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Hospital Infection Control Programme

Hospital infection control programs can help healthcare organizations monitor and improve practices, identify risks and proactively establish policies to prevent the spread of infections

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Hospital Infection Control Programme

  2. 2. INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAM A comprehensive, effective and supported program is essential for reducing infection risk and increasing hospital safety. It should include surveillance, preventive activities and staff training. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 2
  3. 3. I. National program developed by Ministry of Health: to support hospital programs. It sets national objectives, develops and updates guidelines recommended for health care. II. Hospital programs including: 1) major preventive efforts; keeping in mind patients and staff. 2) It must be supported by senior management and provided with sufficient resources. 3) It must develop a yearly work plan to assess and promote all good health care activities. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 3
  4. 4. InfectionConrtolTeam Infectioncontrolcommittee Infectioncontrolmanual HospitalProgram 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in4
  5. 5. (1) INFECTION CONTROL TEAM The optimal structure varies with hospitals types, needs and resources. Hospital can appoint  epidemiologist or infectious disease specialist microbiologist to work as infection control physician. Infection control nurse who is interested and has experience in infection control issues. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 5
  6. 6. Team should have authority to manage an effective control program. Team should have a direct reporting with senior administration. Infection control team members or are responsible for day-to-day functions of IC and preparing the yearly work plan. They should be expert and creative in their job. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 6
  7. 7. (2) INFECTION CONTROL COMMITTEE  It is a multidisciplinary committee responsible for monitoring program policies implementation and recommend corrective actions.  It includes representatives from different concerned hospital departments & management. They meet bimonthly.  It establishes standards for patient care, it reviews and assesses IC reports and identifies areas of intervention. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 7
  8. 8. (3) INFECTION CONTROL MANUAL Every Hospital should have a nosocomial infection prevention manual compiling recommended instructions and practices for patient care. This manual should be developed and updated in a timely manner by the infection control team. It is to be reviewed and accepted by infection control committee. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 8
  9. 9. Surveillance PreventiveActivities StaffTraining ProgramComponents 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in9
  10. 10. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION SURVEILLANCE Nosocomial infection rate in a hospital is an indicator of quality and safety of care. Surveillance to monitor this rate is essential to identify problems and evaluate control activities The ultimate aim is the reduction of infection rate and their costs. The term surveillance implies that observational data are regularly analyzed. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 10
  11. 11. KEY POINTS IN SURVEILLANCE Active surveillance (Prevalence and incidence studies) Targeted surveillance (site, unit, priority-oriented) Appropriately trained investigators Standardized methodology Risk- adjusted rates for comparisons 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 11
  12. 12. ORGANIZATION FOR SURVEILLANCE Wardactivity devicesorprocedures fever&inf.signs antibiotics&charts Laboratoryreports culture&sensitivity resistancepatterns serologictests Dataelements&analysis patientdata&infection population&risks computerizationofdata Datacollectionandanalysis 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in12
  13. 13. ORGANIZATION FOR SURVEILLANCE prompt,releventtotargetgroup Meetings&disscussions Dissemenationbycommittee Feedback&dissemenation 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in13
  14. 14. SCOPE OF INFECTION CONTROL Aiming at preventing spread of infection: Standard precautions: these measures must be applied during every patient care, during exposure to any potentially infected material or body fluids as blood and others. Components: A. Hand washing. B. Barrier precautions. C. Sharp disposal. D. Handling of contaminated material. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 14
  15. 15. A. HAND WASHING Hand washing is the single most effective precaution for prevention of infection transmission between patients and staff. Hand washing with plain soap is mechanical removal of soil and transient bacteria (for 10- 15 sec.) Hand antisepsis is removal & destroy of transient flora using anti-microbial soap or alcohol based hand rub (for 60 sec.) 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 15
  16. 16. Surgical hand scrub: removal or destruction of transient flora and reduction of resident flora using anti-microbial soap or alcohol based detergent with effective rubbing (for least 2-3 min) Our hands and fingers are our best friends but still could be our enemies if they carry infective organisms and transmit them to our bodies and to those whom we care for. Sinks & soap must be found in every patient care room. Doctors, nurses must comply to hand washing policy. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 16
  17. 17. WHEN TO WASH OUR HANDS 1. Before & after an aseptic technique or invasive procedure. 2. Before & after contact with a patient or caring of a wound or IV line. 3. After contact with body fluids & excreta removal. 4. After handling of contaminated equipment or laundry. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 17
  18. 18. 5. Before the administration of medicines 6. After cleaning of spillage. 7. After using the toilet. 8. Before having meals. 9. At the beginning and end of duty. 10. Gloves cannot substitute hand washing which must be done before putting on gloves and after their removal. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 18
  19. 19. HOW TO WASH OUR HANDS Jewelry must be removed. If unable to remove rings, wash and dry thoroughly around them. Wet your hands with running warm water, dispense about 5 ml of liquid soap or disinfectant into the palm of the hand. Rub hands together vigorously to lather all surfaces and wrist paying particular attention to thumbs, finger tips and webs. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 19
  20. 20. Rinse hands thoroughly. Turn off water using elbow-on elbow taps, dry hands thoroughly on a paper towel OR where elbow taps are not present, first dry hands, thoroughly, then turns off the taps using fresh paper towel. Hand cream can be used on persona basis. If a staff member develops a skin problem, he or she must consult dermatologist. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 20
  21. 21. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 21
  22. 22. B. BARRIER PRECAUTIONS 1. Gloves: Disposable gloves must be worn when: a) Direct contact with B/BF is expected. b) Examining a lacerated or non-intact skin e.g wound dressing. c) Examination of oropharynx, GIT, UIT and dental procedures. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 22
  23. 23. d) Working directly with contaminated instruments or equipment. e) HCW has skin cuts, lesions and dermatitis  Sterile gloves are used for invasive procedures.  GLOVES MUST BE of good quality, suitable size and material. Never reused. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 23
  24. 24. 2) Masks & Protective eye wear:  MUST BE USED WHEN: engaged in procedures likely to generate droplets of B/BF or bone chips.  During surgical operations to protect wound from staff breathings, …  Masks must be of good quality, properly fixed on mouth and nasal openings. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 24
  25. 25. 3) Gowns/ Aprons: Are required when: Spraying or spattering of blood or body fluids is anticipated e.g surgical procedures. Gowns must not permit blood or body fluids to pass through. Sterile linen or disposable ones are used for sterile procedures. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 25
  26. 26. C. SHARP PRECAUTIONS  Needle stick and sharp injuries carry the risk of blood born infection e.g AIDS, HCV,HBV and others.  Sharp injuries must be reported and notified  NEVER TO RECAP NEEDLES  Dispose of used needles and small sharps immediately in puncture resistant boxes (sharp boxes).  Sharp boxes: must be easily accessible, must not be overfilled, labeled or color coded.  Needle incinerators can be another safe way of disposal.  Reusable sharps must be handled with care avoiding direct handling during processing. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 26
  27. 27. D. HANDLING OF CONTAMINATED MATERIAL 1. Cleaning of B/BF spills: a- wear gloves. b- wipe-up the spill with paper or towel. c- apply disinfectant. 2. Cleaning & decontamination of equipment: protective barriers must be worn. 3. Handling & processing lab specimens: must be in strong plastic bags with biohazard label 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 27
  28. 28. 4. Handling and processing linen: Soiled linen must be handled with barrier precautions, sent to laundry in coded bags. 5. Handling and processing infectious waste: a. must be placed in color coded, leakage proof bags, collected with barrier precautions b. contaminated waste incinerated or better autoclaved prior to disposal in a landfill. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 28
  29. 29. Environmental control: 1. Including physical facility plans must meet quality and infection control measures. Patient equipment positioning and installation, traffic flow. 2. Cleaning of hospital environment and dis- infection according to policies. 3. Proper air ventilation. 4. Water pipes examination, check its quality. 5. Proper waste collection and disposal. 6. Cleaning and dis-infection of equipment. 7. Proper linen collection, cleaning, distribution 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 29
  30. 30. 8. Food : ensure quality and safety. 9. Sterilization: Central sterilization department serving all hospital departments compiling with infection control precautions. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 30
  31. 31. . Patient protection : * corrective measures before major procedure, vaccination, proper use of antibiotics. * Isolation precautions. * Limiting endogenous risk 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 31
  32. 32. Staff health promotion and education: 1. HCW are at risk of acquiring infection, they can also transmit infection to patients and other employee. 2. Employee health history must be reviewed, immunizations recommendations to be considered. 3. Release from work if sick, occupation injury must be notified. 4. Continuous education to improve practice, better performance of new techniques. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 32
  33. 33. INFECTION CONTROL RESPONSIBILITY  Role of every hospital department and service units must be identified, documented as manuals kept in accessible place.  Job description of every hospital staff; defining details of his duties must be discussed before employment. Infection control precautions should be part of the routine work and stressed for that. 3/23/2020www.nursingpath.in 33
  34. 34. THANK YOU 3/23/2020 www.nursingpath.in 34