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Teratogens

Life in the Womb - street drugs, pharmaceuticals etc

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Teratogens

  1. 1. “ TERATOGEN” <ul><li>Word root: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ terato-” = monster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ -gen” = to make </li></ul></ul>“ substances that are toxic to some part of a developing embryo or fetus”
  2. 2. Teratogens Common things that can harm fetal development.
  3. 3. Nicotine and Cocaine <ul><li>Both nicotine and cocaine are known to be addictive. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing fetuses become addicted too. </li></ul><ul><li>Both drugs constrict blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>This decreases oxygen delivery to the fetus. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Results of Nicotine and Cocaine Use <ul><li>Low birthweight babies, because they didn’t get enough oxygen to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns going through withdrawal from drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cannot adjust their own body temperatures. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nicotine and other drugs can also cause “Neural tube defects” <ul><li>A neural tube defect is a problem with the formation of the brain and/or spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and myelomeningocoel. </li></ul>www.obgyn.net/us/us.asp?page =gallery/ gallery
  6. 6. Alcohol <ul><li>Alcohol is an addictive and LEGAL drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Beer, wine and liquor all affect the fetus the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Just as alcohol damages adult brains, it also damages fetal brains. </li></ul>Both brains are from 6 week old new borns. www.mofas.org /guidelines/ character.htm
  7. 7. Results of Alcohol Use <ul><li>The development of facial features is changed. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of damage with alcohol is due to consumption during the second trimester. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and behavioral deficits can result. </li></ul>www.mofas.org /guidelines/ character.htm
  8. 8. Alcohol Effects on Executive Functions Function in brain Effects on behavior inhibition socially inappropriate behavior, as if inebriated planning inability to apply consequences from past actions time perception difficulty with abstract concepts (time and money) internal ordering like files out of order, difficulty processing information working memory problems storing and retrieving information self-monitoring needs frequent cues, requires “policing” by others verbal self-regulation needs to talk to self out loud, needs feedback motor control fine motor skills affected regulation of emotion moody “roller coaster” emotions, exaggerated motivation apparent lack of remorse, needs external motivators
  9. 9. Prescription drugs can also be harmful. <ul><li>Even prescriptions that you took before pregnancy should be carefully considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-epileptic drugs, acne treatments, sedatives and antibiotics can damage developing fetuses. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Anticonvulsives <ul><li>Common prescriptions for controlling epilepsy can have bad effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Dilantin, Valproic acid and Trimethadione can all cause defects. </li></ul><ul><li>Always discuss medications with your prenatal physician. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Diethylstilbestros (DES) <ul><li>This drug was given to treat menstrual cramps and prevent miscarriages. </li></ul><ul><li>It was found to have toxic effects on the sex organs of the babies. </li></ul><ul><li>It affects both male and female babies. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Thalidomide <ul><li>This used to be given to prevent morning sickness. </li></ul><ul><li>Many children whose moms took thalidomide were horribly deformed. </li></ul><ul><li>This drug is no longer given to pregnant women. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Thalidomide affected the development of arms and legs.
  14. 14. Recreational drugs, prescription drugs and pollution. <ul><li>All of these things need to be considered when planning pregnancy AND during the pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Many doctors recommend altering your lifestyle as soon as you begin thinking about pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD IDEAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quit recreational drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eat better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get in shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor your home and work environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELAX </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Even after all this nasty stuff... <ul><li>Most pregnancies deliver normal infants. </li></ul>

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