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Investigation into design management promotion in Europe

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Report written by Darragh Murphy, Gisele Raulik-Murphy, and Andrew Walters.

Suggested citation:
Murphy, D., Raulik-Murphy, G. and Walters, A. (2009). Investigation into Design Management promotion in Europe. ADMIRE project, European Commission – Pro Inno Europe.

Publicada em: Design
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Investigation into design management promotion in Europe

  1. 1. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 1 Investigation into design management promotion in Europe ADMIRE programme Objective 1.2 Darragh Murphy Dr. Andrew Walters Gisele Raulik-Murphy The National Centre for Product Design & Development Research (PDR) University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC) April 2009
  2. 2. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 2 CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Chapter 2 Hypotheses 4 Chapter 3 Methodology 5 3.1 Design management promotion profiling 6 3.2 Barriers to design management promotion 7 3.3 Indirect design management support 7 3.4 DME Award candidates’ use of design support centres 8 3.5 Sample 8 Chapter 5 Results and Analysis 10 5.1 Profiles 10 5.1.1 Design support centres’ profiles for design management promotion 10 5.1.2 Business support centres’ profiles for design management promotion 11 5.1.3 Consolidated design management promotion profiles 11 5.1.4 Overview of design management promotion profiles 12 5.2 Indirect design management support 15 5.2.1 Indirect design management support in design support centres 15 5.3.2 Indirect design management support in business support centres 15 5.3 Barriers to design management promotion 16 5.4 DME Award candidates’ use of design support centres 17 5.5 Opinions and feedback from respondents 18 5.5.1 Feedback from design support centres 18 5.5.2 Feedback from business support centres 18 5.6 Key findings considering the original hypotheses 19 Chapter 6 Conclusion 21 Appendix 22
  3. 3. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 3 Chapter 1 Introduction The management of design is regarded by the European Commission as a competency under the innovation management umbrella. This is recognition of the fact that companies using design to respond to new market opportunities demonstrate a competency for innovation. Good design management practices in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are believed to enhance the effective use of design and, therefore, exploit the potential of design as an instrument for innovation. The ADMIRE programme (Awarding Design Management and Innovation in Rebuilding Enterprises) is a collaboration of nineteen partners with the primary aim of establishing a design management award for Europe. Part-funded by the European Commission’s PRO-INNO Europe programme, the ADMIRE programme covers a wide range of issues regarding design management and it’s relation to innovation in Europe. Activities include: the establishment of the Design Management Europe (DME) Award, a pan-European survey of design management capability, an extensive series of workshops, research linking design management capability with innovation output, and, defining ‘state of the art of design management’. An important link identified in this extensive review of design management in Europe, is the level of promotion and support being offered to businesses on the subject of design management. The aim is to determine if the design management capability of companies is being hampered by the lack of expertise and willingness among the European business support community to promote design management. The objective of this report is to investigate design management promotion via design and business support centre across Europe, and to discuss the findings. The scale of the exercise is indicated by the number of design support centres in Europe, which is estimated to exceed 60. However, because of the wide geographical region being considered, face-to-face interviewing was cost-prohibitive. Therefore, an on- line survey instrument has been designed to address elementary factors in promotion activities: promotion, support, education and research. This exploration of the extent of design management promotion among business and design centres in Europe provides a base from which larger and more in-depth investigations can be planned. Regarded as a cross over between the two disciplines of management and design, the investigation also attempts to identify on which discipline the focus of design management promotion should be placed; i.e. if should either business or design support centres take the lead in developing design management promotion. Fig. 1. The combination of design support and business support was piloted in the 2004 WINNOVATE programme in West Wales, UK.
  4. 4. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 4 Chapter 2 Hypotheses In order to create a framework for this study, data gathering was focussed on the testing of a number of hypotheses developed through meetings with panels of experts made up of: representatives from a design support agency that has had extensive experience of working with partner agencies across Europe (Design Wales); representatives with experience working in business support agencies (Manufacturing Advisory Service); and researchers with a particular interest in design management (National Centre for Product Design & Development Research). The hypotheses developed as a result of the consultation with the experts’ panel were: Hypothesis H1: Design support agencies do not promote design management as a distinct discipline. Hypothesis H2: Design support agencies indirectly support aspects of design management by supporting the use of design. Hypothesis H3: Business support agencies do not promote the management of design as a distinct discipline. Hypothesis H4: The promotion and support of design management is under-represented given the potential business improvements and returns that effective design management has been shown to influence. Figure 1 visually represents the hypotheses listed above in presuming that effective design management activities are outside the scope of both design and business support agencies. Therefore, an opportunity exists to improve design management support to companies from: design agencies improvements in management promotion; business support agencies improvements in the relevance of their offerings to the exploitation of design; collaboration between design support and business support agencies; or some combination of these options. Fig.2. Visualisation of hypotheses
  5. 5. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 5 Chapter 3 Methodology This work is concerned with the activities that European support agencies undertake, and their direct and indirect impact on the design management capabilities of industrial partners. In developing a strategy for data gathering, it became apparent that design management promotion could be split into four different factors:  Promotion: work to specifically promote the use of design management;  Support: the provision of guidance or project management on use of design management to individual clients;  Education: efforts to transfer knowledge on effective use of design management to clients;  Research: the development of new knowledge on effective design management to feed into the delivery of effective design management tools. To develop a strategy for data capture, two question routes were identified. The first question route intended to develop a design management promotion profile (where design management was identified as a delivered service) and an exploration into the barriers and demand for developing design management services. The second route was tailored to either design support agencies or business support agencies. The objective of this second line of enquiry was to explore the extent of indirect promotion and support for design management as a result of other client interaction. Fig.3. Question routes for data gathering
  6. 6. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 6 3.1 Design Management promotion profiling Using the four factors of design management promotion indicated above (promotion, support, education and research), a profile for respondents that recognise their interaction with design management can be developed. Figure 4 demonstrates the cyclical nature of this process:  promotion, as an aspect of design management is concerned with pure promotion that aims to inform about the existence and benefits of design management as a discipline;  support aims to help companies with design management at the project level;  education builds upon support, ensuring knowledge transfer that assists companies in integrating design management into their management practices;  research completes the cycle, through the development of knowledge to inform and further develop every other aspect of delivery. Fig. 4. Relationship of aspect of design management promotion The enquiries into each aspect of design management promotion are formulated in four questions. Positive responses to any of the questions are an indication of some design management promotion. The responses are cumulative, that is, the more positive responses in each category, the greater the design management promotion activities of the respondent in that aspect. Table 1 presents the formulated questions. DESIGN MANAGEMENT PROMOTION FACTORS PROMOTION Do you promote the effective management of design? Do you promote design management as a distinct discipline (separate to design)? Do you promote design management at multi-party events? Do you promote design management at individual level? SUPPORT Is design management an aspect of your design support activities? Do you guide design management at the project level during design support activities? In design support activities, is design management supported as a distinct management activity? Do you provide support for exclusively design management focussed projects? EDUCATION Through design projects, is there any knowledge transfer regarding design management to clients? Do you provide educational material on design management? Do you provide design management training courses for clients? Do you develop bespoke training for clients? RESEARCH Do you develop design management advice based on client requirements (market/user needs etc.)? Do you analyse your design management interaction to improve your services? Do you develop applied research from wider sources to assist clients? Do you get involvement in collaborative research to improve design management? Table 1. Table outlining design management profiling questions A profile of respondents’ level of activity in design management promotion could be generated using this methodology. This profile highlighted differences in individual respondents and could also be used to categorise differences across types of respondents
  7. 7. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 7 (e.g. based on their core activities) or by other categorisation (e.g. regional differences). Figure 5 provides an example of design management promotion profile. Fig.5. Design management promotion profile In the example above, shaded boxes represent positive answers. Therefore, in this simulation, the respondent gave three positive answers to the questions on promotion; two positive responses to support; one positive response in education; and no positive responses to research. For the hypotheses to be supported, the profiles will show a majority of respondents with many un-shaded boxes. The respondent provided 6 positive answers to the 16 design management promotion factors listed in table 1. If there is a high level of design management promotion going on (and therefore much design management support for potential clients) then many of the respondents will have mostly full profiles. 3.2 Barriers to design management promotion A key element into researching the promotion of design management practices among businesses is identifying barriers to this opportunity. Table 2 shows the series of questions formulated to gather data about this issue. BARRIERS What do you believe are the barriers to promoting design management? - lack of expertise / knowledge - lack of demand from customers - lack of demand from government - lack of promotion - no financial support available to undertake such activities - not our area of expertise - inappropriate service - need for DM promotion not identified - not economically viable at a meaningful level - other AMELIORATINGFACTORS In your opinion, which factors could improve the promotion of design management? - providing training to advisors - developing collaboration with other parties (working with design or business support centres) - funding - tools - external raising awareness of the issue / of the benefits of design management - other AWARENESSOF BENEFITSOF MANAGING DESIGN - DSC: Do you believe there is significant value in applying specific management skills to design? - BSC: Do you believe it is worthwhile to integrate design in other business activities? Table 2. Barriers and ameliorating factors to Design Management promotion questions 3.3 Indirect design management support In order to address the possibility of respondents being unaware of conducting design management-related activities, several control questions were added to the questionnaire. The questions enabled the gathering of a wider range of answers from the respondents, hence reflecting accurately the current situation of design management support in design and business support centres. The questions in tables 1, 2 and 3 were compiled into two different questionnaires: one for design support centres and the other for business support centres (see appendix 1). The questionnaires were facilitated online by a survey specialist website 1 . All design support 1 www.surveymonkey.com Levels of activity in design management promotion 1 2 3 4 Promotion Support Education Research
  8. 8. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 8 centres in Europe and many business support centres identified across Europe were emailed with an invitation to complete the questionnaire (see appendix 2). In addition, ADMIRE partners across Europe were charged with the responsibility of encouraging their local business support centres to complete the online questionnaire. The survey was released on the 31 October 2008 and closed on the 31st January 2009. 3.4 DME Award candidates’ use of design support centres Another method to review the contribution of design support centres to the promotion and development of design management was to ask the entrants to the DME Award. Question 14 of the 2008 DME Award online application asked entrants if they used a design support centre to assist them developing their design capability. The online application process was open from the 12 March 2008 until the 18 th June 2008. With this information, it was possible to review the percentage of the entrants who worked with design support centres and if it translated to the winners and honourable mentions short listed for the award. DESIGNSUPPORT - Do you recommend businesses to involve designers at an early stage of the development of a project? - When consulted for a specific project, do you then recommend businesses to consider using design in other areas (e.g corporate identity, workplace design, promotional material, services, etc) - Do you promote the use of structured tools / methodologies to make the most of the design resources (e.g. benchmarking, competitor and market analysis, focus groups, creativity techniques, etc) - Do you encourage evaluation and monitoring of the design process? BUSINESSSUPPORT - Do you help businesses with the management of projects (new product development, service development)? - Is design something you recommend businesses to consider? - Do you promote the role of design as an enabling innovation? - Do you promote design as a strategic business tool? Table 3. Indirect design management support questions 3.5 Sample The selection of design support agencies does not require any particular parameter due to the small number and common interest in improving the application of design within companies. However, the selection of appropriate business support agencies requires much more careful consideration due to the large number of such organisations with different remits and sponsorship. In developing an effective filter for selection, the major consideration is sponsorship or funding. Private consultancies are ruled out due to their requirement to vend products based on their own expertise. In such a situation, the development of design management tools is likely to only be in response to demand. Therefore, should companies be unaware of the potential benefits of effective design management, then consultants are unlikely to find such demand. To provide parity with the potential design support respondents, the business support agencies should be not for profit organisations. The initial target sample was 20 design and 20 business support centres. A total of 29 design support centres and 25 business support centres participated in the survey. Although the sample number of design support centres is small (n=29) it is significant, considering that there are estimated to be around 60 design support centres and organisations in Europe.
  9. 9. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 9 Fig.6: Sample distribution Key: ■ Design support centres ■ Business support centres
  10. 10. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 10 Chapter 5 Results and Analysis 5.1 Profiles All 64 responses to the online questionnaires were recorded by the online survey website and separated into two groups: design support (29 responses) and business support (25 responses). The results were then translated into individual profiles of each respondent. Three of the 64 profiles where made void by an incomplete set of answers. Empty profile grids represent respondents who answered ‘NO’ to Q6, ‘Is design management an aspect of the support that you provide to your clients?’. Profiles are numbered to preserve anonymity. 5.1.1 Design support centres’ profiles for design management promotion Key: P = Design management promotion S = Design management support E = Design management education R = Design management research 1 P 16 P S S E E R R 2 P 17 P S S E E R R 3 P 18 P S S E E R R 4 P 19 P S S E E R R 5 P 20 P V O I D S S V O I D E E V O I D R R V O I D 6 P 21 P S S E E R R 7 P 22 P S S E E R R 8 P 23 P S S E E R R 9 P 24 P S S E E R R 10 P 25 P S S E E R R 11 P 26 P S S E E R R 12 P 27 P S S E E R R 13 P 28 P S S E E R R 14 P 29 P S S E E R R 15 P S E R
  11. 11. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 11 5.1.2 Business support centres’ profiles for design management promotion Key: P = Design management promotion S = Design management support E = Design management education R = Design management research 1 P 14 P S S E E R R 2 P 15 P S S E E R R 3 P 16 P S S E E R R 4 P 17 P S S E E R R 5 P 18 P S S E E R R 6 P 19 P S S E E R R 7 P 20 P V O I D S S V O I D E E V O I D R R V O I D 8 P 21 P S S E E R R 9 P 22 P S S E E R R 10 P 23 P S S E E R R 11 P 24 P V O I D S S V O I D E E V O I D R R V O I D 12 P 25 P S S E E R R 13 P S E R 5.1.3 Consolidated design management promotion profiles The four profile factors (promotion, support, education and research) for each group (design and business) were counted and calculated as percentages. The consolidated profiles of the two groups are represented below in figures 7 and 8. Design support centres Fig. 7. The consolidated profile for design management promotion by design support centres. Business support centres Fig. 8. The consolidated profile for design management promotion by business support centres.
  12. 12. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 12 Figure 9 below illustrates the difference between the two groups by simply representing the total profile count as a percentage. Fig. 9: Percentage of profile count for design support centres and business support centres. 5.1.4 Overview of design management promotion profiles The profiles were developed in order to give a visual indication of activities related to the promotion of design management by support organisations across Europe. The departure point for this profiling was that each subsequent factor of the profiles (promotion, support, education and research) is reliant on some activity in the preceding factor (see cycle in figure 4). That is, support is a more in-depth activity than promotion; therefore, an organisation that provides support is likely to also undertake promotion. Similarly, education (at least formal education) is more in-depth than support and research is reliant on proficiency in education. Of course, this premise is reliant on each of the organisations complying with similar definitions of each of the factors. The consolidated results as presented in figures 7 and 8 appear to broadly support this idea with both design support and business support centres identifying more activity in promotion than support; and more support activity than education. However, in design support centres there is marginally more research activity than education; and, in business support centres there is almost 50% more research activity than education. Tables 5 and 6, and figures 10 and 11 present the numbers of organisations reporting each level of activity in each of the profile factors (NB. figures may not sum to 100% due to rounding). Important to note here that the profiles were generated from respondents from each group that answered positively to Q6 of the survey ‘Is Design Management an aspect of the support that you provide to your clients?’. From the design support cohort, 90% (26 participants) responded positively at this point; whereas, in the business support cohort only 56% (14 participants) indicated that design management provided any aspect of their support portfolio (see table 4). Question 6: Is design management an aspect of the support that you provide to your clients? DESIGN SUPPORT CENTRES BUSINESS SUPPORT CENTRES Yes 26 (90%) 14 (56%) No 2 (7%) 9 (36%) void 1 (3%) 2 (8%) N=29 N=25 Table 4. Frequency of responses to question 6 Design support centres Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 P 0 0 2(8%) 11 (42%) 13 (50%) S 0 6(23%) 9(35%) 7(27%) 4(15%) E 1(4%) 11 (42%) 2(8%) 9(35%) 3(12%) R 4(15%) 3(12%) 8(31%) 6(23%) 5(19%) N=26 (valid design support profiles) Table 5. Design support respondent profile metrics (no cumulative) Promotion SupportEducation Research 1 2 3 4 Fig. 10. Cumulative frequency (%) graph of the design management promotion profile of design support centres.
  13. 13. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 13 Business support centres Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 P 0 0 3 (21%) 7 (50%) 4 (29%) S 0 3 (21%) 7 (50%) 2 (14%) 2 (14%) E 2 (14%) 5 (36%) 3 (21%) 3 (21%) 1 (7%) R 2 (14%) 2 (14%) 2 (14%) 3 (21%) 5 (36%) N=14 (valid design support profiles) Table 6. Business support respondent profile metrics (no cumulative) Promotion SupportEducation Research 1 2 3 4 Fig. 11. Cumulative frequency (%) graph of the design management promotion profile of business support centres. 5.1.4.1 Promotion Within the promotion factor of both cohorts, the minimum reported level of activity was 2 (considering only companies that replied positively to Q6). However, half of the design support centres responded positively to all of the promotion questions as opposed to 29% of the business support cohort. The lowest reported level of promotion activity (i.e. positive responses to two of the promotion questions) was reported by 8% of the design support group as opposed to 21% of the business support group. Table 7 below demonstrates the percentage positive responses to each of the design management promotion profiling questions for both groups of respondents. % positive responses Question DSC1 BSC2 Do you promote the effective management of design? 100 100 Do you promote design management as a distinct discipline (separate to design)? 70 47 Do you promote design management at multi-party events (e.g. at conferences and seminars)? 93 80 Do you promote design management at individual level (e.g. through client visits and meetings)? 78 93 N=26 N=14 1 DSC - Design support centres 2 BSC - Business support centres Table 7. Promotion profile All of the profiling respondents from both groups believed that their organisation promoted the effective management of design in some way; although, most of the business support respondents did not feel that such promotion included the identification of design management as a distinct discipline. In addition, a significantly larger proportion of the Design support group were involved in promoting design management at multi-party events (e.g. conferences and seminars). However, in terms of promoting design management to individual clients, the business support cohort indicated significantly higher levels of activity than the design support group. 5.1.4.2 Support All of the profile respondents from both cohorts reported some activity in the provision of design management support. Similar percentages of each cohort answered positively to all of the support questions (15% of the design support group and 14% of business support). However, a significantly higher percentage of the design support group answered positively to three or more support questions compared to the business support group (43% as opposed to 28%). Table 8 below demonstrates the percentage positive responses to each of the design management support profiling questions for both groups of respondents.
  14. 14. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 14 % positive responses Question DSC BSC Is design management an aspect of the support that you provide to your clients? 93 64 Do you guide design management at the project level during design support activities? 62 60 In design support activities, is design management supported as a distinct management activity? 42 33 Do you provide support for projects exclusively focused on design management? 31 33 N=26 N=14 Table 8. Support profile The only significant difference in the percentage responses between the two groups was to Q6 of the survey. However, it must be noted that this was used as an entry question to the profiling section of the survey. Therefore, the response percentage related to the entire respondent population of the survey (i.e. 29 design support and 25 business support organisations as opposed to 26 and 14 centres respectively for the rest of the profiling responses). In addition, as this control question requires a positive response for any organisation to be included in the profiles, it is not possible for any of the profiled organisations to report no activity in design management support. However, it is interesting that once through this ‘gate’ activity is at a similar level for both groups. Where there is a noticeable difference is in Q12, ‘In design support activities, is Design Management supported as a distinct management activity?’ It is interesting to note that 9% more of the design support cohort answered positively. 5.1.4.3 Education From an overview of the profile, generally higher levels of engagement with design management education can be seen in the design support agencies. Approaching half (47%) of the design support group answered positively to either three or four of the Education profiling questions compared to 28% of the business support agencies. Table 9 below demonstrates the percentage positive responses to each of the design management education profiling questions for both groups of respondents. % positive responses Question DSC BSC Through design projects, is there any knowledge transfer regarding design management to clients? 96 79 Do you provide educational material on design management? 42 29 Do you provide design management training courses for clients? 39 29 Do you develop bespoke training for clients? 35 36 N=26 N=14 Table 9. Education profile The most significant difference between the two groups is in regard to knowledge transfer (KT) to industry that specifically relates to design management. That is, 96% of design support agencies identified such KT, as opposed to 79% of the business support group. The next most significant difference concerns the provision of educational material on design management, with 13% more of the design support group providing a positive response and 10% more of this group providing training regarding design management. 5.1.4.4 Research Very similar levels of both groups undertake no activities regarding design management research (15% design support and 14% business support); however, it is interesting to note that a significantly higher percentage (36%)of business support organisations answered positively to all the Research profile questions than design support agencies (19%). This result appears to buck the trend of the profiling results of the other factors of design management promotion. Table 10 below demonstrates the percentage positive responses to each of the design management research profiling questions for both groups of respondents.
  15. 15. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 15 % positive responses Question DSC BSC Do you provide bespoke design management advice according to individual client project's needs (market analysis / user needs etc.)? 54 69 Do you review your design management interaction to improve your services? 62 62 Do you develop applied research from wider sources to assist clients? 39 54 Do you get involved in collaborative research to improve design management? 62 69 N=26 N=14 Table 10. Research profile Table 10 shows that business support agencies are engaging more in developing design management support as a bespoke service based on client needs. This is evident from both Q18 ‘Do you provide bespoke design management advice according to individual client project's needs (market analysis / user needs etc.)?’ and Q20 ‘Do you develop applied research from wider sources to assist clients?’. However, in terms of self assessment of design management support for future engagement, both groups indicated the same levels of activity. It is interesting that a slightly higher percentage of business support agencies are getting involved with other organisations in order to improve their design management capabilities. 5.2 Indirect Design Management Support In addition to the profiling, the survey presented four questions to gather information regarding indirect support for design management. These questions differed for each cohort due to the relationship of design management to the respondents’ core activities. That is, for design support agencies, the questions enquired about design management in relation to design activity; whereas, for the business support cohort the questions asked about design management in relation to management activities. 5.2.1 Indirect design management support in design support centres The questions regarding indirect design management support to companies were based on the principles of early design engagement (as design has a significant impact on both development cost and product performance); structured product development and creative methods; evaluation and feedback; and cross- fertilisation. The design support agencies indicated high levels of activity in encouraging these principles, as can be seen from table 11 below. Indirect design management question to design support centres % positive responses Do you recommend businesses to involve designers at an early stage of the development of a project? 100 When consulted for a specific project, do you then recommend businesses to consider using design in other areas? (e.g. corporate identity, workplace design, promotional material, services, etc) 100 Do you promote the use of structured tools / methodologies to make the most of the design resources? (e.g. benchmarking, competitor and market analysis, focus groups, creativity techniques, user needs analysis, etc) 71 Do you encourage evaluation and monitoring of the design process? 93 N=28 Table 11. Responses to indirect design management support from design support agencies
  16. 16. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 16 All of the design support centres indicated that design should be introduced early in the development of projects, and, all of the centres reported that they would also recommend the use of design in multiple business functions. It may be surprising, however, that almost 30% of design support centres do not promote the use of structured tools or methods for the application of design, especially as such tools are a common factor in formal design education. In addition, 93% encourage evaluation and monitoring of the design process. One might assume that such evaluation would be an aspect of formal development tools. 5.2.2 Indirect design management support in business support centres The questions regarding indirect support in business support agencies seek to identify where design and design management are referenced or considered in business support projects. Table 12 below presents percentage positive responses to this line of questioning. Indirect design management Question to business support centres % positive responses Do you help businesses with the management of design projects (e.g. new product development, service innovation, etc)? 82 Is design something you recommend businesses to consider? 86 Do you promote design as a strategic branding tool? 68 Do you promote the role of design in enabling innovation? 91 N=22 Table 12. Responses to indirect design management support from business support agencies It might be expected that positive responses to these questions would be lower than to the corresponding questions posed to the design support agencies as design might be presumed to be a smaller sub-set of management activities than the management of design is to design activities. Indeed, the positive response rate bears out such an expectation. 5.3 Barriers to design management promotion Each group of respondents was asked their opinions on the barriers to promoting design management and factors which could improve such promotion. Table 13 below presents the responses from each cohort. % responses from each group DSC BSC Lack of expertise / knowledge 64 64 Lack of demand from customers 60 50 Lack of demand from government 43 27 Lack of promotion 32 36 No financial support available to undertake such activities 57 59 Not our area of expertise 11 18 Inappropriate service 7 9 Need for design management not identified 57 41 Not economically viable at a meaningful level 14 23 Design support / Other comments: Lack of measurement Lack of understanding of what is design management, lack of professional development recognition of design manager professional profile Business Support / Other comments: Other partners in our region take up this role. When we detect needs for design management, we bring our clients in contact with these partners. No awareness of the economic effectiveness of design among small and medium size businesses, and among most public decision- makers as well Prejudice about the meaning of 'design' - industry in [our geographical area] tends to associate design with 'just some nice and trendy shapes' and will therefore not easily understand the importance to see design as a management tool Table 13. Respondents’ identification of barriers to design management promotion The most commonly identified reason for both groups not to provide design management promotion was a lack of expertise or knowledge; this might demonstrate the lack of cross-disciplinary knowledge of each group. That is, design support groups do not have the necessary management skills and business support groups do not have design awareness. This might key into another barrier that both groups face, lack of
  17. 17. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 17 access to financial support to deliver design management services. In terms of an individual organisation looking to fund design management activities, how would they argue the necessary competencies if they are not well versed in the complementary skills of both design and management? This suggests that collaboration between design support and business support agencies is required if design management promotion is to have a positive impact on industry. % responses from each group DSC BSC Availability of design management training 57 36 Developing collaboration with other parties (e.g. working with business support centres) 71 55 Funding 61 41 Raising public awareness of the benefits of effective design management practice 75 86 Table 14. Potential amelioration of design management promotion barriers Agreement that such collaboration could ameliorate barriers to design management promotion can be seen from the cohort of design support agencies responses (see table 14), with over 70% identifying collaboration as a factor that could improve promotion of design management. However, business support respondents were less enthusiastic regarding collaboration. This may be expected as from the point of view of a business support centre, design is just one competency of many that must be effective in order to facilitate business rewards; whereas, for the design support community, the effective management of design is required if their core activities are to deliver to their maximum potential. 5.4 DME Award candidates’ use of design support centres Question 14 of the 2008 DME Award application asked the following multi-choice question: ‘Which of the following does your company exploit to maximise design capability?’. Table 15 shows the responses to option 7, stating that the respondent uses services from a design support centre. Question 14: Which of the following does your company exploit to maximise design capability? ‘We use a design support centre’ Yes 14 (8.6%) No 138 (84.7%) Null 11 (6.7%) N=163 Table 15: Frequency of responses to question 6 The low representation of advice received from design support centres in the table above, would indicate that companies are either unaware or not interested in using design support centres in maximising their design capabilities. Among the 14 positive responses to the question, five of them received recognition (i.e. winner or honourable mention) in the 2008 DME Award.
  18. 18. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 18 5.5 Opinions and feedback from respondents The comments below were selected from responses given to the open question available in the questionnaire. Contributors and their locations are not given in order to preserve anonymity. 5.5.1 Feedback from design support centres ‘A special award to recognise design management will be presented at this year’s annual national design awards.’ ‘We are currently working together with the national agency for innovation on a program for design promotion in Xxxxxxx. This involves also design management.’ ‘The Xxxxxxx Club of Design Managers, a network of design managers working in Xxxxxxx or with interest in our city, thinking of opening a design studio branch for example.’ ‘A training programme on Design Management targeting specific sectors will be delivered in spring 2009. Design Management topic will be continuously raised during 1-1 meetings with SMEs. Design Management services will be promoted to the 12 new Business Centres that were established in different cities of Xxxx recently, regarding the needs of the SMEs in their regions.’ ‘Our organisation is still young and under development. There is a lack of skills in the field of design management, however, we are working on developing new activities in which design management will obtain a principal role.’ 5.5.2 Feedback from business support centres ‘We promote applied research in the field of Sustainability. Developing and applying in company's methodologies of design for sustainability with the integration of other methodologies, such as, Eco- efficiency, Value Analysis, Cleaner Production, Product Service systems, Environmental Management and other activities.’ ‘I am personally involved in promoting the exploitation of design methods & design management via private consultancies, and even the Xxxxxxxxx Federation of Industry.’ ‘In the coming year, we are planning to focus more on design and also assist companies with development of products, via Rapid Prototyping support together with other Design related tools. In the past we have organised Product Development training for our clients and possibly we seek to continue this training in the coming period.’ ‘As manager of XXXX, I see the XXX(local design centre) as a critical cog in the growth and development of the start-up businesses we are working with, not just during the period of time that the businesses are located here, but also when they have graduated from the centre. XXXX is about enabling entrepreneurs so that they become successful companies. Entrepreneur enabling is first about creating the conditions for the entrepreneurs to emerge and then supporting these entrepreneurs in appropriate ways. Start-ups benefit enormously from access to the expertise, facilities and equipment to be found in XXXX (local college). The expertise of the XXXX (local design centre) is one of these supports. Indigenous SMEs, particularly technology or knowledge-based, are predicted to be the most significant engine of economic and employment growth in the XXXXXX economy over the next decade. XXXXXX by providing the best possible supports by using resources like the XXXX (local design centre) will turn this prediction into a reality.’ ‘During the last two years the Investment and Development Agency of XXXXXXX has been extensively working on fostering the innovative, sustainable and profitable manufacturing in XXXXXXXX, emphasizing the added value of design for the competitiveness of products and services. To clarify the necessity of design for manufacturing, identify the cooperation opportunities between the designers and producers and provide the consultations of competent experts about developing the products design. In 2007 the Agency started the project “Design development
  19. 19. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 19 support for manufacturing companies”. Within the project’s framework, 15 small and medium XXXXXXXX companies have participated in design audit and received the individual consultations of the design experts on developing the product’s design. Supporting the implementation of design audit’s results into manufacturing, in 2008 the Agency has organized the second stage of this project. The state support covered 50% of royalty of the designers, who within the framework of the project have worked for the manufacturers, developing a design of a certain product.’ ‘Large scale project 'humanisation' / seminar about design management for B2B / individual consultancy to companies / training / etc.’ ‘We collaborate with XXXXX, in the 'XXXX Network Innovation management'. Next to this 'learning network', XXXXX organises a 'Learning Network product development and design', together with XXX(local design centre). Also, we just started a project 'Innovation in the heart of Europe', together with XXX and XXX, where we will promote innovative products from the Euro region XXXX/XXXXXX.’ ‘We promote design as part of innovation in co- operation with high schools and innovation centre. We target the entrepreneurs to the specialist.’ ‘Design management is one of the items in our plans for the creative industry. The main items for the creative industy sector is to stimulate entrepreneurship by designers and to stimulate the use of design by SMEs.’ ‘Our project will promote innovation over the border. We strive to have more cooperation between the north of XXXX and the South of XXX. When companies want to innovate they don't have to stay in the company itself but take also a look at the design and innovation centres next to them and also over the border.’ 5.6 Key findings considering the original hypotheses Hypothesis H1: Design support agencies do not promote design management as a distinct discipline This hypothesis is not supported by the research. Of the respondent design support agencies 70% reported that they do promote design management as a distinct discipline (separate to design) and 100% of the respondents indicated that the promotion of the effective management of design forms some part of their remit. Hypothesis H2: Design support agencies indirectly support aspects of design management by supporting the use of design This hypothesis is supported by the research, with all of the design support agencies indicating some activities that will promote design management. That is, early phase design involvement and the use of design across a range of business functions. In addition, over 70% of the design support agencies promote the use of structured tools for the facilitation of effective design; and, 93% encourage monitoring and evaluation of the design process. Hypothesis H3: Business support agencies do not promote the management of design as a distinct discipline The research demonstrates good support for this hypothesis. From the sample of 25 business support centres, just 14 (56%) answered positively to Q6, ‘Is Design Management an aspect of the support that you provide to your clients?’(see table 4) and then went through the profiling process. Of those that were profiled, only 47% answered positively to Q8, ‘Do you promote design management as a distinct discipline (separate to design)?’. Therefore, just 28% of the business support respondents claim to promote design management as a distinct discipline.
  20. 20. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 20 Hypotheses H4: The promotion and support of design management is under-represented given the potential business improvements and returns that effective design management has been shown to influence Figures 10 and 11 demonstrated the cumulative design management promotion and support responses from the 16 identified design management promotion factors. These figures also showed that design support agencies are undertaking 58% of these activities and business support agencies are undertaking 36% (figure 9). These results demonstrate support for H4. This hypothesis is supported for both design support centres and business support centres. With 28 valid responses from design support agencies, each responding to 16 design management profile factors gives a maximum level of support from the responding population of 448 (16x28) factors; however, the total cumulative positive responses was 261 (58%). For the responding business support population, the maximum level was 368 (23x16); the total cumulative positive responses was 133 (36%). The radar diagram in figure 12 visualises the areas in which design management support is actively delivered by each cohort. Although it is clear that there are much greater levels of support in all areas being delivered via design support centres, the relative levels of support for each area appear similar for both groups. The radar diagram demonstrates that both groups promote design management to a much greater degree than actually supporting design management; yet lower levels of activity are going on regarding design management education and research. Fig. 12. Profile factors for design support centres in comparison to business support centres
  21. 21. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 21 Chapter 6 Conclusion This report set out to investigate design management promotion in Europe. Through the identification that such promotion was likely to be delivered by either the design support or business support communities; four hypotheses were developed for testing: Hypothesis H1: Design support agencies do not promote design management as a distinct discipline. Hypothesis H2: Design support agencies indirectly support aspects of design management by supporting the use of design. Hypothesis H3: Business support agencies do not promote the management of design as a distinct discipline. Hypothesis H4: The promotion and support of design management is under-represented given the potential business improvements and returns that effective design management has been shown to influence. The overall research departure point for these hypotheses was that effective design management activities are outside of the scope of both design support and business support agencies. This is because design support agencies lack management knowledge; and, business support agencies lack design competencies. H1 was not supported by the research, as 70% of design support respondents recognised design management as a distinct discipline. The rest of the hypotheses were supported. Although design support agencies recognise design management as a distinct discipline, there is a significant shortfall in the levels of design management activity between support agencies and industry. The analysis of the results supports the overall departure point of design management being outside of the scope of both design support and business support agencies. There is significant support for collaboration with business support centres from Design Support centres to address design management promotion; however, access to funding for design management activities is a barrier that both groups identified. This report recommends that support is developed for active design management collaboration between design support and business support agencies to develop and deliver design management support services. Further, the recommendation is that such collaboration should, in the main, be led by design support centres due to the much higher levels of design management activity already being developed by this group.
  22. 22. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 22 Appendix Online questionnaire in design management promotion Design support centres sent version A Business support centre sent version B (in blue italics) Reference 1. Name of Design Support Centre 1. Name of Business Support Centre 2. Country 3. Name of contact 4. Telephone number (please indicate code area) 5. Do you believe there is significant value in applying specific management skills to design? 5. Do you believe it is worthwhile to integrate design in other business activities? Control question (also first question of ‘Support’ profile) 6. Is design management an aspect of the support that you provide to your clients? yes  directed to question 7 (Design management profiling) no  directed to question 22 (Indirect design management support) Design management profiling Promotion 7. Do you promote the effective management of design? 8. Do you promote design management as a distinct discipline (separate to design)? 9. Do you promote design management at multi-party events (e.g. at conferences and seminars)? 10. Do you promote design management at individual level (e.g. through client visits and meetings?) Support 11. Do you guide design management at the project level during design support activities? 12. In design support activities, is design management supported as a distinct management activity? 13. Do you provide support for projects exclusively focused on design management? Education 14. Through design projects, is there any knowledge transfer regarding design management to clients? 15. Do you provide educational material on design management? 16. Do you provide design management training courses for clients? 17. Do you develop bespoke training for clients? Research 18. Do you provide bespoke design management advice according to individual client project’s needs (market analysis / user needs etc.)? 19. Do you review your design management interaction to improve your services? 20. Do you develop applied research from wider sources to assist clients? 21. Do you get involvement in collaborative research to improve design management? Indirect design management support 22. Do you recommend businesses to involve designers at an early stage of the development of a project? 22. Do you help businesses with the management of design projects (e.g. new product development, service innovation, etc?) 23. When consulted for a specific project, do you then recommend businesses to consider using design in other areas (e.g. corporate identity, workplace design, promotional material, services)? 23. Is design something you recommend businesses to consider? 24. Do you promote the use of structured tools / methodologies to make the most of the design resources? (e.g. benchmarking, competitor and market analysis, focus groups, creativity techniques, user needs analysis, etc) 24. Do you promote design as a strategic branding tool? 25. Do you encourage evaluation and monitoring of the design process?
  23. 23. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 23 25. Do you promote the role of design in enabling innovation? Barriers to DM promotion and ameliorating factors 26. What do you believe are the barriers to promoting design management? [ ] lack of expertise / knowledge [ ] lack of demand from customers [ ] lack of demand from government [ ] lack of promotion [ ] no financial support available to undertake such activities [ ] not our area of expertise [ ] inappropriate service [ ] need for DM promotion not identified [ ] not economically viable at a meaningful level [ ] other 27. In your opinion, which factors could improve the promotion of DM? [ ] providing training to advisors [ ] developing collaboration with other parties (e.g. working with design or business support centres) [ ] funding [ ] tools [ ] external raising awareness of the issue / of the benefits of DM [ ] other 28. Please use this space to add more information about any of the design management promotion activities that are or will be taking place in your support centre.
  24. 24. © University of Wales Institute, Cardiff 2009 24 The National Centre for Product Design & Development Research (PDR), University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC), Western Avenue, Cardiff, CF5 2YB UK Tel: +44 (0)29 2041 6668 www.pdronline.co.uk www.uwic.ac.uk www.designmanagementeurope.com The ADMIRE programme and DME Award are made possible with financing from the European Union through the PRO INNO Europe initiative.

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