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O2 Arena Booklet

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O2 Arena Booklet

  1. 1. 1 O 2 A R E N A , L O N D O N , U K D a n i e l Ya p C h u n g K i a t 0 3 0 9 1 0 0 C h r i s t i o d y 0 3 0 4 1 9 1 C h i n P u i M a n 0 3 1 0 3 3 1 C h e a n g E i l e e n 1 0 0 6 A 7 7 2 4 9 C h e w W e n L i n 1 0 0 7 C 1 0 6 4 6 A l e x W o n g K a i T z e 0 3 0 3 2 2 8
  2. 2. 2 Content Introduction 3 Construction method 5 Advantage and disadvantage 6 Material of the actual building 9 Load distribution analysis 12 Modelling process 13 Analysis od failure/success(process) 17 Final Model 19 Conclusion 20 Reference 21
  3. 3. 3 Introduction O2 Arena is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in London, England. It is covered by Millennium Dome, a large white PTFE coated glass-fibre fabric with twelve 100 meter high yellow towers which indicate each month of a year and each hour of the clock face. Millennium Dome was designed and built between 1996 and 1999. The aim of building Millennium Dome was to house Millennium Experience exhibition. The dome was designed as a ten- sioned fabric-and-cable roof by a bunch of architect to provide shelter for the Mil- lennium Experience exhibition. Due to the financial problems, the original exhi- bition and associated complex have been demolished except the dome. Millennium Dome was then sold to the O2 Compa- ny. Currently, the structures under the dome such as arena, basketball court and complex etc. have attract millions of vis- itors. As a large arena in the world which covered by one of the largest dome in the world, it has become the famous venue for concerts and family shows.
  4. 4. 4 O2 Arena Builders There are a few architect who design and construct this Arena, O2 Arena, London (Millennium Dome). In addition, they also has consultant for the material used especially the dome’s fabric. Architects, Builders and Consultants Head Architect: Richard Rogers(Head) Concept Architect: Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners Design Architect: Bblur Architect   Photos + Information: HOK Sport / Populous Engineer: Buro Happold Main Contractor: ISG Group Specialist Fabric Consultant: Base structure This Arena was design by Richard Rogers. He is known for his functional and semi-modernist design flair in UK. There are a few building he had worked on. Building such as Lloyd’s Building and The Court of Human Rights Build- ing in Strasbourg. In addition, he had also won a number of medals and awards. A few example would be The Thomas Jefferson Medal, the Minerva Medal, the RIBA Stirling Prize, and the Pritzker Prize in recognition of his architectural achieve- ments. He is also a partner at the Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners architecture firm. Introduction
  5. 5. 5 Construction Method O2 Are na Surface Structure The entire roof structure of O2 Arena was made up of Thin Shell Structure “Membrane Structure”. Its members are united as 1 homogeneous entity to form the structure and spaces. The membrane is made up of fabric structure and other tensile structure. This kind of construction is also consider as a light weight construction. Considering the surface is a thin and flexible membrane, it has the ability to resist a certain load through the tensile stress from the fabric itself without it being compression or bending. It is the largest in the world with a diameter of 320m (1050 ft.). How it is built The entire fabric is being supported by 72tensioned steel stringer cables paring with 32mm diameter steel spiral strand each for providing tension. The fabric material uses PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) - coated fiberglass. The stringers are supported at a radial spacing between 25m and 30m by an arrangement of upper hanger and lower tie-down cables set out around the 12 100m high primary steelwork masts. The string- ers on their radial lines are being kept in place by the circumferential cables. The force from the primary cables produce by rain, snow, wind etc from nature, everything is being collected from the centre by a 30m diameter cable ring. This was built with 12 48mm diameter cables to provide safety against failure or error of cable breakage. At the perimeter, the radial cable forces are collected by 12 curved boundary cables and taken to 24 anchorage points.
  6. 6. 6 Advantage & Disadvantage Advantagesofthe designstructure - Extremely light weight - Large span (size) - Minimum amount of structure - An open and unobstructed interior - The low weight of the materials makes construction easier and cheaper than standard design Cost efficiency Depending on the requirement, the shaped fabric under tension is able to reduce the cost of construction by increase its spanned area under tension. In addition, the mem- brane provides both structure and roofing shell. DesignFreedom With the flexible and highly formable systems provided from the tensile fabric mem- brane, this provide the architect to go all out by using conventional construction materi- als. It also improve its functionality by providing a well-designed tensile structure which adds aesthetics to the building. Noise pollution The fabric curved construction method is able to diffuses both internal and external sound and whilst absorbing at the same time.
  7. 7. 7 Lowerenergycosts The fabric have high sun reflecting properties and low absorbency of sunlight. Trans- lucent materials provide a comfortable and natural light source by removing all arti- ficial lighting during the daytime. This greatly reduces the solar energy and heat that enters the structure. The woven base cloth combined with the appropriate coating allows a light transmission value of around 10%. This provides a very comfortable level of illumination compared to the full brightness of outside. Semi-permanent nature Tension membrane structures ‘historically’ have been closely tied to major events such as exhibitions, where shelters are needed for short periods of time. Tension Fabric structures can be easily designed for rapid relocation and re-erection; mak- ing them perfect for high impact event structures. Not only does this help with practicality it also helps with planning permission for fixed term structures as they are classed by most authorities as semi- permanent structures. Advantage & Disadvantage
  8. 8. 8 Disadvantages - Poor performance • Thermal • Acoustic - Exterior moisture and dehumidifier and address condensation Difficult making meaningful connections If there is no suitable structure within the existing building, it would be difficult to make any meaningful connections to that building for a tensile canopy, but sufficient anchor- age might be achieved for a rigid type of construction. That said, it is nearly always pos- sible to design the canopy in such a way that it imposes identical loads onto a building as a rigid canopy structure would, but in these cases, the cost of the additional engineer- ing, steel fabrication and installation difficulties is likely to make it an uneconomical solution. Easy to be damaged Fabric structures, if properly engineered and installed are virtually immune to damage and weather properties. Providing that they are not likely to be vandalize or damage, they provide a reassuringly simple and durable solution. Difficulty of Maintenance Dirt can be clearly seen glass or polycarbonate, however the light diffusing properties of the fabric mean that the surface dirt is not easily identified. It’s quite surprising how Advantage & Disadvantage
  9. 9. 9 Material Materials for Millennium Dome (O2 Arena) PTFE (polytetrafluroethlyene) coated glass fibre fabric PTFE coated glass fibre fabric is a dynamic tensile material unmatched for its aesthetics and durability making it ideal for large scale roof and tensile membrane structures. It is used for cladding the dome of O2 Arena. It has the properties of high durability and flame resistance. Usually, this kind of glass fibres are not af- fected by UV light but they are easily damaged by the water. Hence, a PTFE coating is needed to be applied on it. The function of this coating is to protect the fibre from water and abrasion. However, the PTFE itself is complete- ly inert and not affected by the weather. In all words, PTFE coated glass fibre has a longer life span and avoids the problem of dirt retention and discoloration. This is why it always stay looking clean.
  10. 10. 10 Reinforced concrete Reinforcedconcreteisacompositematerialwhicharecounteractedbytheinclusion ofreinforcement, having high compressive and tensile strength. In fact, there are 24 spots of reinforced concrete which we can find around the O2 Arena, standing on top of the ground and are attached to main cables of this building. It has been used as an anchorage points to support the whole structure. Con- crete, if unreinforced, is notorious for cracking easily at any sourced of stress. It will cracks at all thickenings, ends of embedded steel and even down the middle of aisles. Hence, it has to undergo several retrofitting, like reinforcing the concrete by adding steel rods to the concrete mixture, allowing concrete to set solid. The steel rods ensures that reinforced concrete can withstand tensile forces and hence, it become a versatile and composite material.  Rubber The aim of using rubber for this building is to achieve a maximum of weight saving in individual components and parts. Rubber offer a considerable poten- tial due to its low density and flexibility compared with metal counterparts. At the bottom of each 12 masts, there is a rubber pot bearing with a single locating bolt. The bearing allows slight rotation of the mast at the connection point with the pyramid. Usage of rubber at the pot bearing helps to improve resistance to surface crac king due to higher binder of contents. At the same time, it also helps in improving the aging and oxidation resistance of surface construction Material
  11. 11. 11 Steel In O2 Arena, steel is used mainly for its roof construction. Arranged radially over the fabric surface area the 72 tensioned steel stringer cables in pairs of 32mm diameter steel spiral strand. The stringers are supported at a radi- al spacing between 25 and 30m by an arrangement of upper hanger and lower tie-down cables set out around the twelve 100m high primary steelwork masts. All these masts, jut out from the fabric ceil- ing, representing the months of the year and the hours on a clock face. On the other hand, the upper hangar, the lower tie-down cables carry the loads from the fabric down to the ground when loaded by wind or snow. The dome, was made up of the light- est steel which are specified for the cables beneath the roof, while a more durable mixture of alumin- ium and zinc(of steel), is used for galvanizing the external cables. Steel, is well known for its inherent strength which enables architectural and design flex- ibility. Hence, it is very suitable to be used for O2 Arena. Material
  12. 12. 12 Force transfer from the dome through the tensioned steel stringer cable to the 12 steel masts. Force transfer to the ground through the steel masts. Compression force from the ground to withstand the load and weight from the steel masts. Load Distribution Analysis
  13. 13. 13 Modelling Process 1) First try out and locating the steel structure in between which are sim- ilar to the actual model to check the proportion. 2) First try on making the structure to locate the fabric. Using hot glue gun to stick the steel wires to form dome structure. 3) After doing some measurement of the fabric according to the propor- tion of the model, we draw it on the material we prepared.
  14. 14. 14 Modelling Process 4) After doing some measurement of the fabric according to the propor- tion of the model, we draw it on the material we prepared. 5) After drawing the line on the table cloth, we stitch according to the line drawn. 6) After doing some measurement of the fabric according to the propor- tion of the model, we draw it on the material we prepared.
  15. 15. 15 Modelling Process 7) Reforming the steel structure by us- ing the new method we find. 8) When making the base of the steel structure, we apply water on the pa- per clay so that we are able to form the smooth surface. 9) Waiting for the paper clay to dry up so that we can apply colour spray on it.
  16. 16. 16 Modelling Process 10) We spray the steel structure after the paper clay base dry . 11) For the detailing parts, we use screw and nuts, zinc plate, paper clay and steel cable etc for constructing the base details according to what we analyse.
  17. 17. 17 Failure/Success Method of Construction - We try a few different method to bring out the best product such as even using needle and string to steel and wire cable. This is to bring out the not just the tex ture but also the feeling towards the real O2 Arena, London. Some of us don’t know how to needle or threat and some of us even give up mid way bec ause of the confusion and tangling in midway. Even though it may look easy but when we try it, it is not as easy as it looks. In addition we not only have 1 but the entire roof is made of fabric and method of connection closest to the real thing is sew- ing method. Untidiness The glue we used makes the steel dirty and cloudy. It is not as good looking as it was and it changes the texture of the material.
  18. 18. 18 Failure/Success Connection -Based on the experiment we have mad, solder wire melting method or using hot glue gun for connec- tion is not working due to the materials properties. Besides that, w e also don’t have the welding tools to connect the steel wire. Fail to use hot glue gun Problem Facing Materials - We are unable to decide the most suitable material to represent the materials used in the construction. After few try-outs, we decide to choose something that have the similar texture and coloration. In addition, the ma- terial we are able to find is limited because some of the materials are not affordable as the economy as a student is limited and there is no separate parts sold. Tablecloth Screws and nuts
  19. 19. 19 Final Model
  20. 20. 20 Conclusion After the entire project, we notice that even the smooth surface has its own benefits and speciality. As for the O2 Arena, London, we realize that the entire structure is mostly made from steel and fabric. In addition, the building doesn’t have much fenestration compare to other arena or stadium. What makes this building so special is because the entire structure is built within a building and the amount of ener- gy it is able to save.
  21. 21. 21 Reference Link: Michael mattan (n.d.). Millennium Dome in London - TensiNet. Retrieved June 15, 2014, from http://www.tensinet.com/database/viewProject/3782 Rogers Stirk Harbour (n.d.). Facts - Millennium Experience. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.rsh-p.com/work/buildings/millennium_experience Millennium Dome. (2014, June 9). Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Millennium_Dome.html Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (n.d.). Millennium Dome (building, Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) -- Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/382742/Millennium-Dome O2 Arena and Millennium Dome - Buro Happold. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2014, from http://www.burohappold.com/projects/project/o2-arena-and-millennium-dome-65/ Artifice, Inc. (n.d.). Millennium Dome - Richard Rogers - Great Buildings Architecture. Retrieved June 15, 2014, from http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Millennium_Dome.html Industrial Fabrics Association International (n.d.). Millennium Dome—What’s up with that? - Fabric Architecture. Retrieved June 14, 2014, http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0910_f3_millennium_dome_update.html O2 Arena London, London Venue, O2 Arena Venue | e-architect. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2014,from http://www.e-architect.co.uk/london/o2-arena Reference

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