 months of age. • Older infants more capable of encoding than younger ones • Infant memory can be improved if infants receive a reminder. Deferred Imitation -Imitation of actions after a time delay occurs as early as 6 months -Imitation of neonates likely reflexive
  16. 16. Object Permanence
  17. 17. Fig. 5-2, p. 96
  18. 18. Fig. 5-2, p. 97
  19. 19. Mirror Neurons • Activated when the individual performs a motor act or observes another individual engaging in the same act • Also connected with emotions in humans – The frontal lobe is active when people experience emotions such as disgust, happiness, pain, and also when they observe another person experiencing an emotion • Has been suggested that mirror neurons are connected with the built-in human capacity to acquire language
  20. 20. Individual Differences inIndividual Differences in Intelligence Among InfantsIntelligence Among Infants
  21. 21. Individual Differences in Intelligence Among Infants • Understanding of infants’ intelligence based on scales of infant development • Bayley Scales of Infant Development -Consists of 178 mental-scale items and 111 motor-scale items -Mental scale assesses verbal communication, perceptual skills, learning and memory, and problem-solving skills -Motor scale assesses gross and fine motor skills -Behavior rating scale based on examiner observation of the child during the test also used • Testing used to identify handicaps
  22. 22. Instability of Intelligence Scores Attained in Infancy • Scores obtained during first year of life correlated moderately with scores obtained a year later. • Bayley scales and socioeconomic status were able to predict cognitive development among LBW children from 18 months to 4 years. • Bayley and other scales do not predict school grades or IQ scores very well. • Bayley scales are best at identifying gross lags in development and relative strengths and weaknesses.
  23. 23. Table 5-1, p. 98
  24. 24. Use of Visual Recognition Memory • Visual recognition memory - Ability to discriminate previously seen objects from novel objects; procedure based on habituation • Children with greater visual recognition memory attained higher IQ scores. • Individual differences in capacity for visual recognition memory are stable. • Capacity for visual recognition memory increases over first year after birth. • Studies on visual recognition memory and later IQ scores show good predictive validity for broad cognitive abilities throughout childhood.
  25. 25. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
  26. 26. Early Vocalizations • Children develop language according to an invariant sequence of steps or stages. • Language begins with prelinguistic vocalizations. -
  27. 27. Table 5-2, p. 101
  28. 28. Development of Vocabulary • First word - • General nominals -Similar to nouns -Includes names of classes of objects • Specific nominals -Proper nouns
  29. 29. Overextension • Overextension – Children extend the meaning of one word to refer to things and actions for which they do not have words. – Overextensions gradually pulled back to proper references
  30. 30. Development of Sentences • Telegraphic speech -Brief expressions that have meanings of sentences • Mean length of utterance (MLU) -Average number of morphemes that communicators use in their sentences • Morphemes -Smallest units of meaning in a language -e.g. Walked is two morphemes: walk = verb, -ed = past-tense suffix • MLU increases rapidly once speech begins
  31. 31. Fig. 5-5, p. 103
  32. 32. Development of Sentences (cont’d) • Holophrases -Single words that are used to express complex meanings -e.g., “Mama” means… “There goes Mama” • Telegraphic speech -Two-word sentences -e.g., “That ball”; words is and a are implied -Shows understanding of syntax -Rules in a language for placing words in order to form sentences
  33. 33. Lots of words to learn
  34. 34. Theories of Language Development • Nurture view -Holds that a child learns the language that the family speaks 1 -Children learn language, at least in part, by observation and imitation. 2
  35. 35. Theories of Language Development (cont’d) • Nature -Holds that children have inborn tendency in the form of neurological “pre-wiring” to language learning • Psycholinguistic theory -Language acquisition involves interaction between environmental influences. -Innate tendency labeled language acquisition device (LAD) -Inborn tendency supported by studies of deaf children and in the language development among all languages
  36. 36. Talking to your baby increases language development
  37. 37. Theories of Language Development (cont’d) • Surface and deep structure -On the surface, languages differ in vocabulary and grammar. -However, languages share “universal grammar” allowing for transforming ideas into sentences. • Chomsky maintains children are genetically pre-wired to attend to language and deduce the rules for constructing sentences from ideas.
  38. 38. Vocabulary can be fun
  39. 39. Brain Structures Involved in Language • Biological structures of LAD based in left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex for nearly all right-handed people and for 2 out of 3 left-handed • Damage to Broca’s or Wernicke’s area called aphasia -Disruption in the ability to understand or produce language -Located left hemisphere • Broca’s aphasia -Can understand but not reproduce speech well • Wernicke’s aphasia -Can speak freely with proper syntax -Have trouble understanding speech and finding the words to express themselves
  40. 40. Fig. 5-6, p. 107
  41. 41. The Sensitive Period • Language learning most efficient beginning at 18 to 24 months (sensitive period) • During this period, neural development provides plasticity of the brain. • Damage to the brain easier to heal the younger the child • Social contacts important in the development of language • Malnutrition and abuse can contribute to poor language learning and ability.
  42. 42. Walk to me

Notas do Editor

  • Some children may advance more quickly than others, but the sequence remains constant.
  • Some children may advance more quickly than others, but the sequence remains constant.
  • Figure 5.1: Development of Object Permanence.
    To the infant who is in the early part of the sensorimotor stage, “out of sight” is truly “out of mind.” Once a sheet of paper is placed between the infant and the toy monkey (top two photos), the infant loses all interest in the toy. From evidence of this sort, Piaget concluded that the toy is not mentally represented. The bottom series of photos shows a child in a later part of the sensorimotor stage. This child does mentally represent objects and pushes through a towel to reach an object that has been screened from sight.
  • The interpersonal influences have been shown to play important roles in cognitive development.
  • Some children may advance more quickly than others, but the sequence remains constant.
  • Figure 5.2: Investigating Infant Memory.
    In this technique, developed by Carolyn Rovee-Collier, the infant’s ankle is connected a mobile by a ribbon. Infants quickly learn to kick to make the mobile move. Two- and three-month-olds remember how to perform this feat after a delay of a few days. If they are given a reminder, such as simply viewing the mobile, their memory lasts for 2 to 4 weeks.
  • Figure 5.3: Imitation in Infants.
    These 2- to 3-week-old infants are imitating the facial gestures of an adult experimenter. How are we to interpret these findings? Can we say that the infants “knew” what the experimenter was doing and “chose” to imitate the behavior, or is there another explanation?
  • Some children may advance more quickly than others, but the sequence remains constant.
  • Some children may advance more quickly than others, but the sequence remains constant.
  • MLU = Mean length of Utterance
    -patterns of growth are similar for each child with swift upward movement, broken by intermittent and brief regressions
  • Figure 5.5: Mean Length of Utterance for Three Children.
    The mean length of utterance (MLU) increases rapidly once speech begins.
  • Figure 5.4: Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas of the Cerebral Cortex.