MEANS OF COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION - The act of communicating; transmission.
1. The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or
2. Interpersonal rapport
3. The act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated.
4. The imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or
5. Something imparted interchanged, or transmitted, esp. a document or message giving
news, information, etc.
6. Passage, or an opportunity or means of passage, between places.
7. Means of sending messages, orders, etc., including telephone, telegraph, radio, and
8. Routes and transportation for moving troops and supplies from a base to an area of
9. The professions of journalism, broadcasting, etc.
10. The techniques used to communicate information.
11. The study of these skills, as writing or broadcasting.
12. Activity by one organism that changes or has the potential to change the behavior of
13. Transfer of information from one cell or molecule to another, as by chemical or electrical
MEANS TO PARTICIPATE IN COMMUNICATION
Listen actively. When you are receiving a message, look at the speaker and strive for eye
contact. Try to rephrase the message in your head as you receive it. Nod your head or
provide other nonverbal cues to make it clear that you are receiving and understanding
the message. By listening in this interactive manner, you make the speaker feel respected
and improve your chances of truly understanding the message being sent.
Stay on topic. Even if you have a question about another workplace issue, to be respectful
to your communication partners you should not veer off topic. You will be optimally
effective if you first conclude your discussion of the current topic before broaching
another one. If you do attempt to hijack the conversation, you likely will offend your
Study the subtext. To be an ultimately effective communicator, you must understand
what underlies the message you receive. Management consultant Peter Drucker once
said, “The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn't said.” Instead of
taking a message at face value, use what you know about the message sender and her
feelings about the topic to make educated guesses as to what she may mean.
Answer “yes” whenever you can. If your first response to any question is always, “no,”
members of your workplace will be unlikely to involve you in communication as they
already know the result. Instead of answering no, always try to meet in the middle,
agreeing to at least some part of the request.
Format your message carefully. How you say something is as important as what you are
saying. Even the best message can fall on deaf ears if you don’t format your message in a
manner that is both understandable and unlikely to offend. Particularly when
communicating through a written medium, review your message several times before
clicking send or printing out the penned memo. Ask yourself first if the message is
understandable to all who will receive it. If it isn’t, it won’t be optimally effective. Finish
by considering whether there is anything that could be offensive -- such as the inadvertent
placing of blame -- as offensive messages will do more harm than good.
A. NON-VERBAL SIGNS
There are many different types of nonverbal communication. Together, the following
nonverbal signals and cues communicate your interest and investment in others.
The human face is extremely expressive, able to express countless emotions
without saying a word. And unlike some forms of nonverbal communication,
facial expressions are universal. The facial expressions for happiness, sadness,
anger, surprise, fear, and disgust are the same across cultures.
Body movements and posture
Consider how your perceptions of people are affected by the way they sit, walk,
stand up, or hold their head. The way you move and carry you communicates a
wealth of information to the world. This type of nonverbal communication
includes your posture, bearing, stance, and subtle movements.
Gestures are woven into the fabric of our daily lives. We wave, point, beckon, and
use our hands when we’re arguing or speaking animatedly—expressing ourselves
with gestures often without thinking. However, the meaning of gestures can be
very different across cultures and regions, so it’s important to be careful to avoid
Since the visual sense is dominant for most people, eye contact is an especially
important type of nonverbal communication. The way you look at someone can
communicate many things, including interest, affection, hostility, or attraction.
Eye contact is also important in maintaining the flow of conversation and for
gauging the other person’s response.
We communicate a great deal through touch. Think about the messages given by
the following: a weak handshake, a timid tap on the shoulder, a warm bear hug, a
reassuring slap on the back, a patronizing pat on the head, or a controlling grip on
Have you ever felt uncomfortable during a conversation because the other person
was standing too close and invading your space? We all have a need for physical
space, although that need differs depending on the culture, the situation, and the
closeness of the relationship. You can use physical space to communicate many
different nonverbal messages, including signals of intimacy and affection,
aggression or dominance.
It’s not just what you say; it’s how you say it. When we speak, other people
“read” our voices in addition to listening to our words. Things they pay attention
to include your timing and pace, how loud you speak, your tone and inflection,
and sound that convey understanding, such as “ahh” and “uh-huh.” Think about
how someone's tone of voice, for example, can indicate sarcasm, anger, affection,
Evaluating nonverbal signals
Eye contact Is eye contact being made? If so, is it overly intense or just right?
Facial expression What is their face showing? Is it masklike and unexpressive, or emotionally
present and filled with interest?
Tone of voice Does their voice project warmth, confidence, and interest, or is it strained
Posture and gesture Are their bodies relaxed or stiff and immobile? Are shoulders tense and
raised, or slightly sloped?
Touch Is there any physical contact? Is it appropriate to the situation? Does it make
you feel uncomfortable?
Intensity Do they seem flat, cool, and disinterested, or over-the-top and
Timing and pace Is there an easy flow of information back and forth? Do nonverbal responses
come too quickly or too slowly?
Sounds Do you hear sounds that indicate caring or concern?
B. VERBAL SIGNS
Verbal symbols are words, sentences, sounds, or other utterances that are said aloud in
order to convey some meaning.
Advantages Of Verbal Communication
In a world flooded with E-mail and other text-based communication, verbal
communication has several advantages over other forms of communication. For
example, we can slow down and present points one-by-one and make sure that
each point is clearly communicated and understood before moving on to the next
point. This can greatly increase both the speed and accuracy of communication.
Verbal communication is far more precise than non-verbal cues. No matter how
clear we believe we are being, different gestures have different interpretations
between different cultures and even between two members of the same culture.
One famous example is Richard Nixon’s use of the victory finger salute in
Australia, as he was unaware that the gesture was a vulgarity there. However,
verbal communication is most effective when combined with other forms of
communication like body language and gestures to help cue the intensity of the
Verbal communication is also the most effective way of explaining intangible
concepts, as problem areas can be readily addressed and explained. Verbal
communication also does not use natural resources in the way that technological
methods or printing can.
Disadvantages of Verbal Communication
Of course, this does not mean that verbal communication is the best option in
every circumstance. From a legal point of view, verbal communication is
sometimes problematic because there is a much smaller chance of an objective
record. Verbal communication can also be quickly forgotten, especially if there
are multiple points to consider. Additionally, there is always the possibility of
miscommunications leading to angry responses or quick escalation of a situation
that could be less intense in written form.
Four Purposes Of Communication
There are four basic purposes for communication. Almost all of these purposes
are better served through verbal communication than other options like E-Mail or
First, communication can be used to convey information. Of all the purposes of
communication, this is the one that can be adequately accomplished through text-
based media as well as verbally. Many businesses use E-mail or interoffice
memos in this way. It is used simply to pass information such as meeting times or
new policies from administration to employees.
Second, communication can be used to ask for help. Asking verbally for help has
been shown to trigger natural empathy in the listener more than text-based
communication. Often seeing the person asking for help increases the likelihood
that a request will be granted. Like other verbal communication, verbal requests
also mean that a request can be stated clearly and any miscommunication can be
The third purpose of communication is to influence a listener or audience. This is
the type of communication used by politicians. While this includes non-verbal
cues like appearance and dress, the most important aspect is what words and
syntax they choose to use. This is the most important component of influencing an
The fourth and final form is entertainment. Once again there is a clear advantage
to verbal communication over text-based communications. For example, most of
the top comedians in the country make their living in live shows where they can
readily interact with an audience rather than in text-based communication like
books or websites.
CATEGORIES OF COMMUNICATION
1. Upward communication — when a subordinate communicates directly to his superior
2. Downward communication—when a superior or supervisor communicates directly to
3. On-the-same-level — when a supervisor or an executive communicates directly with
other people or executives on the same level as his in the organization.
4. Diagonal — When a supervisor and a subordinate not under him communicate to each
other, as a production man communicating with the marketing manager
ACCORDING TO GOALS AND PURPOSES
1. Purpose and goal are almost similar and one could hardly come across any difference
between the two at one glance. Purpose and goal are interlinked, which makes it hard to
make out a difference between the two.
2. One of the main differences that can be seen between the two is in the time factor. People
try to reach their goals by setting deadlines. On the other hand, deadlines are not
applicable in a purpose.
Goal can be called as the point one wishes to achieve. On the other hand, purpose can be
called as the reason one aims at to achieve a goal. Unlike purposes, goals always go
forward in a specific direction.
Purpose which is all about direction, is that something that influences goals. Unlike goal,
purpose is broader and deeper.
Purpose is directly influenced by the values and beliefs one holds. Purpose is deeply
rooted in a person. Unlike goals, purpose can b said to be central to human life.
Goals can be measured whereas purpose cannot be measured. In goals, the end result can
be seen whereas in purpose, it is not that visible. Goals can also be called as
the objectives or aims that a person seeks. Goal is that which one wants to accomplish. It
involves the establishing of specific, realistic and attainable objectives.
Goals have a specific target. On the other hand, Purpose does not have a specific aim.
Goals can be short term, long term or personal. However, a purpose cannot be short or
long term but only pertains to something personal.
Purpose can be termed as a fundamental need of a human being, which gives a meaning
to his actions. There is always a purpose behind all goals.
1. People try to reach their goals by setting deadlines. On the other hand, deadlines
are not applicable in purposes.
2. Goal can be called as the point one wishes to achieve. On the other hand, purpose
can be called as the reason one aims at to achieve a goal.
3. Unlike a goal, a purpose is broader and deeper.
4. Goals can be measured whereas purposes cannot be measured.
5. Goals have a specific target. On the other hand, purposes do not have a specific
6. Purpose can be termed as a fundamental need of a human being which gives a
meaning to their actions. There is always a purpose behind all goals.
7. In goals, the end result can be seen whereas in purpose, it is not that visible.