O slideshow foi denunciado.
An evil or a boon…
Dr. Shelly Arora
Medical Officer (Homoeopathy)
Dte. Of AYUSH
Govt. of NCT of Delhi
The body temperature refers to the temperature of the
viscera and tissues of the body.
It is kept within the normal level by maintaining a balance
between the heat gain and heat loss, which is regulated
The normal body temperature varies from 36.6ºC – 37.2ºC
There is normally a diurnal variation of 1ºC.
What is Fever
Body temperature above the usual range of
normal i.e. 36.6 – 37.2ºC (98-99ºF).
It is caused by an elevation in thermo-regulatory
set-point i.e. due to a disturbance of heat
regulation, the thermostatic mechanism
controlling heat gain and loss is set at a level
higher than normal.
Result of increase in
temperature regulatory set-point
The body attempts to counteract the newly-
perceived hyperthermia and reach the new thermo-
regulatory set-point by:
Increase in muscle tone
Increase in heart rate
A feeling of cold, resulting in greater heat
Body’s effort to conserve heat
Classification of Fever
GRDE CELSIUS FAHRENHEIT
Normal temperature 36.6-37.2 98-99
Low Grade 37.2-37.8 99-100
Moderate 37.8-39.4 100-103
High Grade 39.4-40.5 103-105
Hyperpyrexia >40.5 >106
Hyperpyrexia is a medical emergency because it approaches the upper limit
compatible with human life.
Causes of Fever
Fever is caused by an abnormality in Body’s
Temperature regulation, which results from:
An abnormality in the brain itself.
Toxic substances that affect the temperature
Some Causes of Fever are:
Infections: bacterial, viral, rickettsial, fungal, parasitic
Vascular: acute MI, pulmonary embolism
Immunological: Sarcoidosis, IBD, RA, Drug disease
Tissue destruction eg. Hemolysis, surgery
Heat Stroke, radiation sickness etc.
Unexplained - PUO
Fever is not a Disease
Fever is not itself a disease but the body’s response
to a disease.
It is considered as one of the body’s immune
mechanism to attempt a neutralization of a
perceived threat inside the body, be it bacterial or
Various studies suggest:
The patient recovers more rapidly from infections or
critical illness due to fever.
There is reduced mortality in bacterial infections
when fever is present.
Fever was found beneficial in some diseases like cancer,
neurosyphillis etc. Fever was often induced in these
diseases by injection of milk protein or BCG vaccine.
Usefulness of Fever
It has been suggested that fevers may be useful to some extent since:
They allow the body to reach high temperature, where some
pathogens with strict temperature preferences can be hindered.
Fever aids in Host defence by-
Increased proliferation of WBCs, which help fight off the harmful
pathogens and microbes that invade the body.
Enhanced Leukocyte phagocytosis
Endotoxin efects decreased
Increased proliferation of T-cells
Enhanced activity of interferon
Both aggressive treatment of fever and too little
fever control can be detrimental.
This depends on the clinical situation. Therefore,
careful assessment is needed.
With the exception of very high temperature, treatment
to reduce fever is often not necessary.
It is rare for an untreated fever to exceed 40.6 C (105 F).
Damage to Brain generally doe not occur until
temperatures reach 42 C (107.6 F).
Most people recover without specific medical treatment.
Fever is an important sign of an illness in the body. It
should be used to govern the medical treatment and
guage its effectiveness.
Even when treatment is not indicated, general measures
should be taken in a case of fever:
Keep patients adequately hydrated as dehydration
produced by a mild fever can be more dangerous than the
Facilitate Heat-loss by-
Wet clothes, usually applied to forehead, bathing body
in tepid water.
“Treat the Patient, not the Disease”
According to Samuel Hahnemann (in Organon of Healing Art)
all kinds of Fevers should be treated in the same manner as
any other disease.
Homoeopathic Prescribing in Fever
A medicine should never be prescribed simply to control
Fever. Rather, a similimum has to be found according to the
totality of the case.
The patient should be observed carefully, taking note of
all the changes in the health of the body and mind since
the current illness (fever).
The totality of the symptoms should be perceived,
embracing the more striking, singular, uncommon and
peculiar (characteristic) signs and symptoms of the case
of disease; and the most similar remedy found.
The Fever – its name / type is just one of the symptoms
and is of the least value in selection of the remedy, being
the general (common) symptom.
Homoeopathic Prescribing in Fever
Our Materia Medicas and Repertories are full of symptoms
associated with Fever, which characterize the case of
fever - indicating the type, sensations associated, time,
modalities, concomitants etc.
Hahnemann has given special instructions in his Organon
of Healing Art regarding the treatment of intermittent
fevers (§ 321-244).
Various stalwarts have written books with instructions on
treatment of fevers:
Intermittent Fever by H.C.Allen
Repertory to the Symptoms of Intermittent Fever by
Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eighth edition
Mehta,P.J. Practical Medicine for Students and Practitioners,
Thitteenth edition, 1998
Hutchinson’s Clinical Methods, Twentieth edition
Hahnemann, Samuel. Organon of Medicine, translated from the
fifth edition with an appendix by R.E.Dudgeon;with additions
and alterations as per sixth edition translated by William
Khan L.M., Pleasure of Prescribing