O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

My presentation on passive voice

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Próximos SlideShares
Mazzolla.grammar lesson.passive
Mazzolla.grammar lesson.passive
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 49 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Quem viu também gostou (20)

Anúncio

Semelhante a My presentation on passive voice (20)

Anúncio

My presentation on passive voice

  1. 1. CHAPTER 17
  2. 2. Outline Forming passive sentences; Using passive sentences Constraints on forming passive sentences Passive look-Alikes Get passives; Get passive look-Alikes Other type of passive sentences Problems that ESL/EFL students have with passive sentences Exercise Activity
  3. 3. FORMING PASSIVE SENTENCES The performance shocked the audience. The audience was shocked by the performance. Passive sentences are formed from active sentences by: 1) Moving the subject to the end of the sentence and placing by before it. 2)Moving the object into subject position. 3)Changing the main verb to a past participle and inserting an appropriate form of be before it.
  4. 4. Sentences with verbs in any tense can be made passive. •If the verb in the active sentence is in the simple present or simple past, so is the form of be that precedes the past participle of the main verb . a. The dean fired our professor. b. Our professor was fired by the dean
  5. 5. •If the verb in the active sentence is in the progressive aspect, then being is inserted between the progressive form of be and the past participle of the main verb . The dean is firing our professor. Our professor is being fired by the dean. The dean was firing our professor. Our professor was being fired by the dean
  6. 6. •If the verb in the active sentence is in the perfect aspect, then been is inserted between the form of have and the past participle of the main verb The dean has fired our professor. Our professor has been fired by the dean, The dean had fired our professor. Our professor had been fired by the dean,
  7. 7. Perfect progressives, although rare in passive sentences, include being before the past participle (e.g., active has/had been firing becomes passive has/had been being fired).
  8. 8. •If the active sentence contains a modal followed by a bare infinitive verb, then in the passive sentence the modal is followed by the bare infinitive form of be, The dean should fire our professor. Our professor should be fired by the dean, The dean will fire our professor. Our professor will be fired by the dean.
  9. 9. Passive Subjects Subjects of passive sentences in the corresponding active sentences may be: direct objects: The professor was dismissed by the dean.
  10. 10. indirect objects Mohamed was given many presents by his friends. objects of prepositions This bed has been slept in by presidents. object complements That rachid could not possibly win was recognized by everyone.
  11. 11. Two Types of Passive Sentences Passives Without Agent By Phrases Reasons why a native speaker may decide to use short passives in speech and writing include the following: the agent is unknown. His wallet was stolen in Inzegan. the speaker does not want to reveal the agent. I was given some top-secret information.
  12. 12. the agent is understood. The mail was delivered to my doorstep. the writer is interested more in the action being reported than in the agent. The subjects were each given a pencil and a sheet of paper.
  13. 13. Passives with Agent By Phrases Long passives have an agent by phrase. This book was written by Ron Cowan. This package was dropped off by a strange-looking woman.
  14. 14. The agent phrase is included when the agent is important new information, such as when the agent is a famous person or has caused harm or annoyance to the subject. That search engine was developed by a young college student. This old soccer ball is signed by the great Brazilian player Pele. I was kept up all night by my screaming neighbors.
  15. 15. USING PASSIVE SENTENCES Passive sentences may be used to comply with: The Given-New Contract the given-new contract, according to which old information comes before new information. For dessert I had a piece of a wonderfully delicious cake. It was made by the new pastry chef .
  16. 16. The Principle of End Weight: the end weight principle, according to which long, complex NPs are moved to the end of the sentence. I was approached by a man wearing dark glasses, a wide-brimmed hat, and a black scarf
  17. 17. CONSTRAINTS ON FORMING PASSIVE SENTENCES ( you read Mr Akhrraz) Passive sentences cannot be formed if the active sentence verb is not followed by an NP, PP, or complement clause. In addition, passive sentences are not usually possible with:
  18. 18. Stative Verbs stative verbs that are not seen as affecting the object (e.g., contain, cost, equal, resemble. weigh). John resembles his father. *His father is resembled by John PASSIVE
  19. 19. Multiword Verbs separable transitive phrasal verbs ( it’s your turn Miss Nadia) Active sentences that contain separable transitive phrasal verbs can usually be converted into passive sentences. At the meeting, someone brought up the matter of the missing $20. At the meeting, the matter of the missing $20 was brought up.
  20. 20. inseparable transitive phrasal verbs ( Could you read me please Mr. AKKLOUCH) Most members of the small class of inseparable transitive phrasal verbs can appear only in active sentences.Possible exceptions are look after ("care for"), look into ("investigate"), and pick on ("mistreat"). In the course of the investigation, he came across an incriminating letter. *In the course of the investigation, an incriminating letter was come across (by him).
  21. 21. permanently separated transitive phrasal verbs (It’s your slide Miss Soumia) Some permanently separated transitive phrasal verbs - for example, ask (some-one) out, let (someone) off - can appear in passive sentences. However, others - for example, get (someone) down, see (something) through - do not passivize well. The criticism and complaints are getting him down. *He is being gotten down by the criticism and complaints.
  22. 22. prepositional verbs (here it is Mr. Mezgar) Most prepositional verbs can appear in passive sentences; however, a few cannot or do not sound very good. These verbs include abide by, adjust to, agree with, bank on, and run for. Last fall, John ran for the office of mayor. *Last fall, the office of mayor was run for by John. even family members couldn’t adjust to his weird habits. ? His weird habits couldn’t be adjusted to even by family members
  23. 23. phrasal prepositional verbs 3 2 1 (Go on Miss Naima) A few phrasal prepositional verbs such as look forward to can appear in passive sentences, but others, such as break up with, cut down on, end up with, get along with, get down to, and put up with…. etc, cannot. Everyone got along with him. *He was gotten along with by everyone.
  24. 24. For Dative Verbs ( it’s yours Mr. Driwch) active sentences in the dative movement pattern can be passivized, with the indirect object becoming the passive subject. Active sentences in the prepositional pattern can, of course, also be passivized, with the dircct object becoming the passive subject. The old woman gave (a piece of candy] to [the little girl] prepositional pattern The old woman gave (the little girl] [a piece of candy] dative movement pattern
  25. 25. A piece of candy was given to the little girl by the old woman The little girl was given a piece of candy by the old woman. ( please go ahead and read Miss Meriem) However, when the verb is a for dative verb (e.g., bake, catch, find), speakers of American English judge as grammatical only passives converted from active sentences in the prepositional pattern.
  26. 26. Thus, in American English an attempt to convert the dative movement pattern sentence to a passive results in an ungrammatical sentence . They found her a nice apartment. *She was found a nice apartment by them. This constraint on sentences with for dative verbs causes difficulties for English learners. Students are often unable to recognize sentences like this as ungrammatical.
  27. 27. PASSIVE LOOK-ALIKES ( Just relax it’s me this time) The sequence be + past participle does not always signal the passive voice. Some past participles are adjectives. Guelmim is located in the south of Morocco The shop is closed at five o’clock.
  28. 28. exercisecan be passivized. If Indicate whether each sentence it can, write the passive version. If it cannot, expailn why. Example: He found her a nice apartment. Answer: no (Active sentences in the dative movement pattern with a for dative verb cannot be passivized.) 1. Susan baked Fred a big chocolate. 2. The compay offered a huge salary bonus to the workeres. 3. The producer sent her a telegram 4. That new suit cost a lot of money 5. She made me a sandwish 6. He came down with a bad cold
  29. 29. Answer Key 1. No(it has the for dative verb bake in the dative movement pattern.) 2. Yes(A huge salary bonus was offered to the workers by the company.) 3. Yes(She was sent a telegram by the producer.) 4. No(It contains stative verb cost.) 5. No(It has the for dative verb make in the dative movement pattern.) 6. No(It contains a phrasal prepositional verb, come down with.)
  30. 30. GET PASSIVES; GET PASSIVE LOOK-ALIKES Get Passives ( YOU Mr. Ait Madani) Get passives are formed with the appropriate form of get followed by a past participle. They are more informal than be passive sentences and are frequently, although not necessarily, used to talk about events that affect the subject in an adverse way.
  31. 31. Khadija got attacked by a vicious dog. The professor got fired by the dean last week. Get passives usually do not occur with stative verbs of cognition. *The solution to the problem got known by everyone. *The question got understood by no one.
  32. 32. Get Passive Look-Alikes (You read Miss. Ahlam) In get passive look-alikes, past participles that are adjectives follow get. Get in these sentences has the meaning "become." The sentences are not get passives. He gets confused easily. ( = He becomes confused easily.) Redone got stuck in the elevator. ( = Redone became stuck in the elevator.) It's getting chilly. (= It's becoming chilIy.)
  33. 33. Idiomatic Expressions with Get ( yes ! Abolahassan) Idiomatic expressions with get such as the intransitive phrasals get up, get down, and get going are not get passives. He got up at six o'clock. She got hungry, so she made herself a sandwich.
  34. 34. OTHER TYPES OF PASSIVE SENTENCES Passives in Complements Following Get and Have ( Mr. zakaria this slide is yours) The verbs get and have can be followed by a complement. In such sentences, get and have have a causative meaning; that is, the sentence subject is understood as causing the action in the complement. Rkiya got her nails done. Mbark had the house painted.
  35. 35. Happenstance passives ( Mr. Takky eddin) Happenstance passives describe unfortunate events that the subject of the sentence did not intentionally cause. FORM: got/had+NP+ past participle I had my wallet stolen in Inzegan. (= My wallet was stolen in Inzegan.) Mohamed got his car towed away last night. (= Mohamed's car was towed away last night.)
  36. 36. Concealed passives ( Miss. Sophia) Concealed passives occur with need, require and want, especially in British English. They are not true passives but have the same meaning as passives. This essay needs careful checking by the editor. (= This essay needs to be carefully checked by the editor.)
  37. 37. Pseudo-passive constructions (Chinese) the so-called pseudo-passive do not have the verb be or the past participle form of the main verb. Example: 这些 放啊 可以 分 两 种 Zhexie fanga keyi fen liang zhong * these ways can classify into two types
  38. 38. Ungrammatical passives with ergative verbs(Korean) Korean speakers frequentely produce passive sentences containing ergative verbs, although these are ungrammatical in English Example: 그것은 대부분의 여성이 극심한 빈곤으로 고통하는 바보 같은 짓이에요 *It is ridiculous that most women in developing countries are suffered from extreme poverty
  39. 39. The following sentence can have two patterns in the passive version: People say that mobile phones are harmful to children’s health
  40. 40. Mobile phones are said to be harmful to children’s health It is said that mobile phones are harmful to children’s health
  41. 41. passive sentences frequently occur in news reports and in academic writing. Rewrite the following paragraph so that it contains passive sentences ( second pattern). For some time scientists have known that exercise is good for the body. Until recently, researchers believed that the main benefit of exercise to older people was maintaining body strength and endurance. However, recently, a number of studies have shown that exercise even benefits the mental health of the aging. In one study,researchers found that regular exercise can make the brain younger. In a recent study at the university of Illinois, investigators discovered that regular exercise by older people produced brain patterns typically found in 20-year-olds. Now the question seems to be « what kinds of exercise produce the greatest cognitive for old people? »
  42. 42. The answer For some time it has been known that exercise is good for the body. Until recently, it was believed that the main benefit of exercise to older people was maintaining body strength and endurance. But recently it has been shown that exercise even benefits the mental health of the aging. In one study, it was found that regular exercise can make the brain younger. In a recent study at the university of Illinois, it was discovered that regular exercise by older people produced brain patterns typically found in 20-year-olds. Now the question seems to be « what kinds of exercise produce the greatest cognitive for old people? »

×