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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing.
Recent viral respiratory infection (common
cold, laryngitis, influenza)
Difficulty swallowing (due to stroke,
dementia, Parkinson's disease, or other
Chronic lung disease (COPD, bronchiectasis,
Other serious illnesses, such as heart
disease, liver cirrhosis, /diabetes mellitus
Exposure to air pollution.
Altered consciousness(Alcoholism, Drug
overdose, General anesthesia, Seizure
Inhalation of noxious substances.
Residing in Institutional settings.
Living in a nursing facility
Impaired consciousness (loss of brain
function due to dementia, stroke, or other
Recent surgery or trauma
Immune system problem
Inflammatory pulmonary response.
Lose defense mechanisms of the lungs.
Allow organisms to penetrate the sterile LRT.
Disruption of the mechanical defenses
(cough & ciliary motility)
Colonization of the lungs.
Inflamed & fluid-filled alveolar sacs.
Alveolar exudates tends to consolidate.
Difficult to expectorate.
i. Based on area affected:
ii. Basis of location & radiologic appearance:
Empyema or lung abscesses. These are
infrequent, but serious, complications of
pneumonia. They occur when pockets of pus
form inside or around the lung. These may
sometimes need to be drained with surgery.
Sepsis, a condition in which there is
uncontrolled swelling (inflammation) in the
body, which may lead to organ failure
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),
a severe form of respiratory failure
Pneumonia At A Glance:
Pneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by
different types of microorganisms, including bacteria,
viruses, and fungi.
Symptoms of pneumonia include cough with sputum
production, fever, and sharp chest pain on inspiration
Pneumonia is suspected when a doctor hears abnormal
sounds in the chest, and the diagnosis is confirmed by a
Bacteria causing pneumonia can be identified by sputum