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Lifestyle Diseases
Lifestyle Diseases
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Life style diseases

  3. 3. What causes LSD  Certain habits, behaviors, and practices such as poor eating habits, inactivity, or smoking  Factors that we cannot control such as age, gender, and heredity
  4. 4. Controllable risk factors  These include habits, behaviors, and practices that we can change  Examples:  Your diet and body weight  Your daily levels of physical activity  Your level of sun exposure  Smoking and alcohol abuse
  5. 5. Uncontrollable risk factors  Some risk factors that contribute to your chances of developing a lifestyle disease are out of your control.  Examples:  Age  Gender  Ethnicity  Heredity
  6. 6. Lsd includes  Cardio vascular diseases  Certain types of cancer  Type 2 diabetes  Cirrhosis  Kidney failure etc
  7. 7. Cardio vascular diseases  Your heart and blood vessels make up your cardiovascular system.  The diseases that result from damage to your heart and blood vessels are called cardiovascular diseases. Types of CVDs: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure
  8. 8. Risk factors  Certain factors greatly increase your risk of developing a cardiovascular disease, these factors include:  Smoking  Being overweight  High blood pressure  High blood cholesterol  Diabetes
  9. 9. Types of cvd Stroke High Blood Pressure Heart Attack Atherosclerosis
  10. 10. STROKE  Sudden attacks of weakness or paralysis (loss of muscle function) that occur when blood flow to an area of the brain is interrupted.  Affects the arteries leading to and within the brain  Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind diseases of the heart and cancer
  11. 11. High Blood Pressure  The force that blood exerts against the inside walls of a blood vessel.  When blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on the walls of the vessels and on the heart.  Many people do not know their blood pressure is high until they have a heart attack or stroke.
  12. 12. Preventing hypertension • Cut back on salt. • Lose weight. • Quit smoking. • Stop consumption of alcohol. • Avoid saturated fat&cholestrol rich diet, • consume food such as whole grain,beans,fruits &vegetables • Exercise & avoid stress.
  13. 13. CHOLESTROL  Several kinds of blood fats: • LDL (“bad”) cholesterol - can narrow or block blood vessels. • HDL (“good”) cholesterol - helps remove cholesterol deposits. • Triglycerides - can raise your risk for heart attacks/stroke.
  14. 14. TARGET LEVELS • Target LDL = less than 100 • Ideal HDL = above 40 (men)  above 50 (women) • Target triglycerides = less than 150
  15. 15. Managing cholesterol •Eat less saturated fat and trans fat.  Foods high in saturated fat and trans fat: fatty meats, hot dogs, high fat dairy products like cream and cheese, baked products and snacks with hydrogenated vegetables oils in the ingredients. •Eat foods high in fiber.  Examples: oatmeal, beans, peas, citrus fruits •Take cholesterol-lowering medication prescribed by your doctor. •Exercise regularly.
  16. 16. Heart Attack  A heart attack is when blood vessels that supply blood to the heart are blocked, preventing enough oxygen from getting to the heart.The heart muscle dies or becomes permanently damaged. Most heart attacks are caused by a blood clot that blocks one of the coronary arteries.The coronary arteries bring blood and oxygen to the heart. If the blood flow is blocked, the heart starves for oxygen and heart cells die.”
  17. 17. Atherosclerosis  This disease is categorized by the buildup of fatty materials on the inside walls of the arteries  It is dangerous for 2 reasons:  1. It can reduce or stop blood flow to certain parts of the body  2.These deposits can break free and release clots into the bloodstream
  18. 18. Preventing CVD  Limit consumption of fat and salt  Keep your weight near recommended levels  Don’t smoke  Get moving  Have your blood pressure and cholesterol checked regularly  Relax
  19. 19. cancer  A disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth.  Tumors are a mass of uncontrolled growing cells that form a clump.  Malignant- invade and destroys healthy tissue  Benign- harmless cell mass  Causes:  Certain viruses (HPV)  Radiation (UV rays, X-rays)  Chemicals in tobacco smoke  Asbestos (material used in fireproofing)
  20. 20. Types of cancer  Breast  Prostate Lymphoma  Skin  Leukemia  Ovarian  Cervical  Respiratory  Colon  Urinary
  21. 21. Detecting  Self-exam  Biopsy  X rays  MRI  Blood and DNA tests
  22. 22. prevention  Don’t’ smoke!  Wear sunscreen; stay away from tanning beds  Eat your veggies and cut the fat  Stay active  Get regular medical check-ups
  23. 23. Cancer in Kerala  It is estimated that 35,000 new cancer cases occur in Kerala in one year. Among males 50% of cancers in the mouth, throat and lungs are caused byTobacco and alcohol habits. Among women tobacco related cancers are 15%.
  24. 24. CANCER IN HEAD &NECK  The main risk factor for these cancers is tobacco and alcohol. A diet rich in green and yellow vegetables has been shown to offer protection against oral cancer. Avoidance of tobacco and alcohol is the most important preventive action against mouth, throat and lung cancers.
  25. 25. Cancer of stomach&Colon  Consumption of large amounts of red chilies, food at very high temperatures and alcohol consumption are the main risk factors for stomach cancer.  Heavy consumption of red meat can lead to risk of colon cancer.White meat such as that of poultry do not have this risk. In South India there is a trend towards increasing consumption of red meat and this can lead to increased risk for large bowel cancer.
  26. 26. Cancer of breast  A large number of factors are identified as risk factors for breast cancer. Late age at first pregnancy greater than 30 years, single child, late age at menopause etc are some of them.  affluent life styles have reduced the physical activities to a minimum and increased the consumption of diets rich in fat. High fat diets during the pubertal age and obesity in the post menopausal age are risk factors for breast cancer, high fat diet is also identified as a risk factor.
  27. 27. Cancer of uterine cervix  Early age at first intercourse, multiple sexual partners, poor sexual hygiene, repeated child birth etc are some of the reproductive risk factors for cervical cancer  . Regular cervical cytology examination (pap smear) by all women who have initiated sexual activity can prevent the occurrence of cervical cancer.
  28. 28. What is diabetes&types • The body does not produce or properly use insulin. • Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to use glucose for energy. The body produces glucose from the food you eat.  Type1 diabetes(Iddm) 1 diabetes (IDDM) • Usually diagnosed in children and young adults  Type 2 diabetes(NIDDM) • Most common form • Most often diagnosed in adults
  29. 29. Prediabetes  What is Prediabetes? • Comes before type 2 diabetes • Blood glucose are higher than normal, but not yet diabetes • Most people with prediabetes don’t know they have it  Prediabetes Ranges  HbA1C-5.7-6.4%  Fasting Plasma GlucoseTest-100-125 mg/dl  Oral GlucoseToleranceTest-140-199 mg/dl
  30. 30. Risk factors • You are overweight. • A parent, brother or sister has diabetes. • You are African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American,Asian American or Pacific Islander. • You had a baby weighing more than 9 pounds or had gestational diabetes. • You have high blood pressure. • You have low HDL (good cholesterol). • You have high triglycerides.
  31. 31. Diabetes complications  Heart Disease and Stroke • On diabetes-related death certificates among people aged 65 years or older: • Heart disease was noted 68 percent of the time. • Stroke was noted 16 percent of the time. • The risk for stroke and death from heart disease is 2 to 4 times higher among people with diabetes.
  32. 32. complications  Kidney Disease • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, accounting for 44 percent of new cases .  Amputations • More than 60 percent of nontraumatic lower-limb amputations occur in people with diabetes.  Blindness • Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20-74 years.
  33. 33. Preventing complication  By managing the ABCs of diabetes, people with diabetes can reduce their risk of complications.  A stands for HbA1C (a measure of average blood glucose)  B stands for Blood pressure  C stands for Cholesterol
  34. 34. To lower the risks of Dm complications • HbA1C < 7, which is an estimated average glucose of 154mg/dl • Blood pressure < 130/80 • Cholesterol (LDL) < 100 • Cholesterol (HDL) > 40 (men) and > 50 (women) • Triglycerides < 150 • Get help to quit smoking. • Be active. • Make healthy food choices