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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing.

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Pneumonia

  1. 1. PNEUMONIA Nursing Path www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Definition:  An inflammatory process in lung parenchyma usually associated with a marked increase in interstitial and alveolar fluid. 6/6/2018 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  3. 3. 6/6/2018 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  4. 4. Etiology & Risk factors: Etiology:  Bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas, fungal agents & protozoa.  Aspiration of food, fluids, / vomitus.  Inhalation of toxic/caustic chemicals, smoke, dusts/gases.  Influenza. 6/6/2018 4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  5. 5. Risk Factors: • Advanced age. • History of smoking. • Upper respiratory infection. • Tracheal intubation. • Prolonged immobility. • Immunosuppressive therapy. • Nonfunctional immune system. • Malnutrition. • Dehydration. • Chronic disease state. 6/6/2018 5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  6. 6.  Cigarette smoking  Recent viral respiratory infection (common cold, laryngitis, influenza)  Difficulty swallowing (due to stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, or other neurological conditions)  Chronic lung disease (COPD, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis)  Cerebral palsy  Other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, liver cirrhosis, /diabetes mellitus 6/6/2018 6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  7. 7. Cont….  Exposure to air pollution.  Altered consciousness(Alcoholism, Drug overdose, General anesthesia, Seizure disorder).  Inhalation of noxious substances.  Residing in Institutional settings. 6/6/2018 7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  8. 8.  Living in a nursing facility  Impaired consciousness (loss of brain function due to dementia, stroke, or other neurologic conditions)  Recent surgery or trauma  Immune system problem 6/6/2018 8www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  9. 9. Path-physiology: Offending organism/agent. Inflammatory pulmonary response. Lose defense mechanisms of the lungs. Allow organisms to penetrate the sterile LRT. Develop inflammation. 6/6/2018 9www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Disruption of the mechanical defenses (cough & ciliary motility) Colonization of the lungs. Inflamed & fluid-filled alveolar sacs. Alveolar exudates tends to consolidate. Difficult to expectorate. 6/6/2018 10www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Types: 1. Pneumococcal pneumonia:  Caused by Streptococcus pneumonia.  C/M:- high fever. - stabbing pleuritic chest pain. - malaise. - weakness. - elevated WBC count. - tachypnea. - dyspnea. - blood-streaked purulent sputum. 6/6/2018 11www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  12. 12. 2. Staphylococcal pneumonia:  Caused by Staphylococcus aureus.  C/M:- fever with multiple chills. - pleuritic pain. - rales. - decreased breath sounds. - elevated WBC count. - dyspnea. - blood-streaked purulent sputum. 6/6/2018 12www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  13. 13. 3. Influenzal pneumonia:  Caused by Haemophilus influenza.  C/M:- high fever. - stabbing pleuritic chest pain. - malaise. - weakness. - elevated WBC count. - tachypnea. - dyspnea. - blood-tinged purulent sputum. 6/6/2018 13www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  14. 14. 4. Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia:  Caused by Klebsiella pneumonia.  C/M:- fever with multiple chills. - pleuritic pain. - rales. - cyanosis. - elevated WBC count. - dyspnea. - blood-streaked purulent sputum. 6/6/2018 14www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  15. 15. 5. Anaerobic bacterial pneumonia:  Caused by normal oral flora.  C/M:- low-grade fever. - hypertension. - crackles. - cyanosis. - elevated WBC count. - dyspnea. - foul smelling purulent sputum. - tachycardia. 6/6/2018 15www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  16. 16. 6. Legionnaires’ disease:  Caused by Legionella pneumophila.  C/M:- fever. - pleuritic pain. - nausea. - confusion. - elevated WBC count. - dyspnea. - blood-tinged sputum. 6/6/2018 16www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  17. 17. 7. Mycoplasma pneumonia:  Caused by Mycoplasma microorganisms.  C/M:- slowly rising fever. - headache. - myalgia. - malaise. - normal WBC count. - scant mucoid sputum. 6/6/2018 17www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  18. 18. 8. Viral pneumonia:  Caused by Influenza A virus.  C/M:- high fever. - headache. - myalgia. - dyspnea. - normal/slightly WBC count. - mucoid sputum. - normal breath sounds. 6/6/2018 18www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  19. 19. 9. Aspiration pneumonia:  Caused by aspiration of gastric contents.  C/M:- tachypnea. - apnea. - cyanosis. - hypotension. - leukocytosis. - adventitious lung sounds. - fever. 6/6/2018 19www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  20. 20. Clinical manifestations: ♥ Fever. ♥ Chills. ♥ Sweats. ♥ Pleuritic chest pain. ♥ Cough. ♥ Sputum production. ♥ Hemoptysis. ♥ Dyspnea. ♥ Headache & fatigue. 6/6/2018 20www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  21. 21. 6/6/2018 21www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  22. 22. Diagnostic evaluation: Chest auscultation. Sputum culture analysis & sensitivity/ serologic testing. Fiber optic bronchoscopy/ Transcutaneous needle aspiration/ biopsy. Skin tests. Blood & urine cultures. Transcutaneous oxygen level analysis/ ABG measurements. Chest X-ray examination. 6/6/2018 22www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  23. 23. Classification: i. Based on area affected: Segmental pneumonia. Lobar pneumonia. Bilateral pneumonia. ii. Basis of location & radiologic appearance: Bronchopneumonia. Interstitial(reticular) pneumonia. Alveolar(acinar) pneumonia. Necrotizing pneumonia. 6/6/2018 23www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  24. 24. Medical Management: ☻Specific antibiotic therapy: Broad spectrum antibiotics. ☻Respiratory support:  Administer oxygen.  Bronchodilator medications.  Postural drainage.  Chest physiotherapy.  Tracheal suctioning. ☻Nutritional support. ☻Fluid & electrolyte management. 6/6/2018 24www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  25. 25. Nursing management: Ineffective airway clearance R/t excessive secretions & weak cough. Ineffective breathing pattern R/t tachypnea. Activity intolerance R/t decreased oxygen levels for metabolic demands. Deficient fluid volume R/t fever, diaphoresis, & mouth breathing. Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements R/t dyspnea. Pain R/t frequent coughing. 6/6/2018 25www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  26. 26. Cont…. Impaired oral mucous membrane R/t mouth breathing & frequent cough. 6/6/2018 26www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  27. 27. Possible complications:  Respiratory failure.  Empyema or lung abscesses. These are infrequent, but serious, complications of pneumonia. They occur when pockets of pus form inside or around the lung. These may sometimes need to be drained with surgery.  Sepsis, a condition in which there is uncontrolled swelling (inflammation) in the body, which may lead to organ failure  Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of respiratory failure 6/6/2018 27www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  28. 28. Pneumonia At A Glance: Pneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by different types of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Symptoms of pneumonia include cough with sputum production, fever, and sharp chest pain on inspiration (breathing in). Pneumonia is suspected when a doctor hears abnormal sounds in the chest, and the diagnosis is confirmed by a chest x-ray. Bacteria causing pneumonia can be identified by sputum culture. 6/6/2018 28www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  29. 29. Thank You 6/6/2018 29www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com

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