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MARK 13_PART ONE_web version

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  1. 1. Gospel of MARK Chap.13 ©December 2015 Emmanuel Emeh emmanuelemeh@gmail.com Parallel Scriptures: Luke 21 & Matthew 24 PART ONE
  2. 2. Eschatology The branch of theology, or doctrines, dealing with death, resurrection, judgment, immortality, etc.
  3. 3.  The Gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke & John  General Letters Acts, Romans, 1&2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1&2 Thessalonians, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1&2 Peter, 1 2&3 John & Jude  Pastoral Letters 1&2 Timothy, Titus  Apocalyptic writings Revelation Mark 13 | Luke 21 | Matthew 24 – (Mini Apocalypse) New Testament Literary Types
  4. 4. Exegesis is the careful, systematic study of the scripture to discover the original, intended meaning. Eisigesis is reading meaning into a text, different from it’s original meaning Rule: the text can not mean for us today what it never meant for the original readers. 1.Literary 2.Symbolic 3.Face Value (Contextual) Note: A scripture taken out of CONTEX is a PRETEX Exegesis and Eisegesis of Bible Interpretation
  5. 5. Mark 13:1-13 As he was leaving the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Look, Teacher! What massive stones! What magnificent buildings!" 2 "Do you see all these great buildings?" replied Jesus. "Not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down." 3 As Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John and Andrew asked him privately, 4 "Tell us, when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are all about to be fulfilled?" 5 Jesus said to them: "Watch out that no one deceives you. 6 Many will come in my name, claiming, 'I am he,' and will deceive many. 7 When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be alarmed. Such things must happen, but the end is still to come. 8 Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. 9 "You must be on your guard. You will be handed over to the local councils and flogged in the synagogues. On account of me you will stand before governors and kings as witnesses to them. 10 And the gospel must first be preached to all nations. 11 Whenever you are arrested and brought to trial, do not worry beforehand about what to say. Just say whatever is given you at the time, for it is not you speaking, but the Holy Spirit. 12 "Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rebel against their parents and have them put to death. 13 All men will hate you because of me, but he who stands firm to the end will be saved.
  6. 6. Mark 13:14-25 14 "When you see 'the abomination that causes desolation' a standing where it b does not belong — let the reader understand — then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. 15 Let no one on the roof of his house go down or enter the house to take anything out. 16 Let no one in the field go back to get his cloak. 17 How dreadful it will be in those days for pregnant women and nursing mothers! 18 Pray that this will not take place in winter, 19 because those will be days of distress unequaled from the beginning, when God created the world, until now — and never to be equaled again. 20 If the Lord had not cut short those days, no one would survive. But for the sake of the elect, whom he has chosen, he has shortened them. 21 At that time if anyone says to you, 'Look, here is the Christ c!' or, 'Look, there he is!' do not believe it. 22 For false Christs and false prophets will appear and perform signs and miracles to deceive the elect — if that were possible. 23 So be on your guard; I have told you everything ahead of time. 24 "But in those days, following that distress, "'the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; 25 the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.'
  7. 7. Mark 13:26-37 26 "At that time men will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. 27 And he will send his angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens. 28 "Now learn this lesson from the fig tree: As soon as its twigs get tender and its leaves come out, you know that summer is near. 29 Even so, when you see these things happening, you know that it is near, right at the door. 30 I tell you the truth, this generation e will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened. 31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 32 "No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. 33 Be on guard! Be alert f! You do not know when that time will come. 34 It's like a man going away: He leaves his house and puts his servants in charge, each with his assigned task, and tells the one at the door to keep watch. 35 "Therefore keep watch because you do not know when the owner of the house will come back — whether in the evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or at dawn. 36 If he comes suddenly, do not let him find you sleeping. 37 What I say to you, I say to everyone: 'Watch!'"
  8. 8. Issues to Cover Intro: Events before Mark 13 1. The Big Questions - Mk. 13:1-4 | Lk. 21: 5-7 | Matt 24:1-3  What were the disciples were asking for?  Jesus’ Second coming?  End of the Age? 2. The time to wait (signs of the end) Mark 13:5-13 | Matt. 24: 4-14  Eye witness accounts  False saviors  Wars and rumors of war  Famines  Earthquakes  Fearful sights and great signs from heaven  The siege by Vespasian and Titus 3. The time to Run – Mark 13:14-25 | Matt. 24: 15-28  The Abomination that causes Desolation  The call for understanding – Daniel 9:27, 11:31-35, 12:11-12  What about the Rapture?  Jesus’ “coming” - a study in biblical symbolism  What is a generation? - Matt. 24: 32-35  Parables that applied to 70AD  Warning for us today and our hope as Christians (when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are all about to be fulfilled?)
  9. 9. Pre & Post Mark 13 Events
  10. 10. Luke 19:41-45 (Pre Mark 13) As he approached Jerusalem and saw the city, he wept over it 42and said, "If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you peace--but now it is hidden from your eyes. 43The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side. 44They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God's coming to you." 45Then he entered the temple area and began driving out those who were selling.
  11. 11. Luke 23:26-31 (Post Mark 13) 26 As they led him away, they seized Simon from Cyrene, who was on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus. 27 A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. 28 Jesus turned and said to them, "Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me; weep for yourselves and for your children. 29 For the time will come when you will say, 'Blessed are the barren women, the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed!' 30 Then "'they will say to the mountains, "Fall on us!" and to the hills, "Cover us!" ' d 31 For if men do these things when the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry?"
  12. 12. Mark 13:1-2 As he was leaving the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Look, Teacher! What massive stones! What magnificent buildings!" 2 "Do you see all these great buildings?" replied Jesus. "Not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down."
  13. 13.  What were the disciples asking?  Jesus’ Second coming?  End of the Age? 1.The Big Questions Matt 24:1-3 | Mk. 13:1-4 | Lk. 21: 5-7
  14. 14.  The focus was on the Temple and it’s Destruction  How many questions? Q1 - When will the Temple be Destroyed? Q2 - How are we to know the time of it’s Destruction?
  15. 15. Three Witness Gospel Matthew 24 1Jesus left the temple and was walking away when his disciples came up to him to call his attention to its buildings. 2"Do you see all these things?" he asked. "I tell you the truth, not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down." 3As Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately. "Tell us," they said, "when will this happen, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?" Mark 13 1As he was leaving the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Look, Teacher! What massive stones! What magnificent buildings!" 2"Do you see all these great buildings?" replied Jesus. "Not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down." 3As Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John and Andrew asked him privately, 4"Tell us, when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are all about to be fulfilled?" Luke 21 5Some of his disciples were remarking about how the temple was adorned with beautiful stones and with gifts dedicated to God. But Jesus said, 6"As for what you see here, the time will come when not one stone will be left on another; every one of them will be thrown down." 7"Teacher," they asked, "when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are about to take place?"
  16. 16. Mark 13:3-4 3 As Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John and Andrew asked him privately, 4 "Tell us, when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are all about to be fulfilled?"
  17. 17. 2.The time to wait Mark 13:5-13 | Matt. 24:4-14 | Luke 21:12-18 end) Matt. 24: 4- 14  Eye witness accounts  False saviors  Wars and rumors of war  Famines  Christian persecution | Betrayal  Earthquakes  Fearful sights and great signs from heaven  The siege by Vespasian and Titus
  18. 18. Mark 13:5-13 5 Jesus said to them: "Watch out that no one deceives you. 6 Many will come in my name, claiming, 'I am he,' and will deceive many. 7 When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be alarmed. Such things must happen, but the end is still to come. 8 Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. 9 "You must be on your guard. You will be handed over to the local councils and flogged in the synagogues. On account of me you will stand before governors and kings as witnesses to them. 10 And the gospel must first be preached to all nations. 11 Whenever you are arrested and brought to trial, do not worry beforehand about what to say. Just say whatever is given you at the time, for it is not you speaking, but the Holy Spirit. 12 "Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rebel against their parents and have them put to death. 13 All men will hate you because of me, but he who stands firm to the end will be saved.
  19. 19. Flavius Josephus Eye witness accounts & Historical Sources Eusebius of Caesarea The Father of Church History Suetonius (75-150) Cornelius Tacitus
  20. 20. 1."The land was over run with magicians, seducers, and imposters, who drew the people after them in multitudes into solitudes and deserts, to see signs and miracles which they promised to show by the power of God” 2.The tyrannical zealots who ruled the city (Jerusalem) suborned many false prophets to declare that aid would be given to the people from heaven. This was done to prevent them from attempting to desert (flee the city), and to inspire confidence in God.“ - Wars VI:5:2:3 Flavius Josephus
  21. 21. 1. 325AD Eusebius (Regarding Simon, See Acts 8) "After the Lord was taken up into heaven the demons put forth a number of men who claimed to be gods. These not only escape being persecuted by you, but were actually the objects of worship - for example Simon, a Samaritan from the village called Gittho, who in Claudius Caesar's time, thanks to the art of the demons who possessed him, worked wonders of magic, and in your imperial city of Rome was regarded as a god, and like a god was honoured by you with a statue in the River Tiber between the two bridges. It bears this inscription in Latin, SIMONI DEO SANCTO. Almost all Samaritans, and a few from other nations too, acknowledge him as their principle god, and worship him." (p. 86) 2. 325AD Eusebius (Regarding Theudas see Acts 5:36) "When Fadus was procurator of Judea, an imposter called Theudas persuaded a vast crowd to take their belongings and follow him to the River Jordan; for he claimed to be a prophet, and promised to divide the river by his command and provide them with an easy crossing. A great many people were deceived by this talk. Fadus however did not allow them to enjoy their folly, but sent a troop of calvary against them. These attacked them without warning, killed many, and took many alive, capturing Theudas himself, whose head they cut off and conveyed to Jerusalem." (pp.84-85) Eusebius of Caesarea
  22. 22. 3.325AD Eusebius (Regarding the Egyptian of Acts 21:38) "A greater blow than this was inflicted on the Jews by the Egyptian false prophet. Arriving in the country this man, a fraud who posed as a seer, collected about 30,000 dupes, led them round by the wild country to the Mount of Olives, and from there was ready to force an entry into Jerusalem, overwhelm the Roman garrison, and seize supreme power, with his fellow-raiders as bodyguards. But Felix anticipated his attempt by meeting him with the Roman heavy infantry, the whole population rallying to the defense, so that when the clash occurred the Egyptian fled with a handful of men and most of his followers were killed or captured." (pp. 96-97) …
  23. 23. "These works, that were done by the robbers, filled the city with all sorts of impiety. And now these impostors and deceivers persuaded the multitude to follow them into the wilderness, and pretended that they would exhibit manifest wonders and signs, that should be performed by the providence of God. And many that were prevailed on by them suffered the punishments of their folly; for Felix brought them back, and then punished them. Moreover, there came out of Egypt about this time to Jerusalem one that said he was a prophet, and advised the multitude of the common people to go along with him to the Mount of Olives, as it was called, which lay over against the city, and at the distance of five furlongs. He said further, that he would show them from hence how, at his command, the walls of Jerusalem would fall down; and he promised them that he would procure them an entrance into the city through those walls, when they were fallen down. Now when Felix was informed of these things, he ordered his soldiers to take their weapons, and came against them with a great number of horsemen and footmen from Jerusalem, and attacked the Egyptian and the people that were with him. He also slew four hundred of them, and took two hundred alive. But the Egyptian himself escaped out of the fight, but did not appear any more. And again the robbers stirred up the people to make war with the Romans, and said they ought not to obey them at all; and when any persons would not comply with them, they set fire to their villages, and plundered them. (Book XX, Chapter VIII, Section 6)
  24. 24. Wars and Rumors of Wars 1. Jews destroyed at Seleucia by Greeks 2. Jews and Philadelphians – 10000 trodden to death by roman soldiers 3. Jews and Samaritans over a murdered Jew 4. Jews and Syrians 5. Damascus 6. Tyre 7. Ascalon 8. Gadara 9. Scythropolis – 13000 in one night 10. Alexandria – 15000 11. The siege of Jopata – 40000 perished 12.etc
  25. 25. On Famines: Agabus: Whole Roman world (41-54 AD) Historians record: 30,000 died in Rome alone during one famine Reign of Claudius: Twice
  26. 26. False Saviours 1. Dositheus the Samarian claimed to be the Messiah 2. Simon Magus – the great power of God 3. Another Samaritan imposter 3 years after Simon 4. Theudas – Jordan Miracles 5. During reign of Festus, deceivers rose daily in Judea. 6. Felix the Egyptian had 30000 followers 7. During the reign of Festus, imposters promised deliverance from Rome.
  27. 27. 1.The first wave of persecution occurred in Palestine at the hands of the Jews. 2.The second came at the instigation of Jewish leaders in the diaspora and unhappy pagans. 3.third wave began in 64 AD under Nero, who blamed Christians for the burning of Rome. Three Waves Of Persecution Upon Christians:
  28. 28. Earthquakes 1. Rome - 51AD 2. Crete 46AD 3. Apamea in Syria – 53AD no tribute for four years 4. Smyrna 5. Miletus 6. Chios 7. Samos 8. Laodicea (overthrown) - 60AD 9. Hierapolis (overthrown) 10. Colosse (overthrown) 11. Philippi - Acts 16:26 12. Campania in Suetonius - 62AD 13. Bible mentions 2 earthquakes in Jerusalem : Mt 27:51; 28:2 14. Jerusalem before the siege – most intense
  29. 29. THE EARTHQUAKE BELTS OF THE EARTH
  30. 30. Earthquakes & Historical Facts
  31. 31. Fearful Sights And Great Signs From Heaven 1. Meteor resembling a sword over Jerusalem – 1 year 2. Brilliant light at midnight in temple – 1 hour 3. Heifer bearing a lamb on way to sacrifice 4. Eastern gate opens at 6th hour of night - Brass gate needs 23 men to close - Was bolted 5. Chariots and armed men seen in air around Jerusalem 6. Shaking, murmuring, voices of multitude heard in empty temple , saying, “Let us depart hence” 7. Jesus son of Ananus (seven years began preaching) “a voice from the east…”
  32. 32. Signs and Events 1. False saviours will arise 2. Wars and rumors of wars 3. Rebellion 4. Famine 5. Earthquakes in various places 6. Massive Christian persecution and executions 7. Large scale falling away and defection of Christians due to the intensity of the persecution 8. Betrayals 9. Loss of love, hatred, increase in wickedness. 10. Only faithful disciples will survive 11. Gospel will be taken round the world (Col. 1:23) This was Jesus’ “expo” to his disciples. He was preparing them for the coming disaster.
  33. 33. 2.The time to wait Mark 13:5-13 | Matt. 24:4-14 | Luke 21:12-18 end) Matt. 24: 4- 14  Eye witness accounts  False saviors  Wars and rumors of war  Famines  Christian persecution | Betrayal  Earthquakes  Fearful sights and great signs from heaven  The siege by Vespasian and Titus
  34. 34. Do we need to look for a modern day fulfillment when 70AD already fits?
  35. 35. 2 Peter 3 15Bear in mind that our Lord's patience means salvation, just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him. 16He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction. 17Therefore, dear friends, since you already know this, be on your guard so that you may not be carried away by the error of lawless men and fall from your secure position. 18But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever! Amen.
  36. 36. Matthew 22:29 Jesus replied, "You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God.
  37. 37. Jesus’ coming?  The use of the word, “coming” must not be confused with Jesus’ “Second Coming”  “Coming” is used as a pronouncement of God’s judgment or punishment on a people or nation.  Below are examples of such use of this type of symbolism
  38. 38. Micah 1:3 (Judgment against Samaria and Jerusalem) Look! The LORD is coming from his dwelling place; he comes down and treads the high places of the earth. 4The mountains melt beneath him and the valleys split apart, like wax before the fire, like water rushing down a slope. 5All this is because of Jacob's transgression, because of the sins of the house of Israel. What is Jacob's transgression? Is it not Samaria? What is Judah's high place? Is it not Jerusalem? 6"Therefore I will make Samaria a heap of rubble, a place for planting vineyards. I will pour her stones into the valley and lay bare her foundations. 7All her idols will be broken to pieces; all her temple gifts will be burned with fire; I will destroy all her images. Since she gathered her gifts from the wages of prostitutes, as the wages of prostitutes they will again be used.“
  39. 39. Isaiah 19 (Judgment against Egypt) 1An oracle concerning Egypt: See, the LORD rides on a swift cloud and is coming to Egypt. The idols of Egypt tremble before him, and the hearts of the Egyptians melt within them. 2"I will stir up Egyptian against Egyptian-- brother will fight against brother, neighbor against neighbor, city against city, kingdom against kingdom.
  40. 40. Luke 19 (Destruction of Jerusalem 1st Century AD) 41As he approached Jerusalem and saw the city, he wept over it 42and said, "If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you peace--but now it is hidden from your eyes. 43The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side. 44They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God's coming to you."
  41. 41. What about the “End of the Age?” Matt 24:3 Tell us," they said, "when will this happen, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?"
  42. 42. 1 Cor. 2 6We do, however, speak a message of wisdom among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are coming to nothing. 7No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began. 8None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.  This is not the “End of the World”  “Age” in this context means the Present Political, Religious Worldly System  We need to decide from here if Jesus was talking about his present time or some distant future
  43. 43. The siege by Vespasian and Titus
  44. 44. The Jewish Division and Warring Parties  Simon son of Gioras  John of Gischala  Eleazer
  45. 45.  Israel already weakened before the siege  Vespasian  Titus (two years)  The siege (timing) Luke 19:41-44 41As he approached Jerusalem and saw the city, he wept over it 42and said, "If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you peace--but now it is hidden from your eyes. 43The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side. 44They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God's coming to you."  Jewish pride and stubbornness (Micah 3:11) 11Her leaders judge for a bribe, her priests teach for a price, and her prophets tell fortunes for money. Yet they lean upon the LORD and say, "Is not the LORD among us? No disaster will come upon us." The siege by Vespasian and Titus
  46. 46. The siege  Titus’ intervention  Josephus’ intervention  Famine  Cannibalism  Final and total destruction
  47. 47. 1. Romans breach Third Wall May 25 and capture New City. 2. Romans enter Second Quarter. Jews withdraw behind first wall. May 30-June 2. 3. Titus' divided attack on First Wall and the Antonia fail. 4. Romans build siege wall around city. 5. Romans renew assault on the Antonia. Fortress falls to Titus July 22. 6. Romans burn gates and enter Temple courtyards. On August 10 Temple destroyed by fire. 7. Romans burn the Lower City. September 2? Romans assault Herod's Palace and enter the Upper City. Resistance ends on September 26. Key To Events of Siege
  48. 48. Issues to Cover (Recap of out Outline) Intro: Events before Mark 13 1. The Big Questions - Mk. 13:1-4 | Lk. 21: 5-7 | Matt 24:1-3  What were the disciples were asking for?  Jesus’ Second coming?  End of the Age? 2. The time to wait (signs of the end) Mark 13:5-13 | Matt. 24: 4-14  Eye witness accounts  False saviors  Wars and rumors of war  Famines  Earthquakes  Fearful sights and great signs from heaven  The siege by Vespasian and Titus 3. The time to Run – Mark 13:14-25 | Matt. 24: 15-28  The Abomination that causes Desolation  The call for understanding – Daniel 9:27, 11:31-35, 12:11-12  What about the Rapture?  Jesus’ “coming” - a study in biblical symbolism  What is a generation? - Matt. 24: 32-35  Parables that applied to 70AD  Warning for us today and our hope as Christians (when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are all about to be fulfilled?)
  49. 49. Gospel of MARK Chap.13 Parallel Scriptures: Luke 21 & Matthew 24 END OF PART ONE ©December 2015 Emmanuel Emeh emmanuelemeh@gmail.com

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