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Dr. Jayesh Patidar
“A great man is one who can make a small
man feel great, and perform great”
• Motivation is an internal feeling and a psychological
phenomenon which generates within an individual.
Motivation is next to directing / leading. Managers can
motivate their subordinates while guiding them.
• Motivating means encouraging people to take more
initiative and interest in the work assigned.
• It is an art of getting things done willingly from others.
• Understand past, present and future concepts /
• Develop employees desire to strive for excellence.
• Understand how YOU influence; your leadership
• Use feedback more precisely, linking it to
• Learn how to offer criticism in a way which
ensures that it is heard.
• Apply models and methods for measurable
• Problem solve and practice what you learn
DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION
• The act or process of stimulating to action,
providing an incentive or motive, especially for an
• The driving force within individuals by which they
attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill
some needs or expectation. (Harmer, 2001)
Three matters of motivation:
what energizes human behavior,
what directs or channels such behavior and
how this behavior is maintained or
Steers and Porter(1991)
Unique to each and every person
Not fully understood
Defined as self-respect of accomplishment and personal
growth. That is, the emotional and personal benefits of the
job itself are known as intrinsic rewards. -Ellis
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from
inside an individual rather than from any external or outside
rewards, such as money or grades.
The motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the
task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or
even working on a task.
• Competence and autonomy are the important issues on
• Social-contextual events such as feedback, communications,
rewards which cause feelings of competence foster intrinsic
motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000)
• While positive performance feedback increases intrinsic
motivation, negative performance feedback decreases it.
•Extrinsic Motivation is said to be less effective because it comes
from outside the person. External reinforcer's, for instance, are
usually in the form of control.
• is concerned with the performance of an activity to succeed in
getting separable outcomes. Ryan and Deci (2000)
•"Tangible benefits" related to job such as salary, fringe benefits
and job security are known as extrinsic motivation or called
extrinsic rewards. ` Latham ( 1998)
7 Main types of motivation
1. Self-Improvement Motivation
If you believe the task at hand will improve your character, appearance
or financial condition and these self-improvements are highly desirable
to you, you will experience significant motivation to perform even
unpleasant parts of the process necessary to reach the goal. How
desirable the end improvements are to you will determine the level of
motivation you will experience.
2. Achievement Motivation
It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with
achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up
on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own
shake and not for the rewards that accompany it.
3. Internal Motivation
Behaviour does not come without its own rewards. the end
goal is not a visible or external thing, but more internal and
psychological. The achievement of these goals – by itself also
correctly seen as a reward – is in general not visible to other
4. Affiliation Motivation
It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with
affiliation motivation perform work better when they are
complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation.
5. Competence Motivation
Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in
developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be
creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their
6. Power Motivation
It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power
motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and
are willing to take risks to do so.
7. Attitude Motivation
Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self
confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how
they feel about the future and how they react to the past.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Emphasis on what motivates individuals.
• Maslow’s need Hierarchy
• Macgregor's Theories X & Y
• Herzberg’s two factors theory
Emphasis on actual process of motivation
• Three needs Theory ( McClelland)
• Goal-setting Theory
• Reinforcement Theory
• Designing Motivating theory
• Equity Theory
• Expectancy Theory
1.ABRAHAM MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF
• Mr. Abraham Harold Maslow suggested his
Theory of Human Motivation in 1943
• Needs were categories as five levels of lower and
• Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before
they can satisfy higher order needs.
• Motivating a person depends on knowing at what
level that a person is on the hierarchy.
Maslow's theory is based on the following two principles:
Deficit principle: A satisfied need no longer motivates
behavior because people act to satisfy deprived needs.
Progression principle: The five needs he identified exist
in a hierarchy, which means that a need at any level only
comes into play after a lower-level need has been satisfied.
• Need is defined as a physiological or psychological deficiency that a
person feels the compulsion to satisfy.
• This need can create tensions that can influence a person's work
attitudes and behaviors.
• Maslow formed a theory based on his definition of need that proposes
that humans are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in
a hierarchical order.
• His premise is that only an unsatisfied need can influence behavior; a
satisfied need is not a motivator.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs
Higher Level Needs To Satisfy, Offer:
Self-actualization needs Creative and challenging work
Participation in decision making
Job flexibility and autonomy
Esteem needs Responsibility of an important job
Promotion to higher status job
Praise and recognition from boss
Lower Level Needs To Satisfy, Offer:
Social needs Friendly coworkers
Interaction with customers
Safety needs Safe working conditions
Base compensation and benefits
Physiological needs Rest and refreshment breaks
Physical comfort on the job
Reasonable work hours
2.DOUGLAS McGREGOR'S - THEORY OF
The eminent psychologist Douglas McGregor has
given his theory of motivation called Theory
X and Theory Y
Theory X:- based on traditional assumptions about
employees. Here, the conventional approach of
management is used as a base.
Theory Y :- based on modern or progressive or
professional approach. Here, the assumptions about
employees are quite different.
Assumptions of theory x
The average human being is inherently lazy by nature and
desires to work as little as possible.
He avoids accepting responsibility and prefers to be led or
directed by some other.
He is self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs.
He has little ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be
led but wants security.
He is not very intelligent and lacks creativity in solving
He by nature resists to change of any type.
In the case of such employees, self-motivation is
just not possible. They will work only when
there is constant supervision on them. A manager
has to persuade, punish or reward such workers
in order to achieve organizational goals.
Assumptions of theory Y
Work is as natural as play, provided the work environment is
People can be self-directed and creative at work if they are
Self-control on the part of people is useful for achieving
organizational goal. External control and threats of
punishment alone do not bring out efforts towards
People are not by nature passive or resistant to
An average human being learns under proper conditions. He
is also willing to accept responsibility 04/10/2015www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
3. HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
In his two-factor theory, Herzberg identifies two sets of factors
that impact motivation in the workplace:
Hygiene factors include salary, job security, working conditions,
organizational policies, and technical quality of supervision.
Although these factors do not motivate employees, they can
cause dissatisfaction if they are missing.
Something as simple as adding music to the office place or
implementing a no-smoking policy can make people less
dissatisfied with these aspects of their work. 04/10/2015www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
Satisfiers or motivators include such things as
responsibility, achievement, growth opportunities, and
feelings of recognition, and are the key to job
satisfaction and motivation. For example, managers can
find out what people really do in their jobs and make
improvements, thus increasing job satisfaction and
Following Herzberg's two-factor theory, managers need
to ensure that hygiene factors are adequate and then
build satisfiers into jobs.
Satisfaction vs Dissatisfaction
4.ALDERFER'S ERG THEORY
Clayton Alderfer's ERG (Existence, Relatedness, Growth)
theory is built upon Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
Existence needs are desires for physiological and material
well-being. (In terms of Maslow's model, existence needs
include physiological and safety needs)
Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal
relationships. (In terms of Maslow's model, relatedness
correspondence to social needs)
Growth needs are desires for continued psychological
growth and development. (In terms of Maslow's model,
growth needs include esteem and self-realization needs)
5.TAYLOR’S THEORY OF SCIENTIFIC
• Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1917) put forward the
idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Theory
of Scientific Management argued the following:
• Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close
supervision and control
• Therefore managers should break down production into a
series of small tasks
• Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools
so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task.04/10/2015www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
• Workers are then paid according to the number of items they
produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.
• As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximize
• Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the
benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs.
• The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to
design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was
the start of the era of mass production. 04/10/2015www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
6.MAYO’S THEORY OF HUMAN RELATIONS
• Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that workers are not just
concerned with money but could be better motivated by having
their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor
• He introduced the Human Relation School of thought, which
focused on managers taking more of an interest in the workers,
treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and
realising that workers enjoy interacting together.
• Mayo conducted a series of experiments at the Hawthorne
factory of the Western Electric Company in Chicago 04/10/2015www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
• He isolated two groups of women workers and studied the effect
on their productivity levels of changing factors such as lighting
and working conditions.
• He expected to see productivity levels decline as lighting or
other conditions became progressively worse
• What he actually discovered surprised him: whatever the change
in lighting or working conditions, the productivity levels of the
workers improved or remained the same.
From this Mayo concluded that workers are best motivated
Better communication between managers and workers
( Hawthorne workers were consulted over the experiments and
also had the opportunity to give feedback)
Greater manager involvement in employees working lives
( Hawthorne workers responded to the increased level of attention
they were receiving)
Working in groups or teams. ( Hawthorne workers did not
previously regularly work in teams)
7.MCCLELLAND’S MANIFEST NEED
THEORY OF MOTIVATION.
David C. McClelland proposed his Achievement
Motivation Theory (Also called Manifest Need Theory).
According to him, there are certain needs that are learned
and socially acquired as the individual interacts with the
McClelland classified such needs into three broad
categories. These are
(a) Need for power,
(b) Need for affiliation, and
(c) Need for achievement.
What Employees Want
• Working conditions
• Company policies
• Job security
• Pay and benefits
• Relationships with coworkers
Creating a motivating climate
• Organizations are more likely to instill ‘want to’ attitudes in
people if they nurture three factors, namely ‘I belong’ feelings,
‘Can do’ beliefs and an ‘I’m responsible’ or ‘I’m allowed’
• People are likely to adopt the values of others who help them
meet their needs for belongingness and competence and
• People need to be valued by others, surrounded by a cohesive
peer group and given a sense of belonging and control, the
stimulation of clear and challenging goals and recognition for
whatever they achieve.
• A sense of connection with the organisation is more likely
to develop a sense of loyalty to and identify with it. So
efforts to promote social engagement are essential.
• Current models of motivation tend to concentrate on
cognitive processes, assuming that competence is the
• Social goals are strong predictors of success and the
promotion of socially responsive behaviour often results in
• The social climate is a powerful motivator of all aspects of
• Working climates can be categorised using four types of
autonomy. They can be epitomised by an ‘over-protective’
climate, that in turn encourages restricted workers.
• Others can have an ‘autonomy-crushing’ climate, resulting in no
sense of autonomy. The more accountability is stressed over
autonomy, the more managers will download pressure to
colleagues through a command climate that emphasises control.
Thirdly, an over-competitive ‘prove yourself’ atmosphere marks
the ‘exposing’ climate where confusion and provocation
contribute to the development of a distorted sense of autonomy.
• Feedback is an essential ingredient to provide information that
lets others know how they are doing.
• It is the motivation power-tool yet often the least well used. it is
about giving information about progress to increase self-efficacy
not about encouraging arrogance.
• Highly motivating people praise others’ effort and how they
tackle their work and so make colleagues feel responsible for