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Nursing Path
www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
Carbohydrate
Carbohydrates
Energy Food
Starch, Sugar
Least Expensive
PlentifulAvailable
Easily Digested
Organic Compound,CnH2nOn
...
Composition of Carbohydrates
Single Sugar Unit – Glucose
Combine Sugar – Starch
Fiber is Carbohydrate – Not provide Ene...
Classification of Carbohydrates
Classification
of
Carbohydrate
s
Simple
Monosaccharide
Aldose
Trioses,Tetrose,
Pentose, He...
Monosaccharide
One Sugar Unit
Important Single Sugar are Glucose, Fructose,
Galactose
Glucose (Dextrose):
 Give Energy ...
Monosaccharide
Fructose:
 Fruit, Honey
 Sweetest of Simple Sugar
 Soft drink, Ready to use Cereals, Desserts
Galactose:...
Characteristics of Monosaccharide
Are Simple Single Sugar
Which require no Digestion
Quickly absorbed from Intestine to...
Disaccharide
Are Simple Double Sugar
Which Link with two Single Sugar
Important Disaccharides are Sucrose,
Lactose &Mal...
Disaccharide
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
e.g. Milk Sugar
Lactose is less soluble
Less Sweet than Sucrose
Maltose = Glu...
Polysaccharide
 Starch = (Glucose)n
e.g. Cereals, Legumes,Tubers
 Glycogen = (Glucose)n
Animal Food
Stored in Liver & Mu...
Complex - Polysaccharides
 Starches – Large molecule
of glucose
 Requires longer to digest
 Glucose available slower
 ...
Fiber
Insoluble
Fiber
• Cellulose
• Hemicellulose
• Lignin
Occurrence
• Cell wall
• Secretion &
Cell
• Woody part of
plant...
Fiber
Soluble
Fiber
• Gums
• Pectins
Occurrence
• Special Cell
Secretion
• Woody part
of plants
Source
• Oats,
Legumes,
Gu...
Action of Fiber in the Body
Insoluble Fiber
• Accelerate GITransit
• Increase FecalWeight
• Promotes bowel
movement
• Slow...
Caloric Value of Carbohydrates
4 kcal/ gm
Energy needed for Physical Activity,Work of cell,
Brain Function
40% of Total...
Source of Carbohydrates
Sugar :
Honey, Fruits, Soft Drink, Milk, Sugar,
Starch:
Cereals, Pasta, Flour, Bread, Potatoes, ...
Source of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates Food Source
Glucose Fruits, Honey, Corn Syrup
Fructose Fruits, Honey
Galactose Milk
...
Function of Carbohydrates
Energy Supply
Brain, Cell
Spare Proteins
Synthesis of Substances
Non-essentialAmino acids
Gly...
Function of Carbohydrates
 Energy Supply for body function
 Essential for the Oxidation of Fats
 Proteins sparing actio...
Digestion of Carbohydrates
 Mouth :Chewing – Breaks up food
 Saliva -Amylase
 Pancreatic Amylase
 IntestinalAmylase
Di...
Digestion of Carbohydrates
Small Intestine
Maltose → Maltase → Glucose + Glucose
Lactose → Lactase → Glucose + Galactose
...
9/5/201622 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
Carbohydrate
Storage :
 Glucose → In Liver & Muscle → Glycogen
Metabolism :
• Anabolism
1. Glucose → Glycogen
2. Glucose ...
Malnutrition of Carbohydrate
Deficiency :
 Low body weight
 Accumulation of large amount of ketone
bodies in the body
Ov...
9/5/201625 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
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Carbohydrate

Energy Food
Starch, Sugar
Least Expensive
Plentiful Available
Easily Digested
Organic Compound,CnH2nOn
Widely distributed in plant food.

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Carbohydrate

  1. 1. Nursing Path www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Carbohydrate
  2. 2. Carbohydrates Energy Food Starch, Sugar Least Expensive PlentifulAvailable Easily Digested Organic Compound,CnH2nOn Widely distributed in plant food. 9/5/20162 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  3. 3. Composition of Carbohydrates Single Sugar Unit – Glucose Combine Sugar – Starch Fiber is Carbohydrate – Not provide Energy Can not digested by Human It is Known as Cellulose and Roughage Pectin - Fruits – Jam. 9/5/20163 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  4. 4. Classification of Carbohydrates Classification of Carbohydrate s Simple Monosaccharide Aldose Trioses,Tetrose, Pentose, Hexose Ketoses Fructose Disaccharide Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose Complex Starch, Glycogen Homopolysacchari de Starch, Dextrin Hetropolysacchari de Hyaluronic acid 9/5/20164 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  5. 5. Monosaccharide One Sugar Unit Important Single Sugar are Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Glucose (Dextrose):  Give Energy for body Activity  It is primary Fuel of Cell  It usually not found in Diet (Corn Syrup)  Produce from Starch. 9/5/20165 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Monosaccharide Fructose:  Fruit, Honey  Sweetest of Simple Sugar  Soft drink, Ready to use Cereals, Desserts Galactose:  Milk Sugar 9/5/20166 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  7. 7. Characteristics of Monosaccharide Are Simple Single Sugar Which require no Digestion Quickly absorbed from Intestine to Blood and carried to the Liver In Liver Converted into Glycogen and stored. 9/5/20167 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  8. 8. Disaccharide Are Simple Double Sugar Which Link with two Single Sugar Important Disaccharides are Sucrose, Lactose &Maltose Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose e.g. Sugar, Brown Sugar Sugarcane, Sugar beet. 9/5/20168 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  9. 9. Disaccharide Lactose = Glucose + Galactose e.g. Milk Sugar Lactose is less soluble Less Sweet than Sucrose Maltose = Glucose + Glcose Starch => Maltose => Glucose Sugar alcohols such Sorbitol Used in Candies, Beverages. 9/5/20169 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Polysaccharide  Starch = (Glucose)n e.g. Cereals, Legumes,Tubers  Glycogen = (Glucose)n Animal Food Stored in Liver & Muscles  Fiber : Plant food –Vegetable, Fruits,Grains Not digested by Human e.g. Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Pectins, Gums, Lignin. 9/5/201610 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Complex - Polysaccharides  Starches – Large molecule of glucose  Requires longer to digest  Glucose available slower  Ex: Cereal grains, corn, peas, potatoes, squash, legumes 9/5/201611 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Fiber Insoluble Fiber • Cellulose • Hemicellulose • Lignin Occurrence • Cell wall • Secretion & Cell • Woody part of plants Source • Wheat flour, Bran • Bran & Gram • Vegetables, Fruits &Wheat 9/5/201612 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  13. 13. Fiber Soluble Fiber • Gums • Pectins Occurrence • Special Cell Secretion • Woody part of plants Source • Oats, Legumes, Guar, Barley • Apple, Guavas, Citrus Fruits 9/5/201613 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  14. 14. Action of Fiber in the Body Insoluble Fiber • Accelerate GITransit • Increase FecalWeight • Promotes bowel movement • Slow Starch Hydrolysis • Delays Glucose Absorption. Soluble Fiber • Delays GITransit • Lowers blood Cholesterols • Delays Glucose absorption. 9/5/201614 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  15. 15. Caloric Value of Carbohydrates 4 kcal/ gm Energy needed for Physical Activity,Work of cell, Brain Function 40% of Total energy should from Carbohydrate India 60-80 % energy from Carbohydrate In Developed Country 30-40 % energy from Carbohydrate 9/5/201615 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  16. 16. Source of Carbohydrates Sugar : Honey, Fruits, Soft Drink, Milk, Sugar, Starch: Cereals, Pasta, Flour, Bread, Potatoes, RootVege., Pulses Fiber: Cereals, Bran, Outer skin of Fruits & Vege., Brown rice, Oatmeals Pectin: Fruits. 9/5/201616 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  17. 17. Source of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Food Source Glucose Fruits, Honey, Corn Syrup Fructose Fruits, Honey Galactose Milk Maltose Backed Starch Sucrose Cane & Beat Sugar Lactose Milk Product Starch & Dextrin Grains, Root &Tubers, Legumes Glycogen Meat Product, Sea Food Cellulose Vegetables, Outer coat of Seed Pectin & Gums Fruits, Plant Secretion, seeds. 9/5/201617 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  18. 18. Function of Carbohydrates Energy Supply Brain, Cell Spare Proteins Synthesis of Substances Non-essentialAmino acids Glycoproteins Glycolipids Promote complete lipid metabolism Provide Bulk Fiber in the Diet. 9/5/201618 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  19. 19. Function of Carbohydrates  Energy Supply for body function  Essential for the Oxidation of Fats  Proteins sparing action  Provide Carbon for synthesis of Non-essential Amino acids  Are present in some tissue Constituents  Add flavour to Diet  Nucleic acid of Connective tissue Matrix, Galactosides of NerveTissue  Necessary for proper functioning of CNS  Adequate hepatic Glycogen Storage enhances normal liver detoxification ability. 9/5/201619 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  20. 20. Digestion of Carbohydrates  Mouth :Chewing – Breaks up food  Saliva -Amylase  Pancreatic Amylase  IntestinalAmylase Dietary Carbohydrate/ Starch Amylase Maltose + Isomaltose 9/5/201620 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  21. 21. Digestion of Carbohydrates Small Intestine Maltose → Maltase → Glucose + Glucose Lactose → Lactase → Glucose + Galactose Sucrose → Surcease → Glucose + Fructose. 9/5/201621 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  22. 22. 9/5/201622 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  23. 23. Carbohydrate Storage :  Glucose → In Liver & Muscle → Glycogen Metabolism : • Anabolism 1. Glucose → Glycogen 2. Glucose → Fat (Lipogenesis) • Catabolism 1. Glucose → ATP 2. Glycogen → Glucose. 9/5/201623 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  24. 24. Malnutrition of Carbohydrate Deficiency :  Low body weight  Accumulation of large amount of ketone bodies in the body Overconsumption : • Increase dental caries • Cause Obesity • Large amount of sugar – Gastric ulcer • Depress appetite – Soft Drink • Increase blood Triglyceride – Lead to Heart Disease. 9/5/201624 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  25. 25. 9/5/201625 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com

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