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Nursing Administration & Management

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  1. 1. Planning Dr. Jayesh Patidar www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 04/10/2015 1
  2. 2. MEANING plan is a course of action to be taken in future. It is a pre decided course of action . Planning is the process of deciding in advance what is to be done , how it is to be done , where , when and whom . It involves determination of objectives to be achieved as well as the activities required to achieve the objectives. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 2
  3. 3. DEFINE  The planning of action is at one and the same time the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed , the stages to go through and the methods to use. - HENRI FAYOL  Planning is fundamentally a mental predisposition to d0 things in an orderly way , to think before and to act in the light of the fact rather than of guesses. - L.F.URWICK 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 3
  4. 4. Features of planning  Planning is goal oriented:it seeks to achieve certain objectives and all plans are linked with the goal of the organization. So planning is purposeful.  Planning is future oriented:it is based on the proverb “ look before you leap”. It is essential to predict future.  Planning is primary function :planning saves as the basis for another functions of management. Planning provides the foundation for managerial action to achieve the specify goals of organization. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 4
  5. 5.  Planning is continuous process:planning is on going process it is prepared for a specific period of time . At the end of the period , new plans have to be prepared. similarly as condition changed the existing plans to be revised.  Planning aims at efficiency and effectiveness:plans are prepared to achive the objectives in the best way.sound planning leads to accomplishment of desired objectives at the minimum possibility cost 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 5
  6. 6. Importance of planning  MAKING OBJECTIVES CLEAR: planning makes goal clean and specific . It focus to attain the organizational goal and also serve guide for deciding what actions should be taken  Help organization a right path :Employees can understand how their action relate to organizational goals . It provides orderly efforts towards the goals . 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 6
  7. 7.  It reduced risk and uncertainty :It helps to predict future events and prepare to face the unexpected events . It helps manager to identify the potential danger and steps take to over come them.  It improve efficiency of operations :planning involved selection of best possible course of action. It helps to achieve optimum utilization of available resources.  Provides the basis of control :planning makes control meaningful and effective. A comparison of performance with the desired results helps to identify the deviations and to take corrective steps to make the events confirm to plans 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 7
  8. 8. Limitation of planning  Dynamic conditions act as a limitation of planning:the assumption on which planning is based may not hold good and the condition under which plans are being implemented may differ from the assumed conditions.  Availability of time is a limiting factor planning :some times it causes delay in taking action .at emergency situation in business require promotion action and allow little time for thinking  Cost involved in planning :planning is a costly process. A good ideal time , energy and money is involved in gathering of facts and testing of various alternatives. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 8
  9. 9.  The Government from time to time will be constraint on managerial decision.  Procedure , rules and policies once established are difficult to change .  Some person are psychologically opposed to planning as they consider the present more important than the future. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 9
  10. 10. 10 How to Make a Plan That Works 2 Set Goals Develop Commitment Develop Effective Action Plans Track Progress Toward Goal Achievement Maintain Flexibility Revise existing plan or Begin new planning process 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  11. 11. 11 S.M.A.R.T. Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timely Setting Goals 2.1 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Step 1. DEFINE THE TASK What would we need to know about the assignment before we accept?  All the facts and figures: where, when, how, what and who  The objective or goal of the assignment: what we are trying to accomplish 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 12
  13. 13. Step 2. IDENTIFY RESOURCES When we consider the resources needed and available, we need to ask ourselves:  What resources do we need to accomplish the task?  What do we already have?  Where do we get what we don’t have?  Are there any resources that require special attention, advance planning, or significant expense? Are there alternatives? 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 13
  14. 14. Step 3. CONSIDER ALTERNATIVES This step relates to alternate methods and procedures for a training course. These might include:  What kind of training aids should we use?  Which technique will be best for getting the message across?  How should we arrange the tables and chairs? 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 14
  15. 15. Step 4. CREATE THE PLAN Creating a workable plan can be a challenge.  Training session outlines are provided in BSA training manuals.  We need to fill in the blank spaces. A written plan tells everyone concerned what is expected, and when.  It provides a permanent record that will be helpful the next time we conduct the course.  It can serve as a backdated checklist 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 15
  16. 16. Step 5. WORK THE PLAN  Be sure you are ready.  Review the previous steps.  Do it! Hold the training course.  Follow the written plan, but be flexible and make any adjustments needed. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 16
  17. 17. Step 6. EVALUATE What should we evaluate about a training course? Did we accomplish what we set out to do? Will we conduct it the same way again? If not, what changes would we make? 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 17
  18. 18. TWO TYPES OF PLANS There are two types of plans that relate to training: SHORT-RANGE PLANS LONG-RANGE PLANS 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 18
  19. 19.  SHORT RANGE PLANNING :It relates to a relatively short period and has to be consistent with the long range plans . Operational planning are generally related to a short periods. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 19
  20. 20. SHORT-RANGE PLANS  Meet a particular objective in the near future  Cover a limited area of training  Answer the question: Are we doing things right?  Should fit well within and contribute to long-range plans Some examples: • Plans for basic training sessions for new leaders who have just been recruited • Plans for a den chief training conference • Plans for training roundtable staff members 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 20
  21. 21. LONG RANGE PLANS LONG RANGE PLANNING : long range planning sets long term goals for the enterprise and then proceeds to formulate specific plans for attaining these goals. It also involves an attempt to analyze and make decision about basic problems and issues which have significance reaching well beyond the present operating horizon of the enterprise .04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 21
  22. 22. LONG RANGE PLANS  Cover a longer time  May include a variety of different types of training Some examples: • An annual plan, including Fast Start and basic training • Makeup training sessions • Den chief training • Regular monthly roundtables • Supplemental training • Personal coaching • Self-study 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 22
  23. 23. SHORT- AND LONG-RANGE PLANS Both short-range and long-range plans are developed using the six steps. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 23
  24. 24. PERT CHART  A PERT chart is a graphic representation of a project’s schedule, showing the sequence of tasks, which tasks can be performed  simultaneously, and the critical path of tasks that must be completed on time in order for the project to meet its completion deadline. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 24
  25. 25. How to use it  Identify all tasks or project components. Make sure the team includes people with firsthand knowledge of the project so that during the brainstorming session all component tasks needed to complete the project are captured. Document the tasks on small note cards.  Identify the first task that must be completed. Place the appropriate card at the extreme left of the working surface.  Identify any other tasks that can be started simultaneously with task #1. Align these tasks either above or below task #1 on the working surface. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 25
  26. 26. How to use it  Identify the next task that must be completed. Select a task that must wait to begin until task #1(or a task that starts simultaneously with task #1) is completed. Place the appropriate card to the right of the card showing the preceding task.  Identify any other tasks that can be started simultaneously with task #2. Align these tasks either above or below task #2 on the working surface.  Continue this process until all component tasks are sequenced. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 26
  27. 27.  Identify task durations. Using the knowledge of team members, reach a consensus on the most likely amount of time each task will require for completion. Duration time is usually considered to be elapsed time for the task, rather than actual number of hours/days spent doing the work. Document this duration time on the appropriate task cards.  Construct the PERT chart. Number each task, draw connecting arrows, and add task characteristics such as duration, anticipated start date, and anticipated end date.  Determine the critical path. The project’s critical path includes those tasks that must be started or completed on time to avoid delays to the total project. Critical paths are typically displayed in red. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 27
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  29. 29. 29 Charts: Henry Gantt 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  30. 30. 30 Planning from Top to Bottom Adapted from Exhibit 5.5 3 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  31. 31. 31 Starting at the Top Strategic Plans Clarify how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitors (2-5 years) Vision An inspirational statement of an organization’s purpose (2 sentences) Mission Overall goal that unifies efforts toward its vision, stretches and challenges, and possesses a finish line and time frame. Flows from vision. 3.1 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  32. 32. 32 Planning Time Lines 3.1 Years 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Plans Strategic Tactical Operational 5 Years 2 years 30 days 6 months 6 months 2 Years 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  33. 33. 33 Bending in the Middle Tactical Plans Specify how a company will use resources, budgets, and people to accomplish goals within its mission. (6 months to 2 years) Management by Objectives Develop and carry out tactical plans 1. Discuss possible goals 2. Participatively select goals consistent with overall goals 3. Jointly develop tactical plans 4. Meet to review progress 3.2 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  34. 34. 34 Finishing at the Bottom Operational Plans Day-to-day plans for producing or delivering products and services over a 30-day to six-month period 3.3 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  35. 35. 35 Kinds of Operational Plans Single-Use Plans Plans that cover unique, one-time-only events Standing Plans Plans used repeatedly to handle frequently recurring events. Three kinds are: policies, procedures, and rules and regulations. Budgets Quantitative planning to decide how to allocate money to accomplish company goals 3.3 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  36. 36.  Strategic planning :It is part of functional areas of business . It involves key decisions regarding the overall goals and strategies of the enterprises . It is the process of deciding on basic goals , the resources required to achieve  Operational planning : it is also known as tactical planning or administrative planning which involves the conversion strategic plans into detailed operational programs. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 36
  37. 37.  Functional planning :It is prepared for various functional areas of business like production planning financial planning and man power planning . It serves as a guide for people in a particular department of functional areas of the enterprise. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 37
  38. 38.  Mission : explains fundamental purpose of the organization . It explains how an organization will conducts its business.  Objectives : it explains the future destination an organization wants to attain. The objectives should be clearly understand by every employees.  Policies : general rules in written statement to be followed in respective situation. Provides basic framework within which managers operate. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 38
  39. 39.  Procedures : administrative guide prescribing the sequence in which various activities are to be performed. It helps in standardizing and stream lining day to day activities.  Rules : statement of action asking subordinates to have in a particular manner. It is strictly followed by every one. it is essential for smooth operation of business. Eg :no smoking , no entry 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 39
  40. 40. SUMMARY  A well planned training course is easier to present and easier for participants to understand.  The process permits each planning step to be revisited whenever necessary.  On-going improvements make training more effective. 04/10/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 40
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