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Microbiology

Microbiology for nursing

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Microbiology

  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGY Nursing Path www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS • Pathogen • Opportunist • Spores 5/18/2018 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS • Bacteria • Viruses • Protozoa • Fungi • Worms • Arthropods 5/18/2018 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  4. 4. BACTERIA • Simple • Single-celled • Most are not harmful to humans • Some cause human bacterial diseases: – Examples: 5/18/2018 4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  5. 5. VIRUSES • Smaller, simpler structure • All parasites • All cause disease • Common human viral diseases: – Examples: 5/18/2018 5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  6. 6. PROTOZOA • Single-celled • Natural habitats – Fresh water – Salt water • Human protozoan parasites – Malaria – Amebic desentery – Pneumocystis pneumonia 5/18/2018 6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  7. 7. FUNGI • Unicellular/multicellular • Decomposes organic matter in the soil and fresh water and help recycle nutrients • Fungal disease – Ringworm (skin) – Yeast infection – Meningitis 5/18/2018 7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  8. 8. WORMS • Multicellular • Non-pathogenic • Infestation – Trichinosis – Hookworm – Tapeworm 5/18/2018 8www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  9. 9. ANTHROPODS • Multicelluar • Vectors of disease • Infestations – Mites – Ticks – Scabies 5/18/2018 9www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  10. 10. NOMENCLATURE • 2 names – Genus • 1st • Capitalized • Often abbreviated with 1st letter – Species • Example: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). 5/18/2018 10www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  11. 11. NORMAL FLORA • Resident flora – Transient flora – May become pathogenic if: • Functions: – 1. – 2. 5/18/2018 11www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  12. 12. INFECTIOUS DISEASE • Caused by: – Microorganisms; OR – Toxins of microorganisms • Reproduction of microorganism happens in the host • Factors – Virulence of _______ – Resistance of _______ 5/18/2018 12www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
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  14. 14. DEFINITIONS • Clinical infections • Symptoms • Subclinical • Reservoirs • Incubation period • Prodromal period • Invasion period • Acme • Self limiting 5/18/2018 14www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  15. 15. TYPES OF INFECTION • Localized • Systemic • Bacteremia • Septicemia • Acute • Chronic • Secondary infection • Nosocomial infections • Endogenous infections 5/18/2018 15www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  16. 16. EPIDEMIOLOGY • Definition: • Epidemic • Endemic • Pandemic 5/18/2018 16www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  17. 17. PORTALS OF ENTRY & EXIT  Portal of entry:  Portal of exit:  Spread of disease: 5/18/2018 17www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  18. 18. RESERVOIRS OF INFECTIONS • Carrier: • Zoonoses: – Examples: – Rocky Mtn spotted fever, lyme disease, rabies, plague 5/18/2018 18www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  19. 19. SPREAD OF INFECTION • NON –COMMUNICABLE – Resident species causes disease under certain condition; OR – Non- resident species causes disease when it enters the body – Cannot spread directly or indirectly from host to host – Example: cystitis, tetanus, botulism 5/18/2018 19www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  20. 20. SPREAD OF INFECTION • COMMUNICABLE – Some may be called “Contagious” – Easily spread by casual contact – Direct spread of pathogens • Cutaneous contact • Respiratory droplets • Contaminated blood – Indirect spread of pathogens • Contaminated food & water: Vectors • Fomites: inanimate objects 5/18/2018 20www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  21. 21. METHODS OF CONTROL OF MICROBES • Disinfection • Antiseptics • Disinfectant – Bactericides – Bacteriostatic • Sterilization • Ionizing radiation 5/18/2018 21www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  22. 22. PUBLIC HEALTH MEASURES FOOD • Pasteurization • Inspections WATER • Diverting human sewage away from water supply • Chlorinating water 5/18/2018 22www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  23. 23. EMERGING DISEASES & BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS • Increasing awareness – Lyme disease, Ebola, West Nile, SARS – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p19Wsi 47JFQ • Biological weapons – Anthrax – Smallpox: – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1iXfZ1e YdtA 5/18/2018 23www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  24. 24. THE PATHOGENS 5/18/2018 24www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  25. 25. BACTERIA • SHAPES – COCCUS (round) – BACILLUS (rod) – SPIRILLUM (coils) • ARRANGEMENT – STAPHYLO (clusters) – STREPTO (chains) – DIPLO (pairs) 5/18/2018 25www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  26. 26. DEFINITIONS • Binary fission • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOyUcjqcGpQ • Aerobic vs. Anaerobic – Facultatively anaerobic • Gram stain: + or – – How cell wall responds to stains • Culture & sensitivity • Resistance 5/18/2018 26www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
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  28. 28. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS • CAPSULE • SPORES • TOXINS – Neurotoxins – Endotoxins 5/18/2018 28www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  29. 29. ANTIBIOTICS • Broad spectrum • Narrow spectrum • Action of antibiotics • Possible side effects 5/18/2018 29www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  30. 30. VIRUSES –Not cells • DNA or RNA surrounded by protein shell –Host specific –Obligatory intracellular parasites 5/18/2018 30www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  31. 31. Viruses • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0 emEGShQ • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFl3F RNpU4E&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbYw NOcKqqc • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1mJ YaPQDtM&feature=related 5/18/2018 31www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
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  33. 33. ANTIVIRAL MEDICATIONS • AZT • Acyclovir • Ribavirin • Medication must be able to enter infected cells to be effective • Viruses uses the cell’s DNA to replicate. 5/18/2018 33www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  34. 34. FUNGI – Fungi may be unicellular, like yeasts, or multicellular, like the molds. – In small numbers, yeasts are part of the resident flora of the skin and mucous membranes. – Molds reproduce by forming spores. 5/18/2018 34www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  35. 35. DEFINITIONS • SAPROPHYTES • MYCOSES- may be superficial (skin & mucous membranes) or systemic (gained access to the interior of the body) • CANDIDA ALBICANS 5/18/2018 35www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  36. 36. ANTIFUNGAL MEDS • Amphotericin b • Ketoconazole • Fluconazole • Griseofulvin 5/18/2018 36www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  37. 37. PROTOZOA – Entamoeba and Giardia are spread by the fecal- oral route in contaminated food or water. – Trypanosoma causes African sleeping sickness. – Plasmodium causes malaria. – Toxoplasma may cause abnormalities in a developing fetus. – Pneumocystis causes pneumonia in AIDS patients. 5/18/2018 37www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  38. 38. Protozoa • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLI2 WeUGWlc • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BqjM YEfViKA&feature=related 5/18/2018 38www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  39. 39. MEDICATIONS • Metronidazole • Pentamidine 5/18/2018 39www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  40. 40. WORMS – Flukes or tapeworms are usually acquired by eating poorly cooked fish or meat that contains cysts. – Hookworms live in the small intestine, feed on blood, and may cause a severe anemia. – Pinworm infestation of the colon is probably the most common worm infestation in North America. – Trichinella is acquired by eating poorly cooked pork or wild game that contains cysts. 5/18/2018 40www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  41. 41. Worms • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zrn7j TqKBFs 5/18/2018 41www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  42. 42. 5/18/2018 42www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  43. 43. ARTHROPODS – Lice are vectors of epidemic typhus. – Fleas are vectors of plague. – Mosquitoes are vectors of malaria, yellow fever & encephalitis. – The scabies mite causes intense itching when it burrows into the skin. – Wood ticks are vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. – Deer ticks are vectors of Lyme disease. 5/18/2018 43www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  44. 44. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z7OZ USfTh6M&feature=related 5/18/2018 44www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  45. 45. 5/18/2018 45www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  46. 46. THE END OF A&P! Just for fun…. • Nerve impulses can travel up to 426 feet per second • 450,000 people die in the US r/t smoking related diseases: like a jumbo jet crashing each day with no survivors • One kidney filters 180 quarts of fluid each day • Your heart beats over 36 million times per year • You have 110,000-150,000 hairs on your head 5/18/2018 46www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  47. 47. • You have over 16,000 miles of capillaries • Each strand of hair can support 100 g of weight, so, you could support the weight of 2 elephants on your head • You have about a quarter of a million sweat glands on your feet • Your eyes can see approximately 7 million shades of color • Due to its sterile nature, urine could be used to clean a wound when no antiseptic is available 5/18/2018 47www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com

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