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Dr. Jayesh Patidar
plan is a course of action to be taken in
future. It is a pre decided course of action .
Planning is the process of deciding in
advance what is to be done , how it is to be
done , where , when and whom . It involves
determination of objectives to be achieved
as well as the activities required to achieve
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The planning of action is at one and the same time the
result envisaged, the line of action to be followed , the
stages to go through and the methods to use.
- HENRI FAYOL
Planning is fundamentally a mental predisposition to d0
things in an orderly way , to think before and to act in the
light of the fact rather than of guesses.
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Features of planning
Planning is goal oriented:it seeks to achieve
certain objectives and all plans are linked with the goal of
the organization. So planning is purposeful.
Planning is future oriented:it is based on the
proverb “ look before you leap”. It is essential to predict
Planning is primary function :planning saves as
the basis for another functions of management. Planning
provides the foundation for managerial action to achieve
the specify goals of organization.
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Planning is continuous process:planning is on
going process it is prepared for a specific period of time .
At the end of the period , new plans have to be prepared.
similarly as condition changed the existing plans to be
Planning aims at efficiency and
effectiveness:plans are prepared to achive the
objectives in the best way.sound planning leads to
accomplishment of desired objectives at the minimum
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Importance of planning
MAKING OBJECTIVES CLEAR: planning makes goal
clean and specific . It focus to attain the organizational
goal and also serve guide for deciding what actions
should be taken
Help organization a right path :Employees can
understand how their action relate to organizational
goals . It provides orderly efforts towards the goals .
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It reduced risk and uncertainty :It helps to
predict future events and prepare to face the unexpected
events . It helps manager to identify the potential danger
and steps take to over come them.
It improve efficiency of operations :planning
involved selection of best possible course of action. It
helps to achieve optimum utilization of available
Provides the basis of control :planning makes
control meaningful and effective. A comparison of
performance with the desired results helps to identify the
deviations and to take corrective steps to make the
events confirm to plans
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Limitation of planning
Dynamic conditions act as a limitation of
planning:the assumption on which planning is based
may not hold good and the condition under which plans
are being implemented may differ from the assumed
Availability of time is a limiting factor
planning :some times it causes delay in taking action
.at emergency situation in business require promotion
action and allow little time for thinking
Cost involved in planning :planning is a costly
process. A good ideal time , energy and money is involved
in gathering of facts and testing of various alternatives.
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The Government from time to time will be constraint on
Procedure , rules and policies once established are
difficult to change .
Some person are psychologically opposed to planning as
they consider the present more important than the future.
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How to Make a Plan That Works
Revise existing plan
Begin new planning process
Step 1. DEFINE THE TASK
What would we need to know about the
assignment before we accept?
All the facts and figures: where, when, how, what
The objective or goal of the assignment: what we
are trying to accomplish
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Step 2. IDENTIFY RESOURCES
When we consider the resources needed and
available, we need to ask ourselves:
What resources do we need to accomplish the task?
What do we already have?
Where do we get what we don’t have?
Are there any resources that require
special attention, advance planning,
or significant expense? Are there
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Step 3. CONSIDER ALTERNATIVES
This step relates to alternate methods and
procedures for a training course. These might
What kind of training aids should we use?
Which technique will be best for
getting the message across?
How should we arrange the tables
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Step 4. CREATE THE PLAN
Creating a workable plan can be a challenge.
Training session outlines are provided in BSA training
We need to fill in the blank spaces.
A written plan tells everyone concerned what is
expected, and when.
It provides a permanent record that will be helpful the
next time we conduct the course.
It can serve as a backdated checklist
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Step 5. WORK THE PLAN
Be sure you are ready.
Review the previous steps.
Do it! Hold the training course.
Follow the written plan, but be flexible and make
any adjustments needed.
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Step 6. EVALUATE
What should we evaluate about a training
Did we accomplish what we set out to do?
Will we conduct it the same way again?
If not, what changes would we make?
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TWO TYPES OF PLANS
There are two types of plans that relate to training:
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SHORT RANGE PLANNING :It relates to a relatively
short period and has to be consistent with the long range
plans . Operational planning are generally related to a
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Meet a particular objective in the near future
Cover a limited area of training
Answer the question: Are we doing things right?
Should fit well within and contribute to long-range plans
• Plans for basic training sessions for new leaders who
have just been recruited
• Plans for a den chief training conference
• Plans for training roundtable staff members
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LONG RANGE PLANS
LONG RANGE PLANNING : long range
planning sets long term goals for the
enterprise and then proceeds to formulate
specific plans for attaining these goals. It
also involves an attempt to analyze and
make decision about basic problems and
issues which have significance reaching well
beyond the present operating horizon of the
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LONG RANGE PLANS
Cover a longer time
May include a variety of different types of training
• An annual plan, including Fast Start and basic training
• Makeup training sessions
• Den chief training
• Regular monthly roundtables
• Supplemental training
• Personal coaching
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SHORT- AND LONG-RANGE PLANS
Both short-range and long-range plans are
developed using the six steps.
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A PERT chart is a graphic representation of a project’s
schedule, showing the sequence of tasks, which tasks can
simultaneously, and the critical path of tasks that must be
completed on time in order for the project to meet its
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How to use it
Identify all tasks or project components. Make sure the
team includes people with firsthand knowledge of the
project so that during the brainstorming session all
component tasks needed to complete the project are
captured. Document the tasks on small note cards.
Identify the first task that must be completed. Place the
appropriate card at the extreme left of the working surface.
Identify any other tasks that can be started
simultaneously with task #1. Align these tasks either
above or below task #1 on the working surface.
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How to use it
Identify the next task that must be completed. Select a
task that must wait to begin until task #1(or a task that
starts simultaneously with task #1) is completed. Place the
appropriate card to the right of the card showing the
Identify any other tasks that can be started
simultaneously with task #2. Align these tasks either
above or below task #2 on the working surface.
Continue this process until all component tasks are
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Identify task durations. Using the knowledge of team members,
reach a consensus on the most likely amount of time each task will
require for completion. Duration time is usually considered to be
elapsed time for the task, rather than actual number of hours/days spent
doing the work. Document this duration time on the appropriate task
Construct the PERT chart. Number each task, draw connecting
arrows, and add task characteristics such as duration, anticipated start
date, and anticipated end date.
Determine the critical path. The project’s critical path includes those
tasks that must be started or completed on time to avoid delays to the
total project. Critical paths are typically displayed in red.
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Charts: Henry Gantt
Planning from Top to Bottom
Adapted from Exhibit 5.5
Starting at the Top
Clarify how the company will
serve customers and position
itself against competitors (2-5 years)
An inspirational statement of an
Overall goal that unifies efforts toward
its vision, stretches and challenges,
and possesses a finish line and
time frame. Flows from vision.
Planning Time Lines
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Bending in the Middle
Specify how a company will use
resources, budgets, and people to
accomplish goals within its mission.
(6 months to 2 years)
Develop and carry out tactical plans
1. Discuss possible goals
2. Participatively select goals consistent with overall
3. Jointly develop tactical plans
4. Meet to review progress
Finishing at the Bottom
Day-to-day plans for producing or
delivering products and services over
a 30-day to six-month period
Kinds of Operational Plans
Plans that cover unique,
Plans used repeatedly to handle
frequently recurring events.
Three kinds are: policies, procedures,
and rules and regulations.
Quantitative planning to decide how
to allocate money to accomplish
Strategic planning :It is part of functional areas of
business . It involves key decisions regarding the overall
goals and strategies of the enterprises . It is the process
of deciding on basic goals , the resources required to
Operational planning : it is also known as tactical
planning or administrative planning which involves the
conversion strategic plans into detailed operational
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Functional planning :It is prepared for various
functional areas of business like production planning
financial planning and man power planning . It serves as a
guide for people in a particular department of functional
areas of the enterprise.
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Mission : explains fundamental purpose of the
organization . It explains how an organization will
conducts its business.
Objectives : it explains the future destination an
organization wants to attain. The objectives should be
clearly understand by every employees.
Policies : general rules in written statement to be
followed in respective situation. Provides basic
framework within which managers operate.
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Procedures : administrative guide prescribing the
sequence in which various activities are to be performed.
It helps in standardizing and stream lining day to day
Rules : statement of action asking subordinates to have in
a particular manner. It is strictly followed by every one. it
is essential for smooth operation of business. Eg :no
smoking , no entry
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A well planned training course is easier to
present and easier for participants to understand.
The process permits each planning step to be
revisited whenever necessary.
On-going improvements make training more
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