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Raspberry Pi

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Raspberry Pi

  1. 1. Raspberry Pi 1.INTRODUCTION The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python. It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games. What’s more, the Raspberry Pi has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work. 1.1.Raspberry Pi Foundation The Raspberry Pi Foundation is a registered educational charity (registration number 1129409) based in the UK. Our Foundation’s goal is to advance the education of adults and children, particularly in the field of computers, computer science and related subjects. See our stories page for more information about the Foundation’s charitable work. 1.1.1.The Making of Pi The idea behind a tiny and affordable computer for kids came in 2006, when Eben Upton, Rob Mullins, Jack Lang and Alan Mycroft, based at the University of Cambridge’s Computer Laboratory, became concerned about the year-on-year decline in the numbers and skills levels of the A Level students applying to read Computer Science. From a situation in the 1990s where most of the kids applying were coming to interview as experienced hobbyist programmers, the landscape in the 2000s was very different; a typical applicant might only have done a little web design. By 2008, processors designed for mobile devices were becoming more affordable, and powerful enough to provide excellent multimedia, a feature we felt would make the board desirable to kids who wouldn’t initially be interested in a purely programming-oriented device. The project started to look very realisable. Eben (now a chip architect at Broadcom), Rob, Jack and Alan, teamed up with Pete Lomas, MD of hardware design and manufacture company Norcott Technologies, and David Braben, co-author of the seminal BBC Micro game Elite, to form the Raspberry Pi Foundation to make it a reality. Three years later, the Raspberry Pi Model B entered mass production through licensed manufacture deals with
  2. 2. element 14/Premier Farnell and RS Electronics, and within two years it had sold over two million units. 2.MOTIVATION It is the job of the entire Computer Science degree program to teach its students to think critically. Every Computer Science course requires students to clarify their thoughts sufficiently so that those thoughts can be expressed in a form that a computer can carry them out. The various courses in the program focus on different areas of critical thinking, but each has as its primary objective to teach students to think critically in that area. 2.1.Computer Science skills increasingly important First, before one can write a computer program to do something, one must understand what the program is supposed to accomplish. Since the intended objectives of a software system are described in English (at best), significant critical thinking skills are required simply to understand what is to be done. Second, students must determine, in precise detail, how the objectives determined by the previous step may be accomplished. Finally, students must express the required steps as a computer program. A computer program is a text in an unforgiving language, a programming language. Programming languages are interpreted more formally and literally than virtually any other language in existence. Syntax and semantics are rigidly defined. Everything must be correct for the program to operate properly. 2.2.Works on various OS The Raspberry Pi primarily uses Linux-kernel-based operating systems.The install manager for the Raspberry Pi is NOOBS. The operating systems included with NOOBS are: • Arch Linux ARM • OpenELEC • OSMC (formerly Raspbmc] ) and the Kodi open source digital media center • Pidora (Fedora Remix) • Puppy Linux • RISC OS – is the operating system of the first ARM-based computer. • Raspbian (recommended for Raspberry Pi 1). 2.3.Access to computer at low cost It is low cost device and give accessibility to user like computer. The main reason behind its low cost is SoC that means System on Chip all the hardware are integrated on a single chip which makes it cost very low near to Rs. 2500. What’s more, the Raspberry Pi has the
  3. 3. ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work. 2.4.Learn to program various hardware 3.TECHNOLOGY The Raspberry Pi has a Broadcom BCM283system on a chip (SoC),which includes an ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz processor. A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio- frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. SoCs are very common in the mobile electronics market because of their low power consumption.A typical application is in the area of embedded systems. A graphics processing unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processing unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display. GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing, and their highly parallel structure makes them more effective than general- purpose CPUs for algorithms where the processing of large blocks of visual data is done in parallel. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card, or it can be embedded on the motherboard or—in certain CPUs—on the CPU die. Originally shipped with 256 megabytes of RAM later upgraded to 512MB. Now 1GB.It does not include a built-in hard disk , but uses an SD card for booting and long-term storage. 3.1.HARDWARE •10/100 T Ethernet Socket. •HDMI socket •USB 2.0 socket •RCA video socket •SD card socket •Powered from microUSB socket •3.5mm audio out jack •DSI Display Connector
  4. 4. •Micro USB Power port •CSI camera connector •JTAGS headers •Status LED 4.Operating System Fedora (formerly Fedora Core) is an operating system based on the Linux kernel, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. Fedora contains software distributed under a free and open-source license and aims to be on the leading edge of such technologies. Fedora has an estimated 1.2 million users, among them Linus Torvalds, creator of the Linux kernel, who uses Fedora on all of his computers. Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux, in its original form, is also the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers and virtually all fastest supercomputers, but is used on only around 1.6% of desktop computers when not including Chrome OS, which has about 5% of the overall and nearly 20% of the sub- $300 notebook sales. Linux also runs on embedded systems, which are devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system; this includes smartphones and tablet computers running Android and other Linux derivatives, TiVo and similar DVR devices, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions, video game consoles, and smartwatches. Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, most of which is under the GNU General Public License, and packaged by a group of individuals known as the Debian Project. Three main branches are offered: Stable, Testing and Unstable. The Debian Stable Linux distribution is one of the most popular for personal computers and network servers, and has been used as a base for several other distributions. The Debian Testing and Unstable branches are rolling release and eventually become the
  5. 5. Stable distribution after development and testing. Packages are first uploaded to Unstable, from which they migrate to Testing. When Testing is mature enough it becomes Stable. 5.PROGRAMMING Most common language used to program various hardware is python. Python is a widely used high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C++ or Java. The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale. Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles. It features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and has a large and comprehensive standard library. Python interpreters are available for installation on many operating systems, allowing Python code execution on a wide variety of systems. Using third-party tools, such as Py2exe or Pyinstaller, Python code can be packaged into stand-alone executable programs for some of the most popular operating systems, allowing the distribution of Python-based software for use on those environments without requiring the installation of a Python interpreter. 5.1. ARMv6 ARM, originally Acorn RISC Machine, later Advanced RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments. British company ARM Holdings develops the architecture and licenses it to other companies, who design their own products that implement one of those architectures—including systems-on-chips (SoC) that incorporate memory, interfaces, radios, etc. It also designs cores that implement this instruction set and licenses these designs to a number of companies that incorporate those core designs into their own products.
  6. 6. A RISC-based computer design approach means processors require fewer transistors than typical complex instruction set computing (CISC) x86 processors in most personal computers. This approach reduces costs, heat and power use. Such reductions are desirable traits for light, portable, battery-powered devices—including smartphones, laptops, tablet and notepad computers, and other embedded systems.
  7. 7. A RISC-based computer design approach means processors require fewer transistors than typical complex instruction set computing (CISC) x86 processors in most personal computers. This approach reduces costs, heat and power use. Such reductions are desirable traits for light, portable, battery-powered devices—including smartphones, laptops, tablet and notepad computers, and other embedded systems.

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