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Medicine and Surgery in
ancient Egypt
Sameh Shehata
Egypt
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Sameh Shehata
• Prof. Of Pediatric surgery . Alexandria
Egypt
• WOFAPS Vice President .
• EPSA...
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CONTENTS:
• How did we find out?
• Basic concepts .
• Egyptian doctors.
• Ranks and specializa...
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Homer c. 800 BC
• "In Egypt, the men
are more skilled in
medicine than any of
human kind”
Odys...
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HOW DID WE FIND OUT ?
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ANCIENT MEDICAL RECORDS
Egyptian Papyrus
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 Egyptologists have found documents, written on
a type of paper called papyrus, that describe...
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Papyrus Plant
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Processing
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Rolls ready for writing
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Finished product after writing
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KEY MEDICAL PAPYRI
• The Kahun (1825 B.C)
gynecology
• The Ebers (1534 B.C)
internal medicin...
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BASIC CONCEPTS
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• Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex
system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals
which wer...
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Ancient Egyptian Gods
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Health and God
 Religious beliefs dominated the ancient
Egyptians' view of healing.
 Doctors...
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Sekhmet The goddess of
medicine
• Ancient Egypt.
Sekhmet, goddess of
fire, war, vengeance,
men...
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THE METU
 Heart as key to concepts
of anatomy and
physiology
• 22 channels.
• Carry blood or ...
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MUMMIES 1500 BC
Learning human anatomy
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
What is Mummy?
• A mummy, in terms of Ancient Egypt, is body
that has been well preserved for ...
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Anubis , the god of
mummification
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70 days process
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Canopic jars
LiverLungsIntestine Stomach
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Sarcophagus (coffin)
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How king Tut looked like
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SIGNIFICANCE OF MUMMY
• Idea about conserving a dead body.
• Idea about Surgery and Dressing.
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Egyptian Doctors
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Imhotep 2600 BC
• Polymath : architect,
engineer, physician.
• Build 1st step pyramid.
• Wrote...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Merit Ptah
The chief physician
• first woman known by
name in the history of
the field of medi...
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Ranks
• inspector of doctors,
• overseers
• chief doctors
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
the first medical specialists,
• Egypt even had Homer wrote, “The
practice of medicine they [t...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Specialization
• ophthalmologist,
• gastroenterologist ,
• proctologist, dentists
• “doctors w...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
The chief dentist
• In Ancient Egypt
physician Hesy-Re
from the Third
Dynasty recognized
denti...
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Ancient Dentistry – the Root of all Dental
Techniques
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DENTISTR
Y
• Independent profession dated from early 3rd millennium
B.C.
• Poor teeth due to d...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Dental drill. Same type for drilling holes in
stone beads.
The next time you visit a dentist b...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Ancient gynecology
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Kahun Gynaecological
Papyrus
• is the oldest known medical text of any
kind. Dated to c. 1800 ...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Hieroglyphic for child birth
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Birthing scene from the Temple of Dendera
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Birth stools
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Proctologists
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
The royal Guardian of the anus
• The first mention of the enema in medical
literature comes fr...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
First pharmacists
Ancient Egyptians would be familiar with
the idea of a modern chemist.
The...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
• Egyptian Pottery with
hieroglyphics-The wines
infused with medicines.
• The bottles were lab...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Social media ?
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
TOOLS
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Surgical tools:- knives, hooks, drills,
• forceps, pinchers, scales, spoons, saw
• and vase w...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Tomb carvings of physician
depicting medical tools.
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Scalpels
SURGERY TOOLS
Medical kit
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Wound suturing
• Physicians have used suture to close
wounds for at least 4,000 years.
Archaeo...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Wound dressing
• 1st day :Raw meat is known to be an efficient
way to prevent bleeding.
• Hone...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
TECHNIQUES
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
CIRCUMCISION
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
2345 BC
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Why did they circumcise ?
• Religious sacrifice.
• Clean.
• Sign of adulthood and strength.
• ...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Herodotus 500 BC
• the Egyptians “practice circumcision for
the sake of cleanliness, consideri...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Trepanning
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Indications
• Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical
interventions carried out as treatment...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Urethral stricture
• Urethral strictures were dilated
using reeds. This was the earliest non-
...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Pus
• The surgical treatment of abscesses or
cysts was described in the Ebers Papyrus.
• “Inst...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
the world's first prosthetic toe
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Tracheostomy
• Two sculptured slabs from the 1st dynasty
(3150 – 2925 BC) dating to kings Aha ...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
DISEASES
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Angina Pectoris
• A good description of angina pectoris
(Ebers Papyrus)
• “shouldst though exa...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Cancer
• At least 39 mummies with cancer have
been identified. Cancer of the uterus has
been d...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Breast Ca
• Breast cancer was also described, but was non-curable.
•
• “If thou examinst a man...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
The brain
• The Edwin Smith Papyrus contains a description
of the brain and its pulsation. Phy...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
• Poliomyelitis:
suspected in few
mummies
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
CONCLUSION
• The medicinal skills of ancient Egyptians were
far beyond their time. With the wr...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
• the ancient Egyptians revolutionized the world
of medicine and laid a path and framework for...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
• In conclusion, Ancient Egypt was the
leading civilization when it came to
medicine and surge...
>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
Thank you !
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Surgery and medicine In ancient Egypt

The history of Surgery and medicine in ancient Egypt.

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Surgery and medicine In ancient Egypt

  1. 1. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Medicine and Surgery in ancient Egypt Sameh Shehata Egypt
  2. 2. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sameh Shehata • Prof. Of Pediatric surgery . Alexandria Egypt • WOFAPS Vice President . • EPSA past president. • IPEG ME Co Chair
  3. 3. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> CONTENTS: • How did we find out? • Basic concepts . • Egyptian doctors. • Ranks and specialization. • Tools. • Techniques. • Diseases.
  4. 4. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Homer c. 800 BC • "In Egypt, the men are more skilled in medicine than any of human kind” Odyssey
  5. 5. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> HOW DID WE FIND OUT ?
  6. 6. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> ANCIENT MEDICAL RECORDS Egyptian Papyrus
  7. 7. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>  Egyptologists have found documents, written on a type of paper called papyrus, that describe medical techniques similar to those used today.
  8. 8. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Papyrus Plant
  9. 9. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Processing
  10. 10. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Rolls ready for writing
  11. 11. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Finished product after writing
  12. 12. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> KEY MEDICAL PAPYRI • The Kahun (1825 B.C) gynecology • The Ebers (1534 B.C) internal medicine • The Edwin Smith Papyrus (1600 B.C) surgical wounds and fractures Edwin Smith Papyrus Ebers papyrus
  13. 13. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> BASIC CONCEPTS
  14. 14. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> • Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
  15. 15. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Ancient Egyptian Gods
  16. 16. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Health and God  Religious beliefs dominated the ancient Egyptians' view of healing.  Doctors were often priests who were able to communicate with the gods  Illness was due to the presence of evil spirits or poisons.  Doctors were often priests.
  17. 17. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sekhmet The goddess of medicine • Ancient Egypt. Sekhmet, goddess of fire, war, vengeance, menstruation, and medicine in ancient Egyptian religion.
  18. 18. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> THE METU  Heart as key to concepts of anatomy and physiology • 22 channels. • Carry blood or air.
  19. 19. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> MUMMIES 1500 BC Learning human anatomy
  20. 20. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> What is Mummy? • A mummy, in terms of Ancient Egypt, is body that has been well preserved for thousands of years.
  21. 21. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  22. 22. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Anubis , the god of mummification
  23. 23. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 70 days process
  24. 24. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Canopic jars LiverLungsIntestine Stomach
  25. 25. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  26. 26. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sarcophagus (coffin)
  27. 27. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  28. 28. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How king Tut looked like
  29. 29. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> SIGNIFICANCE OF MUMMY • Idea about conserving a dead body. • Idea about Surgery and Dressing.
  30. 30. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Egyptian Doctors
  31. 31. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Imhotep 2600 BC • Polymath : architect, engineer, physician. • Build 1st step pyramid. • Wrote Edwin Smith Papyrus • after his death, was worshipped as a god of healing.
  32. 32. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Merit Ptah The chief physician • first woman known by name in the history of the field of medicine, • possibly the first named woman in all of science as well. Wikipedia
  33. 33. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Ranks • inspector of doctors, • overseers • chief doctors
  34. 34. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  35. 35. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> the first medical specialists, • Egypt even had Homer wrote, “The practice of medicine they [the Egyptians] split into separate parts, each doctor being responsible for the treatment of only one disease.” (Michael and Mary B. Woods 18)
  36. 36. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Specialization • ophthalmologist, • gastroenterologist , • proctologist, dentists • “doctors who supervise butcher” • “inspection of liquid”
  37. 37. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> The chief dentist • In Ancient Egypt physician Hesy-Re from the Third Dynasty recognized dentistry as a surgical specialty • 1Repin
  38. 38. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Ancient Dentistry – the Root of all Dental Techniques
  39. 39. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DENTISTR Y • Independent profession dated from early 3rd millennium B.C. • Poor teeth due to diet with sand leftovers due to grinding rain • Improvement of grinding madrine • Evidence of forced teeth removal • Presumption of extreme dental pain might be medicated with opium.
  40. 40. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Dental drill. Same type for drilling holes in stone beads. The next time you visit a dentist be thankful for high powered drills.
  41. 41. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  42. 42. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Ancient gynecology
  43. 43. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus • is the oldest known medical text of any kind. Dated to c. 1800 BCE, it deals with women's health— gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. • The text is divided into thirty-four sections, each section dealing with a specific problem and containing diagnosis and treatment.
  44. 44. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Hieroglyphic for child birth
  45. 45. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Birthing scene from the Temple of Dendera
  46. 46. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Birth stools
  47. 47. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Proctologists
  48. 48. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> The royal Guardian of the anus • The first mention of the enema in medical literature comes from Ancient Egypt. • was considered such an essential component of good health that every pharaoh had his own so-called "Guardian of the anus.
  49. 49. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> First pharmacists Ancient Egyptians would be familiar with the idea of a modern chemist. Their pharmacists prepared prescriptions of ointments, potions, inhalers and pills by processing plant materials that were used to treat specific illnesses.
  50. 50. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> • Egyptian Pottery with hieroglyphics-The wines infused with medicines. • The bottles were labeled according to contents, year, manufacturer.
  51. 51. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Social media ?
  52. 52. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> TOOLS
  53. 53. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Surgical tools:- knives, hooks, drills, • forceps, pinchers, scales, spoons, saw • and vase with burning incense
  54. 54. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Tomb carvings of physician depicting medical tools.
  55. 55. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Scalpels SURGERY TOOLS Medical kit
  56. 56. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Wound suturing • Physicians have used suture to close wounds for at least 4,000 years. Archaeological records from ancient Egypt show that Egyptians used linen and animal sinew to close wounds
  57. 57. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Wound dressing • 1st day :Raw meat is known to be an efficient way to prevent bleeding. • Honey is a potent hygroscopic material and stimulates the secretion of white blood cells, the natural first body defense mechanism.
  58. 58. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> TECHNIQUES
  59. 59. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> CIRCUMCISION
  60. 60. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 2345 BC
  61. 61. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Why did they circumcise ? • Religious sacrifice. • Clean. • Sign of adulthood and strength. • Marking higher class • Humiliating enemies.
  62. 62. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Herodotus 500 BC • the Egyptians “practice circumcision for the sake of cleanliness, considering it better to be cleanly than comely.
  63. 63. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Trepanning
  64. 64. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Indications • Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical interventions carried out as treatment for cranial trauma and neurological diseases, • magical and religious purpose of expelling the evil spirits which caused the mental illness, epilepsy, or migraine symptoms.
  65. 65. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Urethral stricture • Urethral strictures were dilated using reeds. This was the earliest non- surgical intervention ever applied in history. In modern medicine, the first intervention was reported in the AD 1880’s by catgut balloons.
  66. 66. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Pus • The surgical treatment of abscesses or cysts was described in the Ebers Papyrus. • “Instructions for a swelling of pus …. A disease that I treat with knife-treatment. If anything remains in pocket, it recurs”.
  67. 67. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> the world's first prosthetic toe
  68. 68. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Tracheostomy • Two sculptured slabs from the 1st dynasty (3150 – 2925 BC) dating to kings Aha and Djer (2nd and 3rd kings) show a seated person directing a pointed instrument to the throat of another who was kneeling. Some Egyptologists believe it was a tracheotomy (opening the airways to maintain breathing) procedure.
  69. 69. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  70. 70. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DISEASES
  71. 71. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Angina Pectoris • A good description of angina pectoris (Ebers Papyrus) • “shouldst though examine a patient with stomach disease suffering from pain in the arms, in the breast, and on one side of the stomach, say: “Death threatens’”
  72. 72. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Cancer • At least 39 mummies with cancer have been identified. Cancer of the uterus has been described in the Ebers papyrus • • “Another for one in whom there is eating on her uterus in whose vagina ulcers have appeared”.
  73. 73. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Breast Ca • Breast cancer was also described, but was non-curable. • • “If thou examinst a man having bulging tumors on his breast, and if thou puttst thy hand upon his breast upon these tumors, and thou findst them very cool, there being no fever at all when thy hand touches him, they have no granulation, they form no fluid, they do not generate secretions of fluid, and they are bulging to thy hand. Thou shouldst say concerning him: One having bulging tumors. An ailment with which I will not contend”.
  74. 74. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> The brain • The Edwin Smith Papyrus contains a description of the brain and its pulsation. Physicians were able to correlate it with paralysis. That was affirmed 1200 years before Hippocrates, the father of medicine, who thought the brain was nothing but a gland.
  75. 75. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  76. 76. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> • Poliomyelitis: suspected in few mummies
  77. 77. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> CONCLUSION • The medicinal skills of ancient Egyptians were far beyond their time. With the writing of the first medical texts, performance of the first surgical techniques, use of the first splints and bandages, the first drug therapies, and the first medical dictionary,.
  78. 78. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> • the ancient Egyptians revolutionized the world of medicine and laid a path and framework for the advances in medicine that exist in our world today
  79. 79. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> • In conclusion, Ancient Egypt was the leading civilization when it came to medicine and surgery. Whether it be having the first doctor, having great detail of medicine on papyrus, minor topical surgeries, or their knowledge of human anatomy, all of this set Egypt ahead of the rest of the world.
  80. 80. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Thank you !

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