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Overviewof design
management
methodologies
ADMIRE programme
Objective 1.1
Professor Alan Lewis
Darragh Murphy
Caroline Mou...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 2
CONTENTS
Foreword 3
Chapter 1 Introduction 4
1.1 Background 4
1.2 2008 DME...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 3
Foreword
This report focuses on the latest theories and
practices in desig...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 4
Chapter 1
Introduction
The basis for this overview of Design Management
me...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 5
Award winner. In addition, this open approach to
determining the criteria ...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 6
1.3 Sample selection
The DME Award Jury was selected to represent a
variet...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 7
Chapter 2
Literature review
Literature published on design management
prov...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 8
implement the design strategy and develop design
projects, while operation...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 9
suggest a relationship between the skills involved at
the different levels...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 10
itself (managing the transformational business). By
considering the wides...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 11
2.3.1 Criterion 1: Leadership in design
innovation
In order to identify t...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 12
2.3.3 Criterion 3: Excellence in design
coordination
Echoing Thakara’s “G...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 13
2.3.5 A top-down implementation process
An exploration of the extent to w...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 14
Chapter 3
Overview of design
management
methodologies
All of the private ...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 15
Launch
Stimulus / trigger
Design brief
Concept generation
Evaluation
Proj...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 16
The next step is to ‘source design expertise’. While
some businesses may ...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 17
Fig. 7: The Vacuum Wine Saver by VacuVin, The Netherlands
VacuVin define ...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 18
What kind of design expertise do they use?
Some businesses may choose to ...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 19
Aside from enabling the development of new
products, the NPD process can ...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 20
Fig. 12: The B”lite mudguard by Curana, Belgium
How do the companies achi...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 21
Thrislington Cubicles undertakes extensive research
and involves ‘specifi...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 22
they developed in 1984 the world’s first portable
pressure washer, enabli...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 23
likely integrated with the marketing, engineering and
manufacturing depar...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 24
 Recognition, quality and coherence in our
product lines;
 Better commu...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 25
Literature on branding classifies the elements that
influence and communi...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 26
smoothies that can be drunk on their own or mixed
with alcohol. SóBor use...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 27
“When we first started making organic cosmetics 3
years ago, we decided t...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 28
3.2.2 Managing a concurrent design
and marketing programme
In the absence...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 29
manager is to co-ordinate the two disciplines in
order to maximise the im...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 30
branding, marketing material, advertising, liveries
and other promotional...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 31
 Transportability - Most services cannot be
transported and therefore, e...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 32
Fig. 34: Images showing the extent of the design brief for DSB,
Denmark
T...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 33
Fig. 37: Management structure of Virgin Atlantic illustrating the
decisio...
© University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 34
staff on how to act / react and welcome the
customers. Standardisation of...
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
Overview of design management methodologies
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Overview of design management methodologies

Report written by Alan Lewis, Caroline Mougenot, and Darragh Murphy.

Suggested citation:
Lewis, A., Mougenot, C. and Murphy, D. (2009). Overview of Design Management Methodologies. ADMIRE project, European Commission – Pro Inno Europe.

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Overview of design management methodologies

  1. 1. Overviewof design management methodologies ADMIRE programme Objective 1.1 Professor Alan Lewis Darragh Murphy Caroline Mougenot The National Centre for Product Design & Development Research (PDR) University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC) April 2009
  2. 2. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 2 CONTENTS Foreword 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 1.1 Background 4 1.2 2008 DME Award criteria 4 1.3 Selection of sample 6 Chapter 2 Literature review 7 2.1 Defining a scope for design management 7 2.2 Design management models 8 2.2.1 Managing the design process 8 2.2.2 Levels of design integration within an organisation 8 2.2.3 Design management implementation 9 2.2.4 Value models for design 9 2.3 Review of DME34 selection criteria 10 2.3.1 Criterion 1: Leadership through design innovation 11 2.3.2 Criterion 2: Designing change through design 11 2.3.3 Criterion 3: Excellent in design co-ordination 12 2.3.4 Criterion 4: Strategic performance 12 2.3.5 A top-down implementation process 13 Chapter 3 Overview of design management methodologies 14 3.1 METHODOLOGY 1: Managing design in the new product development (NPD) process 15 3.1.1 Using design management as a driver for new product innovation 16 3.1.2 Using design to enhance or improve product performance 18 3.1.3 Using design to build distinctive product identities 21 3.2 METHODOLOGY 2: Managing design as a strategic branding tool 24 3.2.1 Managing design to raise brand awareness in fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) markets 25 3.2.2 Managing a concurrent design and marketing programme 28 3.3 METHODOLOGY 3: Managing design in the service industry 30 3.3.1 Designing the customers’ experience in service industries 31 3.4 METHODOLOGY 4: Managing design in design-led companies 36 3.4.1 Design publishing 36 3.4.2 Open source design 38 3.4.3 Design as a value added service 39 3.5 Main Findings 40 Chapter 4 Conclusion 42 References 43
  3. 3. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 3 Foreword This report focuses on the latest theories and practices in design management, and, in particular, how design management is seen as having a positive influence in the drive to successfully realise innovation through design. Other approaches to supporting innovation through design being considered by the European Commission include design support and promotions programmes, and a design policy for Europe. This report, along with an extensive range of related actions as part of the PRO-INNO Europe ADMIRE programme, is designed to help researchers, practitioners and policy makers understand better how innovative companies manage design. The purpose of this co-ordinated approach is to uncover practices and processes that support competitiveness through innovation, and explore how they can be more widely adopted within a range of private and public sector organisations and companies. Design management is an intrinsic part of any design and development process and its precise form and characteristics within any one setting very much reflects the nature of people involved and the aims and culture of an organisation. This report shows that companies apply design and the management of design in response to their chosen strategies rather than by sector, industry or product specification. This provides opportunities for a cross fertilisation of ideas and methods from across different industries and sectors. But, as this report shows, it is the collective vision, style and capability of organisational managers who play the most important role in the successful realisation of innovation through design. The form and structure of the 2008 DME Award were devised to create both a credible award and a source of reliable and meaningful data. Through the process of setting the award criteria by a panel of design management experts, presenting the entries in a single format and selecting the winners by a jury of design management experts; the selection of the review sample can be presented in this report as representing leading European design management practice. This selection of 34 private organisations, referred to in the report as the DME34, represent the ‘state of the art’. The many different design management models supported by leading researchers are reflected in the wide range of practices revealed through the DME Award entrants. Although many of the entries assimilated recognised models there were many that could not be easily categorised into predefined models. Therefore, the assessment approach adapted a broader review of the design strategies employed by the entrants and to what purposes they were intended. 128 companies and organisations were presented on the 19 th June 2008 for the DME Award jury day. The entries represented a diverse range of applications from public organisations to multi-nationals, small businesses to charities, and manufacturing to service sectors. The collection represented a unique insight into how companies perceive design and how they manage it. The winning entries demonstrated sophisticated design management practices which stood out from other participants. Among the DME34 sample were several examples demonstrating original interpretations of the design process, new ways of designing. These examples present new business models that exploit technologies in innovative ways to provide fresh ideas and solutions to their customers. They represent a form of innovating innovation, applying design to design. Only through identifying and disseminating these practices can other entrepreneurs, managers and designers develop new business models for themselves. The DME Award serves a worthy purpose in rewarding good design management practice, what was not expected, is its ability to question how things are done.
  4. 4. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 4 Chapter 1 Introduction The basis for this overview of Design Management methodologies is the 2008 Design Management Europe (DME) Award. This edition of the Award was developed to provide a qualified sample of companies whose design management practices could be regarded as some of the best in Europe. Several questions were addressed in order to qualify a sample of good design management practice:  What is good design management?  How to find good design management?  How to communicate good design management?  How to assess good design management? In order to incorporate these questions into an award process every effort was made to make each step as transparent and logical as possible. The DME Award was the vehicle for selecting the sample companies. It provided a rich source of material for analysis. As a result of the analysis a DME Award jury selected a sample of 34 companies, the DME34, as representing best design management practice. 1.1 Background When developing the 2008 DME Award the first challenge was to determine how to award an activity that is unique to each business but which cannot be quantified without the danger of eliminating the essence of that activity. It quickly became clear that the challenge was twofold: What kind of information should be gathered from the companies? And how should this data be assessed? A review of other management awards showed that they all had something in common, and that was the requirement for the entrants to openly express why they should win an award, whether it was through an essay, recommendation, presentation or interview. With a European dimension to the DME Award and the huge potential range of the subject matter, a format needed to be identified that could facilitate each case and provide a level playing field for entrants. The poster format appeared to be an excellent solution: not only had it proved being a successful medium in the 2007 DME Award, but it also allowed for companies to easily communicate their unique practices through the aid of pictures, and simple text. Attention was then turned to the development of the assessment criteria. Due to the diverse nature of design management, and the need to understand what truly represents best practice, the only transparent and fair method to select winners appeared to be through a Jury process. Therefore, criteria had to be developed to allow the Jury to arrive at their judgements, and to provide a focus for the entrants in developing their applications. 1.2 2008 DME Award criteria Fig. 1: The expert panel assembled to determine the 2008 DME Award criteria, Cardiff 21st February 2008. Back row: Joao Mena de Matos,(Portugal); Gert Kootstra,(The Netherlands); Dr. Thomas Lockwood, (USA); Middle row: Darragh Murphy,( Ireland); Prof. Robert Brown, (UK); Prof. Alan Lewis,(UK); Prof. John Boult, (UK); Front row: Sally Brazier, (UK); Dr. Brigitte Borja de Mozota, (France); Caroline Mougenot, (France). The best way to set criteria for a design management award was to gather professional and academic experts in design management to discuss and agree upon what qualities would be expected from a DME
  5. 5. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 5 Award winner. In addition, this open approach to determining the criteria with third party experts would promote transparency, gain endorsement and build the credibility of the award. On 21 st February 2008, a small expert panel of leading design management experts met at the National Centre for Product Design & Development Research (PDR), University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC), UK. They were set the task of determining criteria for the DME Award that could be applied across all sectors, sizes, EU countries, and to both public and private organisations. Panel members all felt that those companies who place a strategic advantage on design would be able to identify with the criteria and react positively to the challenge of submitting for the DME Award. The criteria agreed by the panel of experts were as follows:  Leadership in Design Innovation: Defining and implementing a vision for the whole organisation.  Driving Change through Design: Identifying significant changes within an organisation where design has played a major role.  Excellence in Design Co-ordination: Demonstrating capabilities, processes, skills and resources.  Strategic Performance: Demonstrating performance based on objectives, deliverables and results (tangible and intangibles). With the criteria established, a set of guidelines encompassing them, the description of categories as well as the award deadlines could then be compiled and published. A key facilitating element of the DME Award was the network of partners across Europe to nominate and facilitate entrants from their countries to submit for the award. Through bringing their own expertise to bear they made the criteria comprehensible to the entrants and help them to realise their applications. A total of 128 posters were received from a wide range of companies, organisations and sectors, public and private, manufacturing and service. Large company category Open to private companies with 250 employees or more or with an annual turnover in excess of €50,000,000. Medium-sized company category Open to private companies with 50 to 249 employees or with an annual turnover not in excess of €50,000,000. Small company category Open to private companies with 10 to 49 employees and with an annual turnover not in excess of €10,000,000. Micro company category Open to private companies with 9 employees or less and with an annual turnover not in excess of €2,000,000. Public or non-profit organisation (NPO) Open to public or non-profit organisations such as charities, government programmes, city councils or schools and colleges. First time design project This category is specific to SMEs (less than 250 employees and a turnover not in excess of €50,000,000). The purpose of this category is to showcase good examples of organisations managing design for the first time. This can either come from established organisations or from start-ups. Design strategy for sustainability This category is open to private companies and public organisations of all sizes. Sustainability relates to design strategies encompassing social responsibility, improving the environment or reducing ecological impact. Fig. 2: Breakdown and description of categories of the 126 entries to the 2008 DME Award
  6. 6. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 6 1.3 Sample selection The DME Award Jury was selected to represent a variety of business and design management experience and expertise from across Europe and beyond. All of the Jury members were nominated by project partners of the ADMIRE programme and went through a selection process before being approved. On the 19 th June 2008, the Jury assembled at UWIC to review the poster submissions and decide upon the winners. Jury members were divided into two groups of four and charged with judging one category at a time per group. Different groups of jury members were selected for each judging session with regard to their specific expertise. At the start of each category judging session, a moderator would agree the session plan with the Jury and ask whether there was a conflict of interest between any member and the list of entrants in the category to be judged. The judging sessions started with the Jury members being provided with scorecards to assist them in evaluating the entries according to the set criteria. The marks they recorded were not intended to be definitive results, but rather were designed to assist the Jury in arriving at a working shortlist for further debate. The Jury panel for each session was empowered to decide on the number of honourable mentions to be granted. The criteria marking process proved itself through the consistency of the scores given by each of the Jury members. Furthermore, the final decision of the Jury - which was based on discussion - was consistent with their initial scores, thus reinforcing the validity of the criteria for selection. However, the Jury members regretted that not all of the companies followed or demonstrated evidence of the criteria. The moderators played a crucial role in focusing the debate on design management and in delivering each session on time, yet also allowing the Jury members to freely express their opinions. From the 128 entries, the jury selected 34 companies, which met the DME Award criteria. These companies are the sample (DME34) determined by the Jury to be leading exponents of design management in Europe and were analysed for this report. The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the current state of the art of design management as determined by the DME Award. A literature review of design management is conducted in Chapter 2 followed by the case study analysis in Chapter 3. Fig. 3: The 2008 DME Award Jury, 19th June, Cardiff. Front row left to right: Prof. Robert Brown, UK (Moderator); Anna Wróblewska, Poland (Juror); Joao Mena de Matos, Portugal (Moderator); Dr Maarit Lindström, Finland (Juror); Professor Saša Janez Mächtig, Slovenia (Juror), Stephen Conlon, Ireland (Juror). Back row left to right: Dr Thomas Lockwood, USA (Juror), Xènia Viladàs, Spain (Juror); Darragh Murphy, Ireland (Co-ordinator); Sir George Cox, UK (Juror); Prof. Dr. Eric Jan Hultink, The Netherlands (Juror); Michael Thomson, UK (Moderator). Absent from photo: Dr Frank O’Connor, Ireland (Advisor).Photo by Glenn Edwards.
  7. 7. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 7 Chapter 2 Literature review Literature published on design management provides models for implementing design management processes and further explanation on the various benefits design management may provide to companies. While in its most basic form, design management consists in the management of design projects 1 , at a higher level, design management is also concerned with the whole of the organisation and shapes the widest range of its activities. Managed effectively and strategically, design should enable a company to enhance financial performance, increase customer satisfaction, but also improve internal processes and create shareholders value 2 . A major issue in investigating design management lies in the lack of an agreed definition for the discipline; this ultimately results in an ill-defined scope for design management research. The first aim of this chapter will therefore be to review the available literature in order to provide a clear definition of design management. Secondly; an overview of the main design management models will outline the process of design management as regarded by respected researchers in the field. Finally, a literature review of the DME34 selection criteria will provide a further understanding of the context of the sample. 2.1 Defining a scope for design management Design has now been widely acknowledged as being one of the major key factors in driving today’s economy 3 . Aside from enabling businesses to add value to products and services, well-managed design should enable strategies, build brands, create 1 Best (2006, p.6) 2 Borja de Mozota (2005) 3 Cox (2005) innovation; and, ensure customer satisfaction 4 . Furthermore, they should enable a company to enter and / or create new markets, facilitate innovation, improve differentiation and increase customer satisfaction. Companies such as Apple and Sony have demonstrated evidence of the significance of design in standing out and thriving in a fast-changing, increasingly competitive global marketplace 5 . Since design can greatly enhance businesses’ competitiveness, strong emphasis is being put on the need for companies to further integrate design in their activities. Further research has stressed that although collaborating with designers would not be enough to achieve success, design management is critical in exploiting and further maximising the potential of design resources for business advantage 6 . One of the most basic functions that design management performs relates to the management of design projects. However, restricting the subject to just a form of project management would be mistakenly limitative 7 . Increasing emphasis is put on the need for businesses to understand and use design management as a strategic business tool 8 . Gorb 9 , in defining the practice as relating to “the effective deployment by line managers of the design resources available to the organisation in the pursuance of its corporate objectives” already highlighted the corporate implications of managing design. This was further explored by Topalian 10 who identified two levels of design management: the corporate level and the project level. This greatly widened the scope for design management: as well as being a basic tool for businesses to integrate when undertaking new projects such as developing new products and / or services, design should also be considered at an organisational level. Cooper and Press 11 further investigated the hierarchic responsibilities for managing design within an organisation. Three main levels were identified: the board / top management level would be responsible for setting a strategic design vision; middle / functional managers should 4 Kootstra and Wolf (2007) 5 Borja de Mozota (2006) 6 Borja de Mozota (2006) 7 Best (2006, p.6) 8 Best (2006, p.16) 9 Cited in Best (2006) 10 Cited in Cooper and Press (1995, p.224) 11 Cooper and Press (1995)
  8. 8. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 8 implement the design strategy and develop design projects, while operational managers should be accountable for managing the design projects. This provided the ground for developing the three-level model further used by Borja de Mozota 12 and Best 13 to explain how design management organises itself within an organisation, emphasising the strategic, functional / tactical and operational dimensions of design management. The definition of design management that has been set for the purpose of the ADMIRE project and agreed by the consortium reflect these findings and is as follows: “Design management is the cultural, strategic and operational use of the design resources (internal and external) available to an organisation directed towards the creation and attainment of business and organisational objectives.“ (Kootstra and Wolf) 14 By emphasising the cultural and strategic implications of design management, the definition emphasises that the discipline of design management goes beyond the management of design projects and has a significant role to play at an organisational level in enabling the overall business strategy. SCOPE Corporate level Project level Topalian Board level – strategic design vision Middle functional managers – implement design strategy and develop design projects Operational manager – design projects Cooper & Press Cultural Strategic Operational Kootstra & Wolf 12 Borja de Mozota (2003) 13 Best (2006) 14 Kootstra and Wolf (2007) 2.2 Design management models The wide range of existing design management models suggests the variable scope for the subject. Some of the models thus aim to further explain the essence of design management, to classify practices, to examine the extent to which these practices are integrated; and, to map out the wide range of benefits resulting from good practice. The following presents an overview of some of the major models explored by the literature. 2.2.1 Managing the design process Essentially concerned with best practice in initiating design projects, managing and monitoring the design process, such models demonstrate mostly prescriptive and sequential processes to be followed to manage design projects, from opportunity identification to launch and evaluation. Competencies required include, inter alia, identifying design opportunities, writing design briefs, selecting designers, managing budgets, monitoring the design process, and evaluating the outcomes 15 . One of the main advantages of such models lies in the fact that they do not tend to assign responsibilities to various management levels, thus relating to any kind of organisation the smaller they may be. On the other hand, they may leave out the wider implications of managing design and not stress enough emphasis of the significance of implementing a fully integrated design process in line with other corporate objectives. 2.2.2 Levels of design integration within an organisation The ‘Design Ladder’, developed by the Danish Design Centre, is a four-step model that identifies the extent to which design is integrated in a company’s activities: non-design, design as styling, design as process; and, design as innovation. The higher on the ladder a company is, the more strategically design is used 16 . Although such a model is not explanatory in terms of design management methodologies, it tends to 15 Bruce and Bessant (2002) 16 Kootstra and Wolf (2007)
  9. 9. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 9 suggest a relationship between the skills involved at the different levels of the ladder and the three levels of design management previously explained. The DME staircase, developed by Kootstra and Wolf 17 for the purpose of the ADMIRE project, demonstrate similar views but stresses greater emphasis on management implications by proposing a shift from ‘design levels’ to ‘design management levels’. Based on the ‘Process Maturity Grid’ model developed by Moultrie and Fraser, the model aims to rank companies on a four-level scale according to the extent to which they use and apply design management principles. The levels, being respectively ‘no design management’, ‘design management as project’, ‘design management as process’ and ‘design management as culture’ suggest a learning curve in implementing design management within an organisation. Interestingly, the three upper levels of the models appear to directly coincide with the operational, tactical and strategic dimensions of design management. Companies on the second step of the ladder and staircase would mainly demonstrate operational skills; on the third step, they should master both operational and tactical skills, while top companies should master the coordination of strategic, tactical and operational skills. 2.2.3 Design management implementation A top-down implementation of design management processes is commonly recommended to achieve effective practice and maximise the potential of design resources. Emphasising the need for the process to start at the top of an organisation with the setting of a strategic vision including design goals, lower levels should then be accountable for implementing strategies, initiating and running the design projects. As previously mentioned, three major levels of design management are commonly highlighted in the literature: strategic, functional and operational 18 . These levels correspond to hierarchical positions within an organisation. The higher the positions, the more strategic the design 17 Kootstra and Wolf (2007) 18 Borja de Mozota (2002) decisions to be taken. Best 19 further interprets this by suggesting the roles of the design leader, design manager and designer to respectively relate to vision, process and content. Cooper’s implementation model considers the process for implementation and highlight that good design management practice requires planning and organising for design, implementing processes and monitoring the impact / outcomes. At an organisational level, this could be understood as planning for the future, organising how the change will take place, implementing actions, monitoring and evaluating. 2.2.4 Value models for design The ‘value models’ for design essentially aim at highlighting the various benefits resulting from implementing good design management practice. From basic benefits such as design improves economic performance and commercial success – design is good business 20 . Borja de Mozota then emphasises the significance of design in generating increased customer value, in improving internal business processes, and in providing strategic value for the organisation –i.e. design as vision 21 . Hayes 22 also identifies four main assets resulting from implementing design processes at the organisational level; they are qualified as follows: design as facilitator -e.g. improve cost, quality, time-to market; design as differentiator –creates differentiation and adds value; design as integrator – e.g. better coordination between R&D, design and marketing; design as communicator –e.g. enables translating values, mission into tangible identities. Another perspective derives from Drucker’s paradigm of change model 23 , which suggests that any organisation operates in three time zones: past, present and future. Based on Flaherty’s interpretation of the model, Best identifies the role of design in helping organisations improve the current operations of the organisation (managing the traditional business), address new opportunities (managing the transitional business), move towards a new vision of 19 Best (2006) 20 Potter et al. (1991) 21 Borja de Mozota (2005) 22 Cited in Kootstra and Wolf (2007) 23 Cited in Best (2006, p.31)
  10. 10. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 10 itself (managing the transformational business). By considering the widest range of impacts design can have on an organisation, such models widen the scope for design management and are useful in providing insights as to the areas that should be considered when planning for design. 2.3 Review of DME34 selection criteria In order to assess applicants for the 2008 Design Management Europe (DME) Award, a set of criteria was developed. To achieve this, a ten-strong panel of both academic and professional design management experts from Europe and the US were assembled. The meeting resulted in the following set of four criteria drafted and agreed unanimously by the experts.  Leadership in design innovation: Defining and implementing a vision for the whole organisation integrating design across a wide range of activities.  Driving change through design: Identifying significant changes within the organisation where design has played a major role.  Excellence in design coordination: Demonstrating capabilities, processes, skills and resources in support of the application of design.  Strategic performance: Demonstrating performance based on objectives, deliverables and overall effect on the organisation. Most importantly, these criteria represent the experts’ expectations of the best design-managed practices in Europe and thus set standards for state- of-the-art design management. By providing a framework for the applicants to communicate their unique design management practices, the criteria verify a common collective of the current state-of- the-art in design management. INTEGRATION Design management as culture Design management as process Design management as project Kootstra & Wolf Design as innovation Design as process Design as styling Non design Danish Design Centre IMPLEMENTATION Strategic Functional Operational Borja de Mozota Design leader – vision Design manager – process Designer - content Best Planning and organising for design Implementing processes Monitoring impact and outcomes Coopers VALUE Economic performance Commercial success Improving internal processes Strategic value Customer value Borja de Mozota Design as facilitator Design as differentiator Design as integrator Design as communicator Hayes Managing the traditional business Managing the transitional business Managing the transformational businesses Best
  11. 11. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 11 2.3.1 Criterion 1: Leadership in design innovation In order to identify the most relevant literature related to ‘Leadership in design innovation’, the criterion is broken down into two main concepts: design leadership and design innovation. Referring to design leadership, Turner and Topalian 24 firstly suggest a distinction between design management and design leadership. According to them, while ‘management’ essentially aims to address set issues, design leadership should aim at setting a direction for the organisation, thus playing an essentially pro-active role. Design leadership and design management could thus be seen as relating respectively to the strategic and tactical roles of design management, strategies aiming to be proactive, and tactics to react to given business situations. This firstly suggests the link between the strategic level of design management and the first criterion. Design leadership therefore also appears closely linked to strategic management in the sense that they both aim at ‘envisioning’ the future and planning accordingly. Cooper & Press 25 further stress this by qualifying the executive board level of management to be accountable for setting a design vision, strategic direction and approval, and creating a supportive environment for the company. The aim of design leadership should thus be to determine a direction for the whole organisation. Turner and Topalian provide further indication as to the role of design leadership: it should aim at “envisioning the future, manifesting strategic intent, directing design investment, managing corporate reputation, creating and nurturing an environment of innovation; and, training for design leadership.” 2.3.2 Criterion 2: Driving change through design In a fast-paced and ever-changing environment, there is an opportunity as well as a need for organisations to embrace change to keep ahead of the competition. Driving change through design 24 Turner and Topalian (2002) 25 Cooper and Press (1995, p.226) relates to organising how change will take place in order to achieve the overall strategy / vision. Change may be externally driven, and / or take place internally. Changes may apply to products, services, processes, or the corporate environment. Suggesting that this should be achieved through design emphasises the need for a specific design strategy. This is where design managers should apply tactical DM principles and translate the vision into design strategies 26 . Cooper and Press 27 specify the roles of middle management to implement and monitor the design strategy, create management structures, develop projects and evaluate outcomes. In explaining the role of design leadership and design management, Turner and Topalian also stress that businesses need design leadership to ‘know where to go’, and design management to ‘know how to get there’. They further highlight the role of design management as being to “facilitate a change process”. This implies that once the strategic vision has been set, tactical skills are needed to implement the necessary changes to achieve the strategy. Cooper and Press emphasise the role of functional managers to implement the strategy and initiate design projects, the criterion appears to coincide with the tactical design management level. Best then suggests the role of design as being to help the organisation address new opportunities. Models dealing with new product development, innovation processes and creativity techniques are tools and methods useful in enabling and achieving such change. Best 28 further reflects on the opportunities for design as a change agent. The author suggests that design could “contribute to improving the current operations of the organisation” i.e. managing the traditional business; “help the organisation to address new opportunities” -managing the transitional business; and, last but not least, “help the business move towards new vision of itself” - managing the transformational business. 29 26 Borja de Mozota (2003) 27 Cooper and Press (1995, p.226) 28 Best (2006) 29 Based on Flaherty’s interpretation of Drucker’s paradigm of change (Best 2006)
  12. 12. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 12 2.3.3 Criterion 3: Excellence in design coordination Echoing Thakara’s “Good design management is perfect orchestration” 30 , this criterion relates to the operational level of design management, i.e. design management at the level of managing design projects. According to the Report on Innovation Management’, by the European Commission’s Directorate General for Industry and Enterprise, the main goals of design management methodologies include: “. . . help new products meet the specifications related to customer needs, quality, price, manufacturing, recycling, etc; reduce development costs and time necessary for commercialisation; coordinate and schedule the activities involved in the design and development of products within the entire set of activities, taking account time, tasks, resources, manufacturing, etc, all in the context of the company; integrate the above objectives into a development strategy in line with the company abilities.” 31 To achieve this, Turner and Topalian 32 identify the five major roles of design managers. They should manage “design people, design budgets, design timetables, design work and design infrastructure”. Cooper & Press 33 further define the objectives of the Design activity level: “Managing design, identifying skills, implementing, monitoring and evaluating design work, informs vision”. Models relating to managing the design process provide useful indications as to the various stages involved in the process, how they relate to each other and with regard to the steps to be taken for an effective development of the projects. The ‘New product development model’ 34 , highlights the various roles of the project team with regard to the different stages of the design process. The ‘fuzzy front end’ would therefore require ‘preliminary project planning management’, research and 30 Cited in Cooper and Press (1995) 31 Directorate-General for Enterprise (2004) 32 Turner and Topalian (2002) 33 Cooper and Press (1995, p.226) 34 Borja de Mozota (2007) monitoring of technological, economic and social developing trends, the idea development phase then needing feasibility studies and risk management to be undertaken, as well as developing an ‘end-user value model’. Market testing also appears critical before launching any new products. Excellence in design coordination also require multi-disciplinary teams and integrated R&D and marketing functions in order to achieve developing products that will be successful in the marketplace. 2.3.4 Criterion 4: Strategic performance This criterion relates to evaluating the relative performance of the firm with regard to set targets and objectives. While this stage certainly involves specific skills such as monitoring, what really matters here is to understand the breadth of benefits that can be gained from effective design management practice. ‘Strategic performance’ firstly suggests the need for businesses to align the design strategy with business objectives and use design as a strategic tool to achieve company goals, beyond economic performance. Targets may thus relate to increasing customer appraisal / satisfaction, improving sustainability, enhancing product success, reducing costs, adding value to the company offerings, improving brand image, etc. The value models previously reviewed provide insights as to the various benefits that should result from good design management practice. Cooper & Press 35 yet suggest that “evaluating the management of design and design projects is frequently forgotten, yet this activity provides essential information for continuous improvement in the use and management of design”. The outcomes of such process should not be considered as an end, rather as something that should be fed back to the process in order to plan and organise for future improvements. 35 Cooper and Press (1995, p.223)
  13. 13. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 13 2.3.5 A top-down implementation process An exploration of the extent to which these four criteria cohere with previously established design management models provides primary insights into the core information they convey. The diagram opposite illustrates how the DME criteria fit onto the design management models outlined earlier in this chapter. The near complete coverage of the criteria in the design management models illustrates its validity among current design management thinking. Furthermore the three non-covered items; ‘Design as styling’, ‘Non design’ and ’Design as communicator’; demonstrates the focus of the award and of the DME34 sample being focused on the strategic value of design and not on the final output. KEY: Leadership in design innovation Driving change through design Excellence in design coordination Strategic performance INTEGRATION Design management as culture Design management as process Design management as project Kootstra & Wolf Design as innovation Design as process Design as styling Non design Danish Design Centre IMPLEMENTATION Strategic Functional Operational Borja de Mozota Design leader – vision Design manager – process Designer - content Best Planning and organising for design Implementing processes Monitoring impact and outcomes Coopers VALUE Economic performance Commercial success Improving internal processes Strategic value Customer value Borja de Mozota Design as facilitator Design as differentiator Design as integrator Design as communicator Hayes Managing the traditional business Managing the transitional business Managing the transformational businesses Best
  14. 14. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 14 Chapter 3 Overview of design management methodologies All of the private organisations selected for the analysis demonstrated their own unique design management practices. The sample of companies short listed for the 2008 Design Management Europe (DME) Award also drew attention to the common characteristics they shared, characteristics that highlight the optimum conditions for design to be integrated into an organisation. These conditions have been recognised and promoted by design researchers, practitioners and agencies for many years and include:  The management of design is orchestrated at the top of the company;  There is a clear strategy for design that is integrated in all activities of the company;  Design is regarded as a critical function in the operation of the business;  Design and innovation are part of the culture and attitude of the company;  Directors and managers are passionate about design and its possibilities. As well as the operational characteristics outlined above, the DME34 demonstrated the following market orientated characteristics:  Growth exceeds national sector performance by 200% 36 ;  Growth is closely associated with innovation;  Strong capability to innovate and confidence to continue innovating;  Ability to venture into new markets or address new challenges; 36 24 private DME Award short listed companies with three years data to compare against the performance of their sector in their country.  Clear market differentiation from their competitors. The companies have a common approach to design and enjoy similar success; the main differences between them are their markets, market position, strategy and design capabilities. This would explain the wide range of design management practices observed among the DME Award winners. The design management practices observed among the DME34 can be categorised into four main methodologies:  METHODOLOGY 1: Managing design in the new product development (NPD) process;  METHODOLOGY 2: Managing design as a strategic branding tool;  METHODOLOGY 3: Managing design in the service industry;  METHODOLOGY 4: Managing design in design-led companies. Within some of these four categories are sub- categories that represent the different strategies adopted by the DME34 companies. The first category represents traditional new product development practices associated with manufacturing, while the third category provides an insight into the rapidly developing discipline of service design. As expected strategic branding is a tactic followed by all of the companies but in this case the category represents those organisations that have placed their design investment largely on a branding strategy. The fourth category highlights new possibilities in using design as a strategic tool, i.e. the ability of entrepreneurs to respond to market changes and opportunities with new approaches to the design process. The categories highlight the role of design above and beyond simply designing individual products. The need to adapt management approaches to suit the aims and abilities of the companies is demonstrated by the various design management strategies adopted, ranging from the development of high added-value products to the design of user-centred services; from creating strong and powerful identities to establishing new, innovative business models.
  15. 15. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 15 Launch Stimulus / trigger Design brief Concept generation Evaluation Project planning Sourcing design Concept development Concept development Evaluation / selection Prototype and testing Market & Technical dev. Detailed design 3.1 METHODOLOGY 1: Managing design in the new product development (NPD) process NPD processes have been widely documented and, although the stages are likely to differ slightly from one application to another, the overall process is generally similar. Such models are especially useful in guiding companies through their design journey and provide them with stage gates (structured decision points) to review the design work and proceed, or not, to the next phase. The model is the industry standard for industrial design consultancies with each stage gate acting as a payment point. Rothwell’s model 37 provides a detailed approach to the NPD process. Fig.4: NPD process adapted from Rothwell, 1972 37 Bruce and Bessant (2002, p.39) The two first phases; ‘Stimulus / trigger’ and ‘Concept development’; correspond to the front end of the design process, sometimes referred to as the ‘fuzzy front end’. The ‘Stimulus / trigger’ relates to the stage where market opportunities are investigated. Spotting new opportunities relies on reviewing one’s environment, understanding the commercial context, keeping track of the latest developments in the field, investigating user needs, listening to customers, etc. Specific methods which could be used include undertaking a Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Trends analysis which investigates trends in order to give rise to new ideas on unexplored market opportunities. Equally useful are Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analyses. Such analytical techniques assist companies in strengthening their position in a market, and in addressing their shortcomings in order to minimise threats. Portfolio analysis and other marketing tools such as the Ansoff matrix may also assist in highlighting possibilities available to a company when diversifying into new markets or developing new products. CURRENT PRODUCTS NEW PRODUCTS CURRENT MARKET MARKET PENETRATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT NEW MARKET MARKET DEVELOPMENT DIVERSIFICATION Fig. 5: The Ansoff Matrix38 Once the product opportunity has been defined, and the planning of the project established, a design brief should be drafted. The ‘Design brief’ is a critical element in the NPD process as it is the reference point for the rest of the design process. The design brief should describe in as much detail as possible the product specifications, market positioning and project constraints e.g. budgets and deadlines. The design brief is a working document that is regularly revised as the project continues. 39 38 Ansoff (1957) 39 For more information about design briefs, refer to Design Management (Best 2006).
  16. 16. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 16 The next step is to ‘source design expertise’. While some businesses may choose to work with an in- house design department, some may prefer to turn to external consultancies. Other companies may combine both. Running design competitions has also proved to be a successful course of action for some companies. After such expertise has been identified and the design brief has been set the core design process can commence. Concept generation is the first phase of the process and consists of generating product concept ideas. Methods to assist the idea generation phase include brainstorming, lateral thinking, synectics, Six Thinking Hats, metamorphosis analysis, etc. 40 The designer will then sketch the ideas, turning them into tangible product concepts. This will allow for the concepts to be assessed, reviewed against objectives, and evaluated in order that a selection can be made for further development. Prototypes will further assist in reviewing and testing the product, leading to manufacturing ramp-up and product launch. In acknowledgement of the iterative nature of product development, throughout this process the specification is reviewed and updated to include the latest data informing design development. As an innovation process, the NPD path applies a methodology to realise creativity in the form of a marketable product. The following case studies demonstrate how the NPD process provides product innovations, improve product performance and build distinctive product identities. 40 For more information, refer to Proctor (2005) and Higgins (2005). 3.1.1 Using Design Management as a driver for new product innovations The companies reviewed as part of this section apply a strategy focused on new product innovation to gain an advantage over their competition. The management role of the company is to assist the NPD process to arrive at new products for their existing market that can be sold at a high margin. Although different in nature and in their products, three of the companies nominated for the Award shared a common approach: all of them demonstrate the drive to innovate and invest heavily in design to achieve their objective. Design management is the force that drives the projects, enables the companies to generate innovative ideas and to carry them through to deliver products that differentiate from the competition by the means of greatly enhanced functionality, quality and aesthetics and of innovative features. For those companies design creates value. Fig. 6: The CafeSoloTM by Eva Solo, Denmark Danish company Eva Solo started in the 1960’s as a manufacturer of kitchenware accessories. Since its creation, the focus of the company has always been on the development of innovative products that presented a high added value. This philosophy remains stronger than ever and they continue to compete through design, developing desirable products that truly appeal to their target market, and adding innovative features to their products to constantly surprise their customers.
  17. 17. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 17 Fig. 7: The Vacuum Wine Saver by VacuVin, The Netherlands VacuVin define themselves as a manufacturer and distributor of innovative food and wine-related products for home and professional use. Their products are characterised by their practical application in daily life; they distinguish themselves by means of improved functionality, originality and quality. Magnus Olesen realised that, to stay ahead of the competition, the company had to innovate. Bringing in some more design expertise appeared as the right strategy to achieve their objectives. Yet, while some companies would restructure their design department, revisit their processes or bring in a consultancy, Magnus Olesen took a radical approach: they bought out a freshly established furniture design-led company, D’nmark and introduced the newly acquired designs in their product range. Where do companies get their ideas from? These companies get their new ideas from challenging the existing. Eva Solo systematically assesses existing products. They apply their “Yes but” strategy that aims to challenge conventions, push the boundaries a little further, and enables them to continuously surprise their customers by offering products that always demonstrate new and innovative features. “The first trendsetting Eva Solo products were launched in 1997 – functional design with an edge. Traditional product concepts for the entire home – both inside and out – were rethought to produce new and unique solutions in highly original shapes, different materials and with exceptional functionality. Once again, a continuation of the “Yes but” strategy. Hygienic silicone for pot holders, insulating neoprene covers for jugs holding hot or cold drinks as well as glass and stainless steel as recurring materials characterise the Eva Solo products.”(Eva Solo) New technologies also provide inspiration for fresh ideas. Such an example is reported in the Magnus Olesen / D’nmark case, “By using laser cutting, it was possible to create a new expression in the metalwork.” An obvious but rarely exploited opportunity for developing new ideas can come from listening to customers. VacuVin takes special care of reviewing customers’ feedback to improve existing products and develop innovative new products to address unfulfilled needs and wants. “Combining customer service with quality control enables VacuVin to improve their products when necessary. Customer suggestions are researched by R&D and implemented when valuable.” (VacuVin) Fig. 8: The Day Bed, acquired by Magnus Olesen through buying out it’s creator company D’nmark.
  18. 18. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 18 What kind of design expertise do they use? Some businesses may choose to implement an in- house design department; some may turn to external consultancies or freelance designers. Different sources of design can suit different demands of the company. VacuVin opted for a combination of extensive in- house expertise, supplemented by students from the Technical University of Delft as well as several other colleges. The benefit of this approach is the generation of very fresh and raw ideas, tapping into the creativity of students which has not been diluted by industrial experience. Colleges and Universities are always receptive to industrial collaboration as it enhances their teaching and research, it can lead to valuable student placements, portfolio work and, in some cases, it can lead to royalties for both the student and college. Some companies may chose fairly radical approaches towards enhancing their design and innovation capacities. In the case of Magnus Olesen, they were a very traditional furniture manufacturer who wanted to attract a different type of customer and market. Rather than redesign their range or learn a new style they decided to buy a newly established furniture company; D’nmark; that already attracted the market they were aiming at. “In January 2008, Magnus Olesen A/S bought the young Danish furniture company D’nmark. D’nmark was founded in the beginning of 2005. The vision was to create a new generation of Danish furniture, that could compete with the old Danish design classics and stimulate the creation of new Danish products. The D’nmark products were well thought out, with regards to functionality, construction and aesthetics and they took their own unique origin in new production methods and social responsibility. The buying of D’nmark was the perfect match to improve and strengthen the design values and product line at Magnus Olesen A/S.” (Magnus Olesen) Eva Solo source their creative input from an extensive collection of freelance designers. This approach maintains a high quality of work from designers keen to earn a royalty fee and allows the company to pick and chose the work they think suits their business. The model also permits the company to expand or reduce their design capability to react quickly to the fluctuations of the market. What do the companies get out of being innovative? Aside from being able to sustain a significant competitive advantage, companies have also enjoyed several benefits as a result of their approach to innovation. Significantly, the generation of original new products allows the companies to protect their investment through intellectual property rights measures such as patents and design registrations. VacuVin even applies this principle to some of their older products for which the patents are running out. They review the ageing products in order to develop improved functionalities which will enable the patents protection to be prolonged. The companies also enjoy worldwide recognition, Eva Solo are proud to reveal that, over the last 10 years, the company has received over 130 Danish and international prizes. These three cases demonstrate the role of design management as a driver for the development of product innovations. Not a chance process, there are specific methods in place to assist companies in developing innovative products. Design creates value by enabling companies to offer added value products to their customers. Leadership in design innovation will therefore enable companies to constantly keep one ahead of the competition. 3.1.2 Using design to enhance or improve product performance This section illustrates businesses that compete on performance, outperforming the competition by developing products that demonstrate greatly enhanced reliability, features and efficiency. The role of design management in such a case is to consider every aspect of an existing product in order to develop improved, faultless products that compete more successfully in the market.
  19. 19. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 19 Aside from enabling the development of new products, the NPD process can also be utilised by a company in order to significantly improve the performance of existing products. Such products, which provide users with greatly enhanced features, can be a significant source of competitive advantage for a company. It allows them to compete more aggressively in a market they know, and with a product they have confidence in. This is the strategy that has been adopted by Thrislington Cubicles, Performance Health Products (PHP), Senz Umbrellas and Curana. Bound by the same motivation to continuously outperform their peers, these four companies have created for themselves impressive market space within mature markets by turning some of the most common products into desirable devices of outstanding performance. Thrislington Cubicles are a “toilet cubicle manufacturer with an uncommon passion for design”. Through paying special attention to detail with regard to everything they develop, from products to company literature, website to promotional gifts, Thrislington have achieved worldwide recognition for premium quality. By producing products that are sleek and beautifully engineered they attract the attention of architects willing to specify their products to compliment their building. Thrislington applies their high design values across all activities of the company to communicate to their customers and potential customers that design matters to them. Fig. 9: A hinge detail from one of the Thrislington Cubicles, UK, range of products. SENZ Umbrellas was born from a frustration with existing umbrellas, providing three friends with the ambition to develop the ‘ultimate umbrella’. An umbrella that doesn’t break, is comfortable in use, does not contain dangerous tips that can poke people in the eyes, and provide the users with good product experience. Fig. 10: The original SENZ umberella Performance Health Products (PHP) designs and manufactures equipment for the disabled, the elderly and infirm with a special emphasis on products for wheelchair users. PHP’s core concerns are the improvement of comfort, function and quality of life by the comprehensive management of posture in seating. Fig. 11: The V-Trak system developed by Performance Health Products, UK Curana specialise in the development of innovative mudguard systems for bicycles. Curana reports that their products differentiate from the competition thanks to distinctive designs, and the innovative concept of being able to attach to most bicycle frames without the need for any tools.
  20. 20. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 20 Fig. 12: The B”lite mudguard by Curana, Belgium How do the companies achieve superior product performance? The energy and effort to make the best product cannot be underestimated. The challenge for management is to balance the cost of development against the estimated value the exercise will add to the product. To do this, management has to decide on the optimum method to develop the product and have confidence in it to invest significant time and money. Management has another key role in clearly communicating to the rest of the business how the product should be improved. Four such approaches are mentioned by the companies:  Attention to detail  Radical new product concepts  Use the expertise of third parties  Exploit changes in regulations. In order to gain significant improvements in a product, the DME companies have a common willingness not to take any aspect of their product or service for granted, and address every detail with a view to improving it. Thrislington reports several key success factors in achieving outstanding performance, including the ability of a company to constantly raise their own standards through good design and communication. “Make your first project to the best standard that fits your business. Then make the rest of the areas catch up. Then constantly do the same, find your best element of design in your business and benchmark it against other design disciplines.” (Thrislington Cubicles) Sometimes established products have inherent problems which are taken for granted because they have been around for a long time. That is, until someone addresses the problem with a revolutionary new product concept. Senz addressed the age old problem of umbrellas breaking in the wind and applied aero dynamic principles to the humble umbrella to create a radical new and effective product. Based on the shape of the optimum volume/drag coefficient of the tear drop, the designers explored the potential of applying this shape to an umbrella. In addition, they addressed several other problems with conventional umbrellas that people had previously tolerated i.e. sharp points, difficult release mechanism. Fig. 13: Different simulations for the testing and development of the SENZ umbrella Product performance can also be enhanced when specialist third parties are involved during the development process. They bring with them specialist knowledge which the designer learns and apply. They also provide a different viewpoint of the performance and production of the product. “In order to keep the flow of innovative ideas alive, creative sessions are held regularly. Once checked if they are valuable, a first feasibility study is done by simple handmade models, from which a lot can be learned for the further process. During concept testing, styling and system design, there is a constant interaction with production partners, knowledge centres and mold makers”. (Curana)
  21. 21. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 21 Thrislington Cubicles undertakes extensive research and involves ‘specifiers’ such as architects to make sure concepts are commercially viable. Through the involvement of the end specifier, the design managers can avoid time and costs being spent on concepts that will not attract customers. SENZ Umbrellas made excellent use of third party expertise to bring their radical umbrella concept to market readiness. They recognised the importance of working with technology experts from the Delft University in the Netherlands in order to assess, revaluate, develop and test their unique umbrella concept. They utilised several types of testing methods available at the university to ensure their product met their high standards and vision of an unbreakable umbrella. The ability to test and measure the performance of their design allowed the product to evolve into a true manifestation of the original concept. Another driver for change can be inspired from unexpected opportunities. PHP believes in regulations being a catalyst for beneficial change, a trigger for product improvement. “Many opportunities for product improvement and appeal lie within burgeoning regulation. By the design team members attending international events, advance knowledge of new Crash Test standards enabled the company to be the first in the world to achieve compliance with these new standards at a time when they became crucial to product acceptance.” (Performance Health Products) The key to developing outstanding product performance seems to rely on the willingness of a company to go further, push the limits and question the obvious. It has to be directed from the top of the company in order to secure significant investment and ensure its delivery across the whole company. Although the investment is significant at the start of the process it is good value compared with the costs associated with launching the wrong the product onto the market. 3.1.3 Using design to build distinctive product identities In highly competitive markets the ability to design and produce leading products has to be matched by a distinctive product identity that communicates the qualities of the product and values of the company. The objective of this aspect of design management is to generate a recognisable product language that supports the company’s brand message and that can be consistently applied across the entire range of products. This practice of design management is predominately the domain of large manufacturing companies. KTM Motor Sports had been a motorcycle manufacturer since 1953. Yet, in 1991, the company faced bankruptcy due to the motorcycles not standing out from a crowded market. At that time KTM had no clear vision or design strategy. KTM therefore implemented a new vision that would drive the business forward: ‘leading KTM back to success, becoming a leading manufacturer in the off-road segment, expanding in the on-road segment, to then expand in the 4 wheel segment, and thus become the leading European motor sports manufacturer’. In 2007 the company had a turnover in excess of €500m and over 1900 employees. To start their long path to recovery they reflected their ambitions with the core brand message ‘Ready to race’ which served as a reference point for every activity thereafter. Fig. 14: The RC8 motorbike by KTM, Austria, designed by KISKA Design agency Karcher was founded in 1935 by inventor Alfred Karcher. In 1950, they implemented the first European hot water high pressure cleaner. Focusing their strategy on the core business, high pressure cleaning,
  22. 22. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 22 they developed in 1984 the world’s first portable pressure washer, enabling Karcher to enter the consumer market. Since then, the company’s objectives have been to continuously increase the water processing segment. The company now has more than 6500 employees, 41 subsidiaries, more than 2000 products, and 342 patents. Fig. 15: The K7.85M Pressure Washer by Karcher, Germany Labinprogres is a large Croatian company that was founded in 1974; the company produces agricultural mechanisation such as tractors, two wheel tractors, motor hose and motor mowers along with a range of attachments. Until 1990, the company remained a leading manufacturer for small-sized agricultural mechanisation, with over 300,000 machines sold. But the break up of Yugoslavia in 1991 made the company lose 80% of its market. To remedy this, the company implemented a new strategy that aimed to enable the company to regain market share and to export. In 2007 the company had a turnover in excess of €10m with 294 employees. What are the key elements of this strategy? Each of the three companies highlights the importance of developing a strong corporate identity that will be reflected in their products. This forms the basis for a consistent identity throughout the product range. In order to make effective use of the corporate identity and visual product language, Karcher and KTM develop design guidelines which will guide the designers in modelling their projects. Fig. 16: The Tuber 40 Tractor by Labinprogres, Croatia “Corporate Product Identity: Unexceptionally all our products follow certain design rules that make them look “Kärcher“. The CD-handbook is a working tool for all our designers.” (Karcher) Within a company that already possesses its own design guidelines, the designer will probably be part of a large design team with clear processes documented and supervised. In some cases, the concept for the product would be already created, the technological constraints defined and the designer’s task would be to synthesise all the information into an accurate design. “The role of the designer is to design products that have all the necessary features and compelling extras so that target customers will be impelled to buy. In this case, the designer is a craftsperson. S/he has a brief and applies a distinct skill set to the task.” 41 Fig. 17: Karcher’s design process stages Design identity guidelines are characteristic of companies with sophisticated, well defined design processes and stage gates that support a constant flow of product development. These processes are most 41 Bruce and Bessant (2002, p.68)
  23. 23. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 23 likely integrated with the marketing, engineering and manufacturing departments. The details of these processes are unique to each company, and even factory, but all follow the form of Rothwell’s model 42 . What are the benefits of this strategy? The continuity of a successful design identity, reinforces the brand values of the company and can have a positive affect on customers and the work force. In the case of KTM, their revamped product image was initially met with mixed reactions from their existing customers but was successful in attracting new customers. For the development staff at KTM, it allowed them to focus more clearly on the product and concentrate on building their racing pedigree. Fig. 18: KTM’s new management strategy – Integrated Design Development The distinctive product identity of KTM and Karcher allowed them to move into new markets with their own set of company values, rather than having to reinvent themselves. Another advantage of developing design guidelines is the ability to maintain continuity of the product identity during transitional stages of the company design process. Increased differentiation from competitors and distinctive brand identity provided the companies with new competitive advantages. In the case of a re-positioning exercise, companies have regained a significant share of market. Labinprogres and KTM, through their reinvention, have turned their fortunes around and are now both leading manufacturers in their markets. 42 Bruce and Bessant (2002, p.39) Fig. 19: KTM’s strong visual product language The reinvention of Labinprogress also coincided with a dramatic change in its circumstances. In 2001 the business was bought by the Slovenian company CIMOS. The addition of Labinprogress to the group created another outlet for their first tier automotive factories. As a strategic addition to their automotive operations, CIMOS invested heavily in Labinprogres to bring their products into the 21 st Century and ensure new market opportunities. To reflect the new investment in technology, research and design they introduced the Tuber 40 tractor, a mid range four wheel drive agricultural tractor designed to meet the needs of an average farmer in the Adriatic region where farms rarely exceed three hectares. The new design vision and strategy provide the company with a direction and focus to move forward with. “For Labinprogres, the re-branding and the implementation of design strategy into the business process led to:  The development of a new corporate identity;  The modification of existing and development of new products;
  24. 24. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 24  Recognition, quality and coherence in our product lines;  Better communication with customers;  Increased sales and new markets.” (Labinprogres) These cases demonstrate design as a crucial element in the process of reinventing an established company. Where radical new product innovations or improved product performance are not part of the strategy but simply re-establishing the company within its market. It is more than a cosmetic design exercise but a re-evaluation of all products that are brought into line to communicate the company’s values. Through the development of colour, font, motto and high key designs the company can avail of trademark mechanisms to protect its investment. Design cannot achieve this alone, but it is an effective tool in delivering a new long term vision. This approach requires a design strategy integrated with the business strategy from the very start of the process and requires strong design management leadership, and design processes to deliver it successfully. 3.2 METHODOLOGY 2: Managing design as a strategic branding tool Brands are strategic and valuable assets. They consist of both tangible and intangible strands. While the brand message is intangible (i.e. a promise made to the customers and the perception of the message by these same customers), brand identities are tangible ‘touch points’ between business and customers. Identities should support and reflect the company’s offerings and values. Keys to building a strong and consistent brand identity lie in the ability of a company to genuinely recognise its values and translate them visually. Fig. 20: Brand touchpoints43 As stated by Wheeler 44 , the process of designing brand identity starts by conducting research: market knowledge, product analysis, competitor analysis, customer and stakeholder audits and interviews with top-level management. All are essential for the identification of company competitive advantages and values. This enables the definition of the strategic position to be adopted by the company to stand out among the competition, and facilitates clarification of the design objectives. “Companies use their identities as a basis for credible market communication.” 45 43 Wheeler (2007) 44 Wheeler (2006) 45 Bruce and Bessant (2002, p.92)
  25. 25. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 25 Literature on branding classifies the elements that influence and communicate the ‘profile’ of companies into four categories:  Product design – the core product  Information design – all visual elements that support identification of the products’ and company’s existence and meaning: logotype, brochures, uniforms, signs, transit, etc.  Environmental design –all visual environments and surroundings where the product is manufactured or purchased: offices, factories, retail outlets, etc.  Behaviour – how people behave and treat customers is a visual trait that will affect the perception of a company’s identity. Brand identities do not create brands; rather, they visualize the brand’s message. They will improve product recognition and raise the prospects’ awareness. They are meant to communicate the essence of the brand, whether it is to customers, stakeholders or employees. Pickton and Broderick 46 add that consistency, clarity and continuity are the three prerequisites that will have to be followed to achieve an efficient brand system. The two following sections will outline two different applications of design as a strategic branding tool that can both create and add value to customers 47 . 3.2.1 Managing design to raise brand awareness in the fast moving consumer goods markets “It is virtually impossible to detect quality differences between the products of major financial service companies, or petrol retailers, or the various chemical companies, for instance. This means that companies and their brands have increasingly to compete with each other on emotional rather than rational grounds. The company with the strongest, most consistent, most attractive, best implemented 46 Pickton and Broderick (2005) 47 For more information on designing brand identities, also refer to Wheeler (2006) and manifested identity will emerge on top in this race.” 48 All fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) markets are dominated by large multi-national conglomerates. New FMCG start-up companies are competing with the sophisticated marketing campaigns and distribution networks established by household brands. Entrepreneurs who recognise these challenges place equal importance on developing their brand as well as their product. Their objective is to create market space through raising awareness of their products by establishing effective brand identity systems. From the DME34 selection, three companies operating in mature FMCG markets demonstrate a very similar approach to using design to create strong brand identities, but employ different methods of managing the process. In these cases, design is used mainly to create a powerful brand image and support it through a range of touch points i.e. logo, graphics, packaging and advertisements. Two of the cases represent bold new start-up companies, and the third an established FMCG company aiming to expand their market share. Fig. 21: Package design for a fruit smoothie produced by SóBor, SóBor is a start-up which manufactures and packages fruit smoothies for the bar and club market in the UK. The concept is a new one for the market: selling 48 Olins cited in Bruce and Bessant (2002, p.87)
  26. 26. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 26 smoothies that can be drunk on their own or mixed with alcohol. SóBor uses design as a strategic tool to raise awareness of the brand and to influence buyers and stakeholders to buy and store the products. Through working with a design consultancy and design advisor, SóBor established a powerful identity for the products, which also reflects the brand values: indulgent, healthy, natural, delicious, sophisticated, and versatile. Fig. 22: Product range by Madara, Latvia Madara started with the association of four friends who shared a passion for organic products. Their complementary skills and backgrounds enabled them to develop and launch a range of organic cosmetics for the Latvian market. Successful and ambitious, Madara now seek to further expand through exporting their products. Voslauer is an Austrian brand for mineral water. The company uses design to position the brand and strengthen its position as market leader in the Austrian market. A challenge specific to FMCG companies lies in the fact that products are generally non durable. This results in products that can scarcely be ‘designed’ and which cannot stand alone or impel consumption. Companies must therefore rely on their brand identities to convey their message and values in a meaningful way so that the public understands the benefits of the core product. What key success steps did the companies recognise in designing strategic identities? First and foremost, all companies have to identify and understand their intended market. Madara made the choice to develop products for customers that they would like to buy for themselves. From this starting point, they presumed their customers would have a similar profile to them i.e. concerned with both beauty and ecology, and with a high income and who share a passion for design. Fig. 23: Advertisement for Voslauer Mineral Water, Austria With the potential consumer in mind, the next stage is to define appropriate and authentic values for the brand that represent the company, its product and appeals to the target customer. These values should be a reference point for every activity the business undertakes. SóBor brand values, ‘indulgent, healthy, natural, delicious, sophisticated, and versatile’, are in line with their product offering, and with the anticipated target market’s expectations. “The brand values associated with SóBor are integral to our philosophy, and we are committed to adhering to these throughout our marketing literature and promotional activities. We understand that these underpin the value of the brand and in order for us to do that, we are currently in the process of writing a brand handbook that will include rules and regulations to ensure that we all understand our common philosophy and that the brand design will remain coherent in literature.” (SóBor)
  27. 27. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 27 “When we first started making organic cosmetics 3 years ago, we decided there are going to be no weak points in our venture. We wanted to design a company which is great both in function and form. Logical, perfect in every detail, each function designed with care. Beautiful, green and alive. Like the flower (Madara) that has inspired our brand. . . Together we share the passion for MADARA – the humble flower form our meadows that has inspired our brand with both its beauty and unbelievable logics. Because we grew out of ‘madara’, we have to be ‘madara’. We are truly MADARA, and that is why our customers believe us” (Madara) Fig. 24: Strap line for SóBor brand The challenge for companies developing brands for the first time is justifying the associated design costs. Is there a direct correlation between this investment and return? How much time is required to understand the ambitions of the company, and to translate them into a successful identity and tangible products? On a design consultancy basis this can be a very expensive exercise and if managed poorly can generate the wrong result. In order to get the most cost effective branding exercise for his company, the founder of SóBor enlisted the advice from a design advisor from the local design advisory service. Without having any experience in design or branding the founder applied text book practices to the exercise along with the expertise of the brand advisor. “The design advisor’s role was to advise me on the design issues such as constructing a design brief, and issues surrounding design. Her role was emphasised on giving suggestions rather that making the final decisions as this was my role and duty. With the advisor I had a process of gathering her thoughts on design issues; for example deciding on the small changes to the packaging, her experience gave me confidence to make key decisions such as:  Presenting a design brief;  Choosing design and copywriting agencies;  Evaluating brand concepts and designs.” (SóBor) Madara adopted a different approach to enlisting a designer to develop their brand and products. They did not have enough funds to employ the services of a design consultancy. However they recognised the importance of design in their venture and enlisted an experienced designer as one of the four start-up partners. By including a design partner as one of the main stakeholders in the business, it allowed a fully considered brand to be developed. The designer could invest enough time to fully perceive the values to be communicated and translate them into an effective visual concept. Important to any branding exercise is to apply the identity and communicate the values consistently cross all brand touch-points. MADARA takes further advantage of every tangible element to reflect and apply the core values, allowing for the brand to convey its authenticity. Fig. 25: Principles of the Madara brand Developing a brand is a different application of design to product development and requires different skills and knowledge to manage. In a market where every business understands the importance of the branding exercise it is more and more important to be able to mange and inspire this aspect of design.
  28. 28. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 28 3.2.2 Managing a concurrent design and marketing programme In the absence of true innovation, companies turn to design in order to repackage a range of products and attract attention in the market. To maximise the investment in design, some companies combine this activity with a new marketing campaign, the two disciplines – design and marketing – working together. Different from an all encompassing branding exercise, this activity develops a range of products in line with a campaign for a short term impact. The role of design is to develop a consistent identity system addressing both the product and its promotion. Vipp was established in 1939, when a waste bin unit designed by its founder was put into production after receiving significant interest from the Danish medical sector. The bin has been the core product of Vipp since that time and has undergone few modifications. The unexpected success of the waste bin, led the company to grow and market a wider range of (bathroom) products. The company uses design to develop a ‘living’ range through the integration of design, promotional material and PR opportunities. Fig. 26: A collection of products from VIPP, Denmark Hisar manufactures flatware and tableware products. During a restructuring of the business several years ago, they recognised the potential advantages of integrating a ‘design culture’ into the business and took the strategic decision to establish the ‘Hisar studio’, a work group of marketing and design consultancies. Fig. 27: Sketch development work of cutlery for Hisar, Turkey Cifial, a Portuguese company, has two core product ranges: complete bathroom solutions and integrated door systems. Cifial’s success heavily relies on their integrated design strategies to regularly introduce new products and to create a consistent identity through promotional material, corporate identity, environments, exhibitions. Fig. 28: The Technovation 35 by Cifial, Portugal How do design and marketing complement each other? There are many activities that transfer expertise from one discipline to the other and have resulted in several recognised and established practices. Market research methodologies are used to understand further a consumer’s perception of the company’s products and brand. Surveys and focus groups provide a wealth of information to contribute towards the NPD process and inform the development of both the products and its packaging. It is particularly useful when companies plan to attract a new target audience or introduce new products. Point of sale displays and store interiors are the face of marketing and design. The challenge for the design
  29. 29. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 29 manager is to co-ordinate the two disciplines in order to maximise the impact on the consumer and maintain continuity of the brand within the retail environment. Fig. 29: VIPP point of sale displays Traditionally, marketing and graphic design usually results in an extensive and well executed communications programme covering marketing literature, website, advertising, transit liveries and other campaign extensions. However, two of the case study companies demonstrate product design that has been influenced by marketing forces. Fig. 30: Cifial marketing material Despite having strong design capabilities, VIPP and Hisar decided to collaborate with famous designers and brand names in the development of their products. Introducing influential designers into a company on a short term exercise can have a positive or negative short term result in sales, but the objective is often to bring recognition to their design intent, attract a more discerning customer and offer high value added products. World famous designers are by their nature very independent of thought and confident in their work. It is down to the skill of the design manager to get the best value out of the designer and make the investment pay off. The exercise is largely influenced by the brief set to the designer, it can either be a very tight brief or a very open brief it depends on the aspirations, risk averseness and budget of the company. “Artists such as Philippe Starck, Mauricio Clavero, Ron Arad and many more have been unleashed with no restrictions in order to execute their interpretation of Vipp products. Their design and work of art form the basis of exhibitions at prestigious places such as Carrousel du Louvre in Paris held in 2006.” (VIPP) Fig. 31: VIPP promotional image of designer Ron Arad with a modified VIPP product “We add more brightness to our products range by using Swarovski trademarked Signity stones for the first time in the world.” (Hisar) Design is best utilised when it is integrated across all activities of the company. Where companies do not have a strong engineering or R&D department the emphasis of the business model is on marketing and that often reflects in the way design is managed. The examples in this section provide an insight into the many graphic design outputs of a marketing based design strategy; brochures, identity continuity,
  30. 30. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 30 branding, marketing material, advertising, liveries and other promotional devices. The marketing/product orientated design strategies tend to concentrate on cosmetic revisions to established products. A guest designer’s knowledge of any company and its specific market and technical requirements will always be limited. Their lack of specific knowledge can be an advantage and it is down to the design manager to continue their strong concepts all the way to production. Not to be confused with brand development, concurrent marketing and design strategies strengthens a company’s brand through differentiation and can add further value to its overall offering. Fig. 32: “We add more brightness to our products range by using Swarovski trademarked Signity stones for the first time in the world”, Hisar 3.3 METHODOLOGY 3: Managing design in the service sector For companies operating in the service sector, “designing the customers’ experience” is now recognised as a critical factor for success. From corporate identity to staff behaviour, website to environments, every consumer ‘touch-point’ must be considered to offer customers a consistent and enjoyable experience throughout their ‘journey’. As has long been recognised in more traditional product development, companies must learn how to manage design to deliver high quality services that will satisfy or exceed in their customers’ expectations. In general, service development follows the NPD process, what includes research, brief, concept development, testing and implementation stages. However, unlike manufactured goods, services are intangible by nature, and therefore companies face particular challenges in design to manage such experiences. Service design relates to the process undertaken to develop or review new and existing services. Hollins 49 highlights five major singularities inherent to services:  Customer contact - Generally, in manufacturing the customer is probably unaware of how the product came about. In services, production and consumption tend to occur at the same time.  Quality - In manufacturing, measures tend to be quantitative, and quality tends to be measured against pre-conceived specifications (e.g. technical drawings). The measures of quality in a service tend to be qualitative. As a result, there is a wide variability as it is more difficult to control the quality of a service – as it is often down to the individual person supplying it.  Storability - Because services tend to be intangible, it is usually impossible to store them. For example, a car in a showroom if not sold today can be sold tomorrow but an empty seat on an aeroplane loses its value once the plane has left.  Tangibility - One can physically touch a manufactured product but most services are intangible. One cannot touch legal advice or a journey, though one can often see the results. 49 Hollins (2006)
  31. 31. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 31  Transportability - Most services cannot be transported and therefore, exported (though the means of producing such services often can). It is currently estimated that only 11% of services are exportable. “A service is any activity or benefit that one party can give to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Its production may or may not be tied to a physical product.” 50 3.3.1 Designing the customers’ experience in service industries Although the main product of these four case study companies presented below is a service (transport, courier, culture) they have applied design principles to develop user-centred and innovative ways of delivering that service to the customer. The objective in investing in core service development is to provide an experience that will retain customers, attract new customers and or increase the service value. Fig. 33: Images showing the extent of the work of a service design manager in Virgin Atlantic, UK 50 Kotler (1986) Without the benefit of a tangible product, the challenges presented to a design manager of a service company are different from those in a traditional manufacturing environment. The following case studies provide useful insights into the different methods used to generate and execute leading edge services and experiences. Virgin Atlantic is a leading airline provider in Europe. They differentiate themselves in a very competitive market through offering a high and innovative standard of service in both economy and premium classes. In order to design and shape their customers’ experience of Virgin Atlantic’s services, the company integrates design across all business functions. This ensures that their brand values are reflected in every touch-point, from booking the flight through to arriving at their destination and returning home. “To inspire change with considered innovation, creating functionally excellent ground and air environments and products.” (Virgin Atlantics’ design mission statement)
  32. 32. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 32 Fig. 34: Images showing the extent of the design brief for DSB, Denmark Their integrated design unit supports the company’s manifesto “to grow an airline with which people love to fly and where people love to work”, and allows for the company to clearly differentiate themselves from the competition. DSB, the Danish State Railway, carries 168 million passengers every year, while operating approximately 80% of passenger train services in Denmark. DSB has been an independent public corporation since 1999, wholly owned by the Danish Ministry of Transport. DSB provides urban, intercity, regional and international passenger rail services within Denmark, and across international borders. The design department of DSB Design, is responsible for the company's visual appearance in all aspects. To achieve this, DSB Design works closely together with the entire organisation. Fig. 35: Point of Sale concept for TNT post, The Netherlands TNT Post is a specialist in collecting, sorting, transporting and delivering letters and parcels and is also a leading force in data and document services, direct mail, e-commerce and international mail. Processing around 16 million postal items a day and delivering these to more than 7.6 million addresses in the Netherlands, the company is now broadening its horizons through acquisitions in Europe and Asia. TNT Post has tackled the challenge of maintaining its position in today’s shrinking market by concentrating its focus on the customer. The strong design policy plays an essential role in company strategy which sets clear targets for operational excellence, customer intimacy and product leadership. The MuseumQuarter Wien is one of the largest urban areas for contemporary art and culture worldwide. It is a 3D cultural district with a wide variety of activities; visual art, architecture, music, fashion, theatre, literature, children’s culture and digital culture. It is an “art space” with museums and other spaces for exhibitions and events, an urban “living space” and meeting point for Vienna culture aficionados. It is also a “creative space” for the 50 resident cultural initiatives of the city. Fig. 36: The front façade of MuseumQuarter Wien, Austria How do service companies achieve success through design? Whether a company is providing a product or a service, design management should invariably aim at implementing design strategies that support the company’s vision and enable its strategic objectives. Only through articulating the design strategy, and its position in the company framework can senior management and operational staff start to maximise its potential.
  33. 33. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 33 Fig. 37: Management structure of Virgin Atlantic illustrating the decision making hierarchy, cross discipline integration and company values. Virgin Atlantic’s long term manifesto (see fig.37) reflects the company’s main strategic objectives, namely growth, customer satisfaction, and employee satisfaction. It is the reference point for the whole company. The annual business objectives are then determined which are then translated into the divisional plans. The divisional plans detail all projects, their timescales and budgets, including Product and Service Divisional plans. It is the role of the design manager to deliver these objectives with his team whilst ensuring the brand values of the company are integral to the solutions developed. The management structure is clear, the decision making hierarchy is transparent and the position of design in this line of command is close to the top level of decision making. One of the advantages of having a clear structured approach is the clarity in which projects are briefed and executed. In a large business with many projects in progress at any one time, only a formal system can work effectively. This is contrary to most beliefs that design is a random creative activity. It is the challenge of the design manager to interpret divisional plans into projects that his design staff can work to. Inspiring them to deliver creative, innovative user centred solutions. A key component in service design is reviewing existing services and identifying problems that customers experience. These problems represent opportunities for improvement. Inhouse design teams face a unique challenge when identifying problems, their familiarity with the business conflicts with an objective view of how it is run. To overcome this barrier, research methods adopted from other disciplines as well as employing external designers are some of the methods used to overcome this myopia, e.g. hiring ethnographers to carefully observe the lifestyle of their customers and gain a further understanding into their needs. Fig. 38: ‘Service keys to give our staff some guidance on how to deliver the Virgin difference’, Virgin Atlantic Although it is possible to design every system and touch point between the customer and the company, the most valuable part of this interaction is the member of staff delivering the service. To ensure consistency within the service delivered by its staff, Virgin Atlantic has developed a set of cards to train
  34. 34. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 34 staff on how to act / react and welcome the customers. Standardisation of the service ensures consistency throughout the company and every operating site. DSB has its own design department, DSB Design. The stages involved in DSB’s core ‘service design’ process follow classical design and NPD processes. They see their main activities as being twofold: problem defining and problem solving. A major issue in defining a problem is to avoid developing ideas based on internally held beliefs and assumptions. To overcome this, DSB carry out extensive user research, identifying user needs by a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods including observation, shadowing, diaries, in-depth interviews, scenarios, role playing, and personas. Fig. 39: The design process at DSB Out of the 29 key service elements DSB Design develop; 19 of them are communications related. Every opportunity to reinforce their service and corporate image is reviewed and developed:  before the journey (websites, magazines);  at the station (train station, signage system);  on the platform (Traffic information systems);  on the train (pictograms, uniforms, interior);  behind the scene (intranet, work environment; internal stakeholders / staff). Fig. 40: Personas created and employed by DBS One of the many techniques employed by DSB Design to research user needs is the use of personas. This is a technique where the designer reviews the product or service through the eyes of the user. In the case of DSB they created several different personas representing a wide range of their user group and reviewed every aspect of their service from the perspective of each persona. The methodology provides a deep insight into how the user perceives the service and how it meets their expectations. This results in an extensive and detailed review of the company’s services and provides a basis for further development. In order to communicate their mission across to the public - being an “art space, a urban living space and a creative space” - MuseumQuarter Wien use renowned artists, designers and architects to design unique environments that are conducive to creativity and performance. These include everything from commissioning progressive architecture to an original signing system, internal and external pieces of furniture that represent a different way of living and learning. Their promotional material and advertising communicated a fresh and eye-catching approach to going to the museum and experiencing culture for everyone.

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