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Fats as a nutrient

a natural oily substance occurring in animal bodies, especially when deposited as a layer under the skin or around certain organs.

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Fats as a nutrient

  1. 1. Fats ( Lipids) Nursing Path www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 9/5/2016 1www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Nutrient  Carbohydrates  Fats  Proteins  Vitamins  Minerals 9/5/2016 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  3. 3. FATS (Lipids)  Composition  Classification of fats  Fatty Acids  RDA of FAT  Functions of Fat  Digestion & Metabolism 9/5/2016 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  Fat => 9 Kcal/gm  Vitamin A, D , E , K  Insulation 9/5/2016 4 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  5. 5. FATS Glycerol C3H5(OH)3 Fatty Acid Composition of FATS 9/5/20165www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Classification of FAT / Lipid Simple Compound Derived Miscellaneous 9/5/20166www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  7. 7. Simple LPIDS FAT = C3H5(OH)3 (Glycerol) + 3 Fatty Acids 1 Fats & Oils 2 Waxes 9/5/2016 7 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  8. 8. Compound FAT Fat + P /Carbo / Protein  Fat + Phosphorus =Phospholipid Fat + Carbohydrate =Glycolipid Fat + Protein = Lipoproteins 9/5/2016 8 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  9. 9. Derived Lipid  Derived Lipid Produced from Fat & its Substances Glycerol + Fatty Acids  Glycerol :  It makeup about 10% of Fat  It is water soluble base Triglycerides  During digestion Glycerol is removed & Available for Glucose formation  Fatty Acids :  It is refined Fuel of Fat- Cell burns for Energy  They may be Saturated or Unsaturated  E.g. Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, Arachidonic acid, Palmitic acid, Myristic acid, Steric acid. 9/5/2016 9 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Miscellaneous Fat  Steroid :  The are fat related Substances containing Sterols  E.g. Cholesterol  Terpenoids :  Terpenoids referred as Isoprenoids  Naturally occurring large organic chemicals  Carotenoids:  Yellow to Red Pigment  E.g. Carotenes , Xanthopylls. 9/5/2016 10 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Fatty Acid  Structure CH3 (CH2)nCOOH  Saturated Fatty Acids CH3 –CH2-CH2-CH2 – COOH  Unsaturated Fatty Acids CH3 –CH=CH-CH2 – COOH MUFA (Monounsaturated Fatty Acid) -Increase HDL CH3 –CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=CH - COOH PUFA (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid) – Decrease Tryglyceride. 9/5/2016 11 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Fatty Acid  Essential Fatty Acid Linoleni acid Linoleic acid  Non-essential Fatty Acid Palmitic acid Oleic acid Butyric acid. 9/5/2016 12 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  13. 13. Trans Fat : o Fat formed when oils are partially hydrogenated o Increase risk of Heart Disease Triglycerides: o They are ester of Glycerol with Fatty acid o It is main form of Fat in food o 80-90% of body lipid are Triglyceride o They help to maintain body Temperature o Excess calorie convert in to Triglyceride Visible & Invisible Fats: Visible: Ghee, Oils, Margarine Invisible: Baked food, Ice-cream , Nuts 9/5/201613www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  14. 14. Cholesterol : o One of the Sterols o Its found different concentration in animal tissues & Blood o It is synthesize in body by the Liver o Body normally synthesized 2 gm/Day o Normal level in Blood = 150- 250 mg/dl o Cholesterol is precursor of the bile salt o It is restricted in Atherosclerosis. 9/5/201614www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  15. 15. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Group Fat (g/day) Adult Man 20 Adult Women 20 Pregnant women 30 Lactating 45 Children (1-9 Year) 25 Children (10-18 Year) 22 9/5/2016 15 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  16. 16. Functions of FAT  Body Fuel  Constituent of cell Membrane  Digestion, Absorption & Utilization of Vit.A,D,E,K  Cellular Metabolic regulator  Protect internal organs  As a compound of mitochondrial membranes  Effect of Stomach Fullness  Proteins sparing effect  Energy storage in Adipose tissue  As a Insulator  Fatty acids – Maintenance of Membrane  Regulation of cholesterol  Delaying Blood clotting time. 9/5/2016 16www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  17. 17. Digestion & Absorption of Fat Food Fat => Stmach => Emulsified Fat => Intstine => Mono, Diglyceride, Fatty acid, Glycerol => Absorbed in Blood => Liver, Tissue 9/5/2016 17 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  18. 18. METABOLISM OF FAT Anabolism = Lipid →Adipose tissue (Lipogenesis) Fatty acid + Glycerol Fatty acid → Muscle → ATP Glycerol → Liver cell → Glucose Catabolism= Fat → Fatty acid + Glycerol Fatty acid → Energy Glycerol → Broken down → Waste product. 9/5/2016 18 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  19. 19. STORAGE OF FAT Lipid Storage:  Liver  Adipose  Muscle  Tissue  Lipid enter in Liver via Lymph where Proteins + Lipid =Lipoproteins  Lipoproteins are four Types 1. Chylomicrons 2. Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) 3. Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) 4. High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). 9/5/2016 19 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  20. 20. STORAGE OF FAT  Lipid enter in Liver via Lymph where Proteins + Lipid =Lipoproteins  Lipoproteins are four Types 1. Chylomicrons 2. Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) 3. Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) 4. High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)  Chylomicrons , VLDL, LDL → Transport Lipids from Intestine to → Liver→ Tissue  LDL  Bad Cholesterol  HDL  Good Cholesterol  Apart from lipoproteins, Triglycerides, Cholesterol & Phospholipids are also synthesised in liver . 9/5/2016 20 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  21. 21.  Deficiency of Fat in Diet  Cause deficiency of essential fatty acids → Lead to cessation of growth  Cause Flaky skin  Development of itchy sores on scalp  Phynoderma or toad skin  Excess Fat in Diet :  Obesity  Slow down digestion & absorption of Food  Interferes in absorption of Calcium  Cause ketosis. 9/5/2016 21 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  22. 22. ThankYou 9/5/2016 22www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com

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