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[HCI] Week 03 Affordance & UAF

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Hartson, R., & Pyla, P. (2012) The UX Book : Process and Guidelines for Ensuring a Quality User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann., Chap. 20.

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[HCI] Week 03 Affordance & UAF

  1. 1. Lecture 3 Affordance & UAF Human Computer Interaction / COG3103, 2015 Fall Class hours : Tue 1-3 pm/Thurs 12-1 pm 15th September
  2. 2. AFFORDANCES DEMYSTIFIED Textbook Chapter 20. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 2
  3. 3. WHAT ARE AFFORDANCES? • The Concept of Affordance – In HCI design, where we focus on helping the user, an affordance is something that helps a user do something. – In interaction design, affordances are characteristics of user interface objects and interaction design features that help users perform tasks. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 3
  4. 4. WHAT ARE AFFORDANCES? • Definitions of the Different Kinds of Affordance (Hartson, 2003) – Cognitive affordances help users with their cognitive actions: thinking, deciding, learning, remembering, and knowing about things. – Physical affordances help users with their physical actions: clicking, touching, pointing, gesturing, and moving things. – Sensory affordances help users with their sensory actions: seeing, hearing, and feeling (and tasting and smelling) things. – Functional affordances help users do real work (and play) and get things done, to use the system to do work. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 4
  5. 5. A LITTLE BACKGROUND • Who “invented” the concept of affordances? – Norman did introduce the concept to HCI (1990) – The concept itself goes back at least as far as James J. Gibson (1977, 1979) – Gibson is a perceptual psychologist who took an “ecological” approach to perception, meaning he studied the relationship between a living being and its environment, in particular what the environment offers or affords the animal. – In his ecological view, affordance is reckoned with respect to the animal/user, which is part of the affordance relationship. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 5
  6. 6. A LITTLE BACKGROUND • And after – Gaver(1991) sees affordances in design as a way of focusing on strengths and weaknesses of technologies with respect to the possibilities they offer to people who use them. He extends the concepts by showing how complex actions can be described in terms of groups of affordances, sequential in time and/or nested in space, showing how affordances can be revealed over time, with successive user actions, for example, in the multiple actions of a hierarchical drop-down menu. – McGrenere and Ho (2000) may think design of cognitive affordances is acknowledged to be about design for the cognitive part of usability, ease of use in the form of learnability for new and intermittent users Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 6
  7. 7. FOUR KINDS OF AFFORDANCES IN UX DESIGN • Cognitive Affordance – Cognitive affordance is a design feature that helps, aids, supports, facilitates, or enables thinking, learning, understanding, and knowing about something. Cognitive affordances play starring roles in interaction design, especially for less experienced users who need help with understanding and learning. – Symbol of an icon – The form of a clear and concise button label • Feed forward : semantics or meaning of user interface artifacts. – Feedback • helping a user know what happened after a button click. • helps users in knowing whether the course of interaction has been successful so far. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 7
  8. 8. FOUR KINDS OF AFFORDANCES IN UX DESIGN • Physical Affordance – Physical affordance is a design feature that helps, aids, supports, facilitates, or enables doing something physically. Adequate size and easy-to-access location could be physical affordance features of an interface button design enabling users to click easily on the button. – Fitts’ law (Fitts, 1954; MacKenzie, 1992), physical disabilities and limitations, and physical characteristics of interaction devices and interaction techniques. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 8 𝑇 = 𝑎 + 𝑏 log 2 (1 + 𝐷 𝑊 )
  9. 9. FOUR KINDS OF AFFORDANCES IN UX DESIGN • Sensory Affordance – Sensory affordance is a design feature that helps, aids, supports, facilitates, or enables user in sensing (e.g., seeing, hearing, feeling) something. Sensory affordance is associated with the “sense-ability” characteristics of user interface artifacts, especially when it is used to help the user sense (e.g., see) cognitive affordances and physical affordances. – noticeability, discernability, legibility (in the case of text), and audibility (in the case of sound) of features or devices associated with visual, auditory, haptic/tactile, or other sensations. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 9
  10. 10. FOUR KINDS OF AFFORDANCES IN UX DESIGN • Sensory Affordance (continued) – Why do we call it “sensory affordance” and not “perceptual affordance?” • In the general context of psychology, the concepts of sensing and perception are intertwined. To avoid this association, we use the term “sensing” instead of “perception” because it excludes the component of cognition usually associated with perception (Hochberg, 1964). This allows us to separate the concepts of sensory and cognitive affordance into mostly non-overlapping meanings. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 10
  11. 11. FOUR KINDS OF AFFORDANCES IN UX DESIGN • Functional Affordance – Functional affordances connect physical user actions to invoke system, or back end, functionality. Functional affordances link usability or UX to usefulness and add purpose for physical affordance. They are about higher level user enablement in the work domain and add meaning and goal orientation to design discussions. – an affordance helps or aids the user in doing something. – We use the term functional affordance to denote this kind of higher level user enablement in the work domain. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 11
  12. 12. FOUR KINDS OF AFFORDANCES IN UX DESIGN Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 12 Cognitive affordance Design feature that helps users in knowing Something A button label that helps users know what will happen if they click on it Physical affordance Design feature that helps users in doing a physical action in the interface A button that is large enough so that users can click on it accurately Sensory affordance Design feature that helps users sense something (especially cognitive affordances and physical affordances) A label font size large enough to be discerned Functional affordance Design feature that helps users accomplish work (i.e., usefulness of a system function) The internal system ability to sort a series of numbers (invoked by users clicking on the Sort button) Table 20-1 Summary of affordance types
  13. 13. AFFORDANCES IN INTERACTION DESIGN • Communication and Cultural Conventions • Cognitive Affordance as “Information in the World” • Affordance Roles—An Alliance in Design Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 13
  14. 14. FALSE COGNITIVE AFFORDANCES MISINFORM AND MISLEAD Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 14 Figure 20-1 A door with a confusing sign containing conflicting cognitive affordances.
  15. 15. FALSE COGNITIVE AFFORDANCES MISINFORM AND MISLEAD Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 15 Figure 20-2 False cognitive affordances in a form letter that looks like an affordance to cut.
  16. 16. FALSE COGNITIVE AFFORDANCES MISINFORM AND MISLEAD Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 16 Figure 20-3 False cognitive affordances in a menu bar with links that look like buttons.
  17. 17. FALSE COGNITIVE AFFORDANCES MISINFORM AND MISLEAD Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 17 Figure 20-4 Radio switch with mixed affordances.
  18. 18. FALSE COGNITIVE AFFORDANCES MISINFORM AND MISLEAD Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 18 Figure 20-5 Useless dial marks between power settings on a microwave.
  19. 19. USER-CREATED AFFORDANCES AS A WAKE-UP CALL TO DESIGNERS Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 19 Figure 20-6 Misdirection in a cognitive affordance.
  20. 20. USER-CREATED AFFORDANCES AS A WAKE-UP CALL TO DESIGNERS Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 20 Figure 20-7 Glass door with a user added cognitive affordance (arrow) indicating proper operation.
  21. 21. USER-CREATED AFFORDANCES AS A WAKE-UP CALL TO DESIGNERS Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 21 Figure 20-8 A user-created cognitive affordance explaining copier darkness settings.
  22. 22. USER-CREATED AFFORDANCES AS A WAKE-UP CALL TO DESIGNERS Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 22 Figure 20-9 A user-made automobile cup-holder artifact, used with permission from Roundel magazine, BMW Car Club of America, Inc. (Howarth, 2002).
  23. 23. USER-CREATED AFFORDANCES AS A WAKE-UP CALL TO DESIGNERS Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 23 Figure 20-10 A user-created cognitive affordance to help users know how to insert blank letterhead stationery.
  24. 24. EMOTIONAL AFFORDANCES Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 24 Figure 20-11 A user-created cognitive affordance added to a roadside sign; see arrow on post to left of the sign.
  25. 25. EMOTIONAL AFFORDANCES • Affordances that help lead users to a positive emotional response. – This means features or design elements that make an emotional connection with the user. These will include design features that connect to our subconscious and intuitive appreciation of fun, aesthetics, and challenges to growth. – This new kind of affordance plays well into the original Gibson ecological view of affordances that are about the relationship between a living being and its environment. This is just what we are talking about with respect to emotional impact, especially phenomenological aspects. – Gibson’s affordances are about values and meanings that can be perceived directly in the environment. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 25
  26. 26. EMOTIONAL AFFORDANCES • Emotional Impact – Emotional impact is the affective component of user experience that influences user feelings. Emotional impact includes such effects as pleasure, fun, joy of use, aesthetics, desirability, pleasure, novelty, originality, sensations, coolness, engagement, novelty, and appeal and can involve deeper emotional factors such as self-expression, self- identity, a feeling of contribution to the world, and pride of ownership. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 26
  27. 27. THE INTERACTION CYCLE AND THE USER ACTION FRAMEWORK Textbook Chapter 21. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 27
  28. 28. INTRODUCTION • Interaction Cycle and User Action Framework (UAF) – The Interaction Cycle is our adaptation of Norman’s “stages-of-action” model (Norman, 1986) that characterizes sequences of user actions typically occurring in interaction between a human user and almost any kind of machine. The User Action Framework (Andre et al., 2001) is a structured knowledge base containing information about UX design, concepts, and issues. – Within each part of the UAF, the knowledge base is organized by immediate user intentions involving sensory, cognitive, or physical actions. Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 28
  29. 29. INTRODUCTION • Need for a Theory-Based Conceptual Framework – “Classification lies at the heart of every scientific field. Classifications structure domains of systematic inquiry and provide concepts for developing theories to identify anomalies and to predict future research needs.” Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 29
  30. 30. INTRODUCTION • The UAF is such a classification structure for UX design concepts, issues, and principles, designed to: – Give structure to the large number of interaction design principles, issues, and concepts – Offer a more standardized vocabulary for UX practitioners in discussing interaction design situations and UX problems – Provide the basis for more thorough and accurate UXproblem analysis and diagnosis – Foster precision and completeness of UX problem reports based on essential distinguishing characteristics Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 30
  31. 31. THE INTERACTION CYCLE Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 31 Figure 21-1 Norman’s (1990) stages-of action model, adapted with permission.
  32. 32. THE INTERACTION CYCLE • Gulfs between User and System – The gulf of execution – The gulf of evaluation Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 32
  33. 33. THE INTERACTION CYCLE • From Norman’s Model to Our Interaction Cycle – Partitioning the model – Adding outcomes and system response – The resulting Interaction Cycle Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 33
  34. 34. THE INTERACTION CYCLE Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 34 Figure 21-1 Norman’s (1990) stages-of action model, adapted with permission.
  35. 35. THE INTERACTION CYCLE • Example: Creating a Business Report as a Task within the Interaction Cycle Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 35 Calculate monthly profits for last quarter Write summary, including graphs, to show company performance Create table of contents Print the report Open spreadsheet program Call accounting department and ask for numbers for each month Create column headers in spreadsheet for expenses and revenues in each product category Compute profits
  36. 36. THE INTERACTION CYCLE • Cooperative User-System Task Performance within the Interaction Cycle – Primary tasks – Path variations in the Interaction Cycle • Multiuser tasks (Figure 21-3) – Secondary tasks, intention shifts, and stacking • Secondary tasks and intention shifts • Stacking and restoring task context • Example of stacking due to intention shift (Figure 21-4) Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 36
  37. 37. THE INTERACTION CYCLE Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 37 Figure 21-3 Multiuser interaction, system events, and asynchronous external events within multiple Interaction Cycles.
  38. 38. THE INTERACTION CYCLE Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 38 Figure 21-4 Stacking and returning to Interaction Cycle task context instances.
  39. 39. THE USER ACTION FRAMEWORK—ADDING A STRUCTURED KNOWLEDGE BASE TO THE INTERACTION CYCLE Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 39 Figure 21-5 Basic kinds of user actions in the Interaction Cycle as the top-level UAF structure.
  40. 40. THE USER ACTION FRAMEWORK—ADDING A STRUCTURED KNOWLEDGE BASE TO THE INTERACTION CYCLE • From the Interaction Cycle to the User Action Framework (Figure 21-5) • Interaction Style and Device Independent • Common Design Concepts Are Distributed • Completeness Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 40
  41. 41. INTERACTION CYCLE AND USER ACTION FRAMEWORK CONTENT CATEGORIES • Planning (Design Helping User Know What to Do) – a typical sequence of planning activities : • Identify work needs in the subject matter domain (e.g., communicate with someone in writing) • Establish goals in the work domain to meet these work needs (e.g., produce a business letter) • Divide goals into tasks performed on the computer to achieve the goals (e.g., type content, format the page) • Spawn intentions to perform the steps of each task (e.g., set the left margin) Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 41
  42. 42. INTERACTION CYCLE AND USER ACTION FRAMEWORK CONTENT CATEGORIES • Planning (Design Helping User Know What to Do) – Planning concepts – Planning content in the UAF • User model and high-level understanding of system • Goal decomposition • Task/step structuring and sequencing, workflow • User work context, environment • User knowledge of system state, modalities, and especially active modes • Supporting learning at the planning level through use and exploration Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 42
  43. 43. INTERACTION CYCLE AND USER ACTION FRAMEWORK CONTENT CATEGORIES • Translation (Design Helping User Know How to Do Something) – Translation concepts – Translation content in the UAF • Existence of a cognitive affordance to show how to do something • Presentation (of a cognitive affordance) • Content, meaning (of a cognitive affordance) • Task structure, interaction control, preferences and efficiency • Support of user learning about what actions to make on which UI objects and how through regular and exploratory use Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 43
  44. 44. INTERACTION CYCLE AND USER ACTION FRAMEWORK CONTENT CATEGORIES • Physical Actions (Design Helping User Do the Actions) – Physical actions—concepts • sensing the objects in order to manipulate them • Manipulation – Physical actions content in the UAF • Existence of necessary physical affordances in user interface • Sensing UI objects for and during manipulation • Manipulating UI objects, making physical actions Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 44
  45. 45. INTERACTION CYCLE AND USER ACTION FRAMEWORK CONTENT CATEGORIES • Outcomes (Internal, Invisible Effect/Result within System) – Outcomes—concepts – Outcomes content in the UAF • Existence of needed functionality or feature (functional affordance) • Existence of needed or unwanted automation • Computational error • Results unexpected • Quality of functionality Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 45
  46. 46. INTERACTION CYCLE AND USER ACTION FRAMEWORK CONTENT CATEGORIES • Assessment (Design Helping User Know if Interaction Was Successful) – Assessment concepts – Assessment content in the UAF • Existence of feedback or indication of state or mode • Presentation (of feedback) • Content, meaning (of feedback) Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 46
  47. 47. ROLE OF AFFORDANCES WITHIN THE UAF Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 47 Figure 21-6 Affordances connect users with design.
  48. 48. ROLE OF AFFORDANCES WITHIN THE UAF Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 48 Figure 21-7 Interaction cycle of the UAF indicating affordance related user actions.
  49. 49. PRACTICAL VALUE OF UAF • Advantage of Vocabulary to Think About and Communicate Design Issues • Advantage of Organized and Structured Usability Data • Advantage of Richness in Usability Problem Analysis Schemes • Advantage of Usability Data Reuse Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 49
  50. 50. TALES OF THINGS IoT Case Study 01 Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 50
  51. 51. Tales of Things : Web Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 51
  52. 52. Tales of Things : Mobile Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 52
  53. 53. Related Links • App Site – http://talesofthings.com/ • Book – http://themobilestory.com/ch-19-tales-of-things/ • Conference – http://dh2011abstracts.stanford.edu/xtf/view?docId=tei%2Fab- 158.xml%3Bquery%3D%3Bbrand%3Ddefault • News – http://bookleteer.com/blog/2010/08/tales-of-things/ Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 53
  54. 54. TALES OF THINGS Reviews Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 54
  55. 55. Question 1 • Draw the interaction cycle of “Tales of Things” – Note to what your goal of “Tales of Things” was. – Describe the example world of “Tale of Things” use context – Describe your gulf of execution to use “Tales of Things” – Describe your gulf of evaluation to use “Tale of Things” Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 55
  56. 56. THE INTERACTION CYCLE Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 56 Figure 21-1 Norman’s (1990) stages-of action model, adapted with permission.
  57. 57. Question 2 • Translate the cycle into the UAF – Tell your stories of experiencing ToT – What did you plan? – What were the steps of the translation? – Explain your physical action to the app. – What was the outcomes of ToT following to your physical action? – Were the system feedbacks proper? Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 57
  58. 58. THE INTERACTION CYCLE Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 58 Figure 21-1 Norman’s (1990) stages-of action model, adapted with permission.
  59. 59. Question 3 • Analysis/Design your own ToT use case. – Who are the users? – What do they use ToT for? – What use context will they be in to access the ToT process(or Interaction Cycle)? Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 59
  60. 60. THE INTERACTION CYCLE • Example: Creating a Business Report as a Task within the Interaction Cycle Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 60 Calculate monthly profits for last quarter Write summary, including graphs, to show company performance Create table of contents Print the report Open spreadsheet program Call accounting department and ask for numbers for each month Create column headers in spreadsheet for expenses and revenues in each product category Compute profits
  61. 61. Homework • Compile 3 items below in a new post on your blog. – The link of your own ToT post. – Your app assessment brief : 1 page – Answers to the 3 questions • Due until – 11:59 pm Sunday 20th September Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 61
  62. 62. ToT QR Code Lecture #5 IIT_UX Theory 62
  63. 63. Homework • Fill up the team-up form – http://goo.gl/forms/hAR0aXrMtN – Submit until 11:59 pm Sunday 20th September 2015 Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 63

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