1. Open Source
Open source is a term for software which source code is provided by the
developer to the public in order to learn how it works , modified or further
developed , and disseminated . If the program makers forbid anyone to modify and
redistribute the program or made, then the program is not open source , although
the source code is available .
Open source is one of the terms free software . Free software is
definitely open source software , but open source software is not necessarily
free software . Examples of free software is Linux . Examples of open source
software is FreeBSD . Linux is licensed free software can not be converted into
free software is not licensed , while FreeBSD is a licensed open source software
can be changed to not open source . FreeBSD ( open source ) is one of the basis
for the Mac OSX ( not open source ) . http://www.opensource.org/ licenses
includes the types of open source licenses .
Beginning in 1994-1995 , the servers at the ITB started using FreeBSD as
the operating system . FreeBSD is an open source operating system and resilient
to network and server security . But then the network administrator at Computer
Network Research Group ( CNRG ) ITB prefer laptop Mac with Mac OS X operating
system BSD -based operating systems other than.
The term open source ( open source code ) itself recently popularized in
1998. However , the history of open source software itself can be pulled far
back since the hacker culture developed in the computer labs at American
universities such as Stanford , Berkeley , Carnegie Mellon , and MIT in the
1960s and 1970s .
Originally grew out of a community of programmers who are small but very
tightly where they used to exchange the program code , and each person can
modify a program created in accordance with the interests of others .
Modification results also they disclose to the community .
2. The above developments such as pioneered by Richard Stallman and his
colleagues are developing many applications in DEC PDP - 10 computer . Early
1980s hacker community at MIT and other universities were dissolved because
stopping DEC PDP - 10 . As a result, many applications developed in the PDP - 10
to be much expired . PDP - 10 replacement , such as VAX and 68020 , has its own
operating system , and none of them are free software . Users must sign a
nondisclosure agreement to be able to get applications that can run on these
operating systems .
That's why in January 1984, Richard Stallman came out of MIT , so that MIT could
not claim the devices he developed software . And in 1985 he founded the Free
Software Foundation a non-profit organization . The main goal of this
organization is to develop the operating system . With Stallman FSF has
developed various software : gcc ( Compilers C ) , gdb ( debugger , Emacs ( text
editor ) and other paraphernalia , which is known as GNU software . FSFnya But
Stallman and until now have not succeeded in developing a system kernel
operating its main target . failure There are several causes , one of which is
the underlying operating system is developed by a small group of developers ,
and does not involve the broader community in its development .
In 1991 , a student S2 in Finland began developing an operating system
called Linux . Linus Torvalds throw in its development of the Linux source code
is open for the community to be developed together . Linux community continues
to grow which then eventually gave birth to Linux distributions are different
but have the same foundation , namely the Linux kernel and the GNU glibc
libraries such as RedHat , SuSE , Mandrake , Slackware , and Debian and other .
Some of the above distributions have survived and large , even to produce a
derivative distro , for example, is Distro Debian GNU / Linux . This distro has
produced dozens of distros children , among others Ubuntu , Knoppix , Xandros ,
and others .
Another major contribution of FSF software is in addition to the GPL ( GNU
Public License ) , in which this license gives users the freedom to use and see
the source code , modify and redistribute the software and also the freedom to
make the results of these modifications remain freely distributed . Linus
Torvalds also use this license on the basis of the development of Linux .
Along with the stable release of the Linux distribution , is also increasing
interest in the software is free for sharing such as Linux and the GNU , it also
3. increases the need to define the type of the software .
But the terminology " free " is by the FSF raises many perceptions of each
person . Most interpret freedom as defined in the GPL , and some interpret to
mean free in the economy . The executives in the business world is also
concerned because the existence of free software is considered strange .
This prompted the emergence of the term " open source " in 1998, which also
encourages the formation of the OSI ( Open Source Initiative ), a nonprofit
organization that encourages socialization and integration of " Open Source " ,
which was initiated by Eric Raymond and his team .
#Reasons to Use Open Source Software (+ Advantages and drawbacks)
Open Source is a new system of distributing software to users by providing
programs and source code for free. Even the user can learn and make
modifications to make the software according to their needs.
Security issues faced by the open source system, covers general security
philosophy and how to make the system safer from intruders. Some computer users
who are members of the user community of Open Source Software (OSS) and the free
software argue that their program code is more secure because of weakness of
their code more easily found and fixed by the user of the program. Meanwhile,
community property rights argue that opening up access to the OSS program code
will make it easier for certain groups to attack the program.
The main features of the characteristics of open source is freedom of the user
1. Using the software as he wishes.
2. Have software available as needed.
3. Distribute software to other users.
4. Unlimited freedom for each person to access the source code is a double-edged
sword for the software itself. This is due to the freedom to provide information
about software flaws. Then, what happens is the exploitation of weaknesses. The
hackers will use this weakness to do things that could harm the user software.
The result will be worse if the software is vital software for users because it
will allow the occurrence of fraud, identity theft, information theft, and so on.
Some of the advantages of open source software , namely :
1. The existence of the right to distribute modifications and improvements to
the code .
2. Availability of source code and the right to modify .
3. Not held hostage vendors , open source using open data formats , thus
data is transparent and can be freely processed at different
computers , while still
maintaining safety. Thus ,
consumers are no longer bound to the will of the vendor to be able
the data .
The number of personnel ( HR ) to work on projects , open source
projects usually attract a
lot of developers , such as the
5. development of the Apache web server draws thousands of
people to participate
in the development and monitoring .
Errors ( bugs , error ) be found and corrected quickly , this is
because the number of developers it very much and are not restricted. Visual
inspection ( eye - balling ) methodology is one of the most effective search
bugs . In addition, the source code is
available to make every person can
suggest improvements without having to wait from the vendor .
Product quality is guaranteed , this is because the evaluation can be
done by many people
that the product quality could be better . However ,
this only applies to the bustling open
source products developed people . Not
forever open source developed by many people , because it can also be done by
the individual .
7. Cost-effective , most developers are not paid . Thus , the cost can be
saved and used for
expenses that can not be delayed , eg buy server for web
8. Development does not repeat , repetition ( re - inventing the wheel )
is a waste . Any open source code that opens the way for a programmer to see
the solutions that have been done by
others . However , the fact remains a
lot of repetition .
9. Users can modify and lock so that only a limited number of people who
can read the code
and modify it .
10. Privacy software which prevents unlawful .
6. Some disadvantages are :
1. Lack of human resources that can leverage open source , given the
availability of the source code can be in vain, if human resources can not
use it . Human resources was only able to use the product only, If so ,
then there is no difference between the product and the propriertary open
source and closed .
2. The absence of protection of IPR , most people still think that open
source is an asset that should be kept confidential . This is associated
with the amount of effort that has been expended to make the product .
Because of its nature can be abuse by people to steal ideas and work of
7. 3. Difficulty in knowing the status of the project .
4. There is no guarantee of development .
5. Modification by the limitations - certain people who create or modify
6. For some platforms , for example JAVA which has a principle one could
write and run anywhere, but there are some things that are not of JAVA
competible with other platforms . For example J2SE SWT - AWT her bridge
can not be run on Mac OS platforms .
7. Open Source is used for sharing , can pose a risk of lack of
differentiation between the other software , if it happens to use some of
the same open Source .