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Assessment is part of the everyday activities of nursing professionals. Assessment is the only way by which a teacher can know how successful his teaching was and what areas in teaching need improvement.

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Assessment is part of the everyday activities of nursing professionals. Assessment is the only way by which a teacher can know how successful his teaching was and what areas in teaching need improvement. Similarly, a student can know his learning difficulties & also at what position he stands in the crowd of students. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 2
  3. 3. WHAT IS ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realized. Evaluation is the assessment of merits or worth. Evaluation is a systematic examination of educational & social progress. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths & weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, & organizations to improve their effectiveness. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 3
  4. 4. PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION To provide short-term goals to the students. To clarify the intended learning outcome. To determine the level of knowledge & understanding in students. To diagnose the strengths & weakness of students. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 4
  5. 5. PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION To encourage students learning by measuring their achievement. To provide information to students for overcoming learning difficulties. To estimate the effectiveness of the instructional media used. To help students acquire the attitude & skills or self- evaluation. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 5
  6. 6. PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION To assess the nonscholastic domains of the student’s personality. To assess the student’s progress throughout the year. To ascertain if the teaching strategies are effective or not. To improve curriculum in light of recent advances. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 6
  7. 7. PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION To satisfy the university requirements for a curriculum. To report the student’s progress to parents. Evaluation is carried out for general & educational research. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 7
  8. 8. TYPES OF ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION Parameters Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Meaning It is ongoing assessment of the student’s achievement. It is final assessment of the student’s achievement. Purposes To monitor the progress of students & provide feedback for improvement. To finally assign the grades. Frequency Carried out quite frequently ranging from daily to weekly. Carried out monthly, biannually, annually or at the end of a semester. Content focus Detailed focus on content. General & broad content scope. Methods It include classroom questioning, daily assignments, regular formal/informal observation, class tests & internal It include project evaluation, term examination & final external examination. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 8
  9. 9. SCOPE OF ASSESSMENT/ EVALUATION Selection of students Feedback of students Feedback to teacher Incentive to learning Motivation of learning activities Certification of competency Decision for successor 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 9
  10. 10. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE/METHOD 1. Congruent with educational objectives 2. Objectivity 3. Practicability 4. Constructed on wide curricular content 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 10
  11. 11. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE/METHOD 5. Clear & Comprehensive 6. Concise & Precise 7. Relevance 8. Adequate & Appropriate 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 11
  12. 12. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE/METHOD 9. Understandability 10. The power of discrimination 11. Validity of assessment instrument 12. Reliability of assessment in instrument 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 12
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF ASSESSMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Assessment of Knowledge Assessment of Skills Assessment of Attitude Essay type questions Extended response essay Restricted response essay Observation checklist Rating scale Anecdotal record Likert attitude scale Semantic differential scaleShort answer questions Fill in the blank type Statement completion Labelling a diagram Short answer in 5-10 words Cumulative records Writing clinical assignment Critical incident record Practical examination Viva voce (Oral Examination) Objective type of questions Multiple choice questions Multiple response questions True & false questions Matching type question Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSPE) Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 13
  14. 14. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS Essay type questions are a test containing questions requiring the students to respond in writing. It emphasizes recall rather than recognition of the correct alternative. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 14
  15. 15. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS Features of essay type questions:  Questions are used both as formative & summative assessments.  They require a great deal of thought & planning.  Students prepare their own answers.  They evaluate knowledge areas alone.  No single answer can be considered through or correct.  The examinee is permitted freedom of response 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 15
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES • Assess critical-thinking skills in learners. • Provide an opportunity to assess the problem solving & decision making ability in learners. • Helps evaluate thinking, recall, analysis & synthesis of facts. • Provide very limited scope of guessing answers. DISADVANTAGES • It difficult & time consuming to grade the answer. • Evaluation is subjective; different teachers may mark the same answer differently. • There is a scope of lot of subjective biasness. • These questions provide practice in poor or unpolished writing. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 16
  17. 17. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS SAQ the answer has to be generated and supplied by the learner rather than chosen from a number of options provided. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 17
  18. 18. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Purposes of SAQs Useful to assess the recall ability of students. Used to assess students in a classroom while a lecture is in progress. Useful in formative assessment. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 18
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES Provide the opportunity to cover a much wider content of the syllabus. Can be administered to a large group of students Useful to assess the recall of information. Provide less scope for guesswork. Require less stationary. DISADVANTAGES They are not particular suited for testing higher cognitive & noncognitive outcomes. They can lead to cheating within a group of students. Difficulties in scoring if not worded carefully. Provide no scope to assess the writing ability. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 19
  20. 20. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MCQs are the form of assessment where respondents are asked to select the best possible answer out of choices from a list. Scoring in MCQs is easier as compared to essay type & short answer type questions but the other side of the coin is that it is equally difficult to construct good quality MCQs & there is a high chance of cheating & guesswork practices. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 20
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES Easy to use & administer. Can cover a large content area of syllabus. Easy to check answers. High reliability & validity. No scope of subjective biasness. Allow more adequate sampling of content. DISADVANTAGES No useful to test highest level of cognitive domain. Difficult to construct good MCQs. More suitable format for cheating in students. Time-consuming process to construct good MCQs. Inappropriate for measuring skilled performance. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 21
  22. 22. OBSERVATION CHECKLIST A checklist is a simple instrument consisting prepared list of expected items of performance or attributes, which are checked by a evaluator for their presence or absence. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 22
  23. 23. Characteristics of a Checklist OBSERVATION CHECKLIST Observe one respondent at one time. Clearly specify the characteristics of the behavior to be observed. The observer should be trained how to observe Use checklist only when you are interested in calculating a particular characteristics 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 23
  24. 24. OBSERVATION CHECKLIST ADVANTAGES Checklists allow inter- individual comparisons. They provide a simple method to record observations. They are adaptable to subject matter areas. They are helpful in evaluating procedure work. Decreases the chances of errors in observation. DISADVANTAGES It not indicate quality of performance. Only limited component can be evaluated. It has limited use in qualitative observations. Checklists are not easy to prepare. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 24
  25. 25. RATING SCALE Rating is the term used to express opinion or judgment regarding some performance of a person, object, situation & character. Rating scale refers to a scale with a set of opinion, which describes varying degree of the dimensions of an attitude or a phenomenon being observed. It could be a 3-point, a 5-point or a 7-point rating scale 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 25
  26. 26. 1. Graphic Rating Scale RATING SCALE 2. Descriptive Rating Scale 3. Numerical Rating Scale Nursing Personnel in a ward Level of Clinical Performance 1. Ankit Very active Active Moderately active passive 2. Rajesh 3. Priti 4.subha Types of Rating Scale 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 26
  27. 27. Quantity of work • Reliability • Accuracy Volume of work • Initiative • cooperative Quality of work • Judgment • Ability Dependability • Neatness • Willingness RATING SCALE Common content of appraisal in rating scale 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 27
  28. 28. ADVANTAGES Rating scale are easy to administer. It less time-consuming. It can be easily used for a large group. They are also used for quantitative methods. They are used to evaluate performance & skills & product outcomes. DISADVANTAGES It is difficult or dangerous to fix up rating about many aspects of an individual. Misuse can result in a decrease in objectivity. RATING SCALE 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 28
  29. 29. PRACTICAL EXAMINATION Practical examination is concerned with the assessment of practical performance skills & practice competency acquired by a student during the course of a particular programme. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 29
  30. 30. To assess the practical skills To assess the development in affect domain To assess the student’s problem solving skills To assess the recording & reporting skills To assess multiple performance task such as assessment, planning, implementation, communication PRACTICAL EXAMINATION Purposes of Practical Examination 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 30
  31. 31. ADVANTAGES It provide an opportunity to assess the skills & competency. It provide an opportunity to the examiner for assessing the use of compartmentalized knowledge. An examiner also get an opportunity to assess the communication & interpersonal skills. DISADVANTAGES It not considered an objective method of assessment. It time consuming process. It not feasible for large group. Sometime it considered as unethical to expose patients for examining students. PRACTICAL EXAMINATION 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 31
  32. 32. OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION OSCE is a modern type of examination to assess clinical skill performance & competence in skills such as communication, clinical examination, medical & nursing procedure/prescription, exercise prescription, joint mobilization techniques & interpretation of results. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 32
  33. 33. DEFINITION OF OSCE OSCE is an assessment tool in which the components of clinical competence such as history taking, physical examination, simple procedures, interpretation of lab results, patient management problems, communication, attitude etc. are tested using agreed check lists & rotating the student round a number of stations some of which have observers with checklists. OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 33
  34. 34. PRACTICAL SKILLS ARE ASSESSED IN NURSING USING OSCE OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION Interpretation of clinical findings Mental Health Assessment Physical Examination History Taking skills Interpersonal & communication skills Clinical decision making & clinical problem solving Management of a clinical situations Patient education Acting safely in an urgent clinical situation Basic & advanced nursing care procedure practice 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 34
  35. 35. OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION Organizing the OSCE The OSCE examination consists of about 10-15 stations, each of which requires about 4-5 minutes. The number of stations & time spent on each station may vary based on needs of evaluation. All stations should be capable of being completed in the same time. The students are rotated through all stations & have to move to the next station at the signal. As the stations are generally independent, students can start at any procedure stations & complete the cycle. Using 15 stations of 4 minutes each, 15 students can complete the examination within 1 hour. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 35
  36. 36. OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION Organizing the OSCE Each station is designed to test a component of clinical competence. At some stations, called the procedure stations, students are given tasks to perform on patients or simulators. At all such stations there are observers with agreed upon checklist or rating scales to score the student’s performance. At other stations called response stations, students respond to questions of the objective type or interpret data or record their findings of the previous procedure stations. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 36
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  38. 38. ADVANTAGES More valid than the traditional approach to clinical examinations. Examiner can decide in advance what is to be tested. Examiners can have better control on the content. More reliable. The use of checklist by examiners DISADVANTAGES Students knowledge & skills are tested in compartments. Demanding for both examiners & patients. Examiners are require to pay close attention to students repeating the same tasks Maintaining uniform difficulty level is not always possible. OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 38
  39. 39. LIKERT SCALE The Likert Scale was named after a psychologist Rensis Likert, who developed it in 1932 as a psychological concept measurement scale. Likert Scale is a composite measurement scale used to measure attitude, values & feelings of the people that involve summation of scores on the set of positive & negative declarative statements regarding measuring variables to which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 39
  40. 40. Example of the five-point Likert Scale to assess the attitude with HIV/AIDS LIKERT SCALE Statement Please tick (√) in appropriate column for each statement Strongly Agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly Disagree 1. Person with multiple sex partners are at high risk of AIDS 2. You can get AIDS by sharing utensils 3. You may have HIV by sharing needles with others 4. Only gay men can get AIDS 5. AIDS is a curable disease. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 40
  41. 41. LIKERT SCALE Uses of a Likert Scale It is basically used to measure the attitudes, values & feelings of the people about specific concept such as a situation, people, place, object, programme, practice, policy & so on. This scale is used to have quantified measurement of the qualitative attributes of people such as feelings, values & attitude. It may also be used to assess the opinion of the people about a particular abstract concept. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 41
  42. 42. LIKERT SCALE Characteristics of a Likert Scale Psychological Measurement tool Illustrative in nature Neutral statementsBipolar scaling method Measurement of the specific number of scaling categories 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 42
  43. 43. LIKERT SCALE Scoring of statements in Likert Scale statement Strongly Agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly Disagree (Positive statement) 1. Person with multiple sex partners are at high risk of AIDS 5 4 3 2 1 (Negative Statement) 2. You can get AIDS by sharing utensils 1 2 3 4 5 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 43
  44. 44. ADVANTAGES It is relatively easy to construct this scale. It is considered more reliable & valid tool to measure psychological variables. It easy to administer. It is less time consuming. DISADVANTAGES The respondents may feel forced to answer the question. Difficulty in justifying the selection of the number of categories. Casual approach of respondents in these scale may provide misleading data LIKERT SCALE 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 44
  45. 45. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE  Semantic differential questions measure people’s attitude towards stimulus, words, objects & concepts.  This question type consists of a series of contrasting adjective pairs (e.g. good-bad, beneficial-harmful) listed on opposite ends of a bipolar scale.  Semantic differential scale is a type of rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events & concepts. This connotations are used to derive the attitude of the objects, events & concepts. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 45
  46. 46. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE Example of a Segmantic Differential Scale to assess the attitude of student nurse towards patient 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Experience working with patients Pleasant Polite Warm Unconcern Insincere Disrespecting Noncommunicative Inhuman Callous Cold Rude Unpleasant Respectful Communicative Human Considerate Empathy Friendly 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 46
  47. 47. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE Adjective pairs used for construction of semantic differential scale Evaluation Potency Activity Good – Bad Hard – Soft Active – Passive Kind – Cruel Strong – Weak Fast – Slow Wise – Foolish Heavy – Light Hot – Cold Beautiful – Ugly Deep – Shallow Motivated – Aimless Happy – Sad Potent – Impotent Moving – Still Sociable – Unsociable Large – Small Excitable – Calm Friendly – Unfriendly Simple – Complex Alive – Dead Willing – Unwilling Difficult – Easy Emotional – Unemotional Honest – Dishonest Submissive – Assertive Bright –Dim10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 47
  48. 48. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE ADVANTAGES o A convenient method to assess beliefs, attitudes & values in quantitative form. o Easy to administer. o Provides reasonable, valid & reliable quantitative data. DISADVANTAGES o It is difficult to select the relevant concepts that are appropriate for any given investigations. o It is time consuming. 10/11/2019 www.nursingpath.in 48
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