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By:               http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJAR
 Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar      http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com




Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                       1
1. Almost no English words end in "v" and
   none in "j".

  Exception:
            spiv.




Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                    2
2. "q" is always written as "qu".
   It never stands by itself.
Examples:
       quick,
       queen,
       quarrel.



Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar            3
3. A. "i" comes before "e" when it is pronounced " ee".
   B. "i" before "e" except after " c “,
   C. or when sounding like "a" as in "neighbour, or weigh".


Examples:                              Exceptions:
                                         neither,
    A.                       B.          foreign,
    brief,                  receive,     sovereign,
    field,                  deceive,     seized,
    priest.                 ceiling.     counterfeit,
                                         forfeited,
                                         leisure.

 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                      4
Rule for -ie and -ei
The rule is summarized as:




The rule for ie and ei is in three parts:
  Usually spell the combination -ie, as in believe.
  However, spell -ei when the combination follows the letter -c, as in receive.
  Also, spell -ei when the combination has the sound of a long -a, as in weigh
(wa).
Exceptions to this rule include words in which the combination should be
spelled -ie but is spelled -ei: caffeine, either, foreign, height, leisure, neither,
protein, their, and weird. There are also words in which the combination follows
-c and should be spelled -ei but is spelled -ie. In these words, -c is pronounced
-sh: ancient, conscience, deficient, efficient, proficient, and sufficient.
Remember to spell -ie rather than -ei after c when c spells the sound of -sh.



Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                                           5
4."able" or "ible" endings.
Use "able":
 After root words. e.g. available, dependable.
 After root words ending in "e". e.g. desirable, believable,
usable (drop the "e").
 After "i". e.g. reliable, sociable.
 When other forms of the root word have a dominant "a"
vowel. e.g. irritable, durable, abominable.
 After a hard "c" or "g". e.g. educable, practicable,
navigable.
  Exceptions: formidable, inevitable, memorable, probable,
portable, indomitable, insuperable.
 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                      6
Use "ible"
   After non-root words. e.g. audible, horrible, possible.
   When the root has an immediate "ion“ form. e.g.
digestible, suggestible, convertible.
   After a root ending in "ns" or "miss". e.g. responsible,
comprehensible, permissible.
   After a soft "c" or "g". e.g. legible, negligible, forcible,
invincible.
   Exceptions: contemptible, resistible, collapsible,
flexible.

  Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                   7
5. "ceed", "sede" and "cede".

          Three "ceed" words; succeed, exceed,
          proceed.
         One "sede" word; supersede.
         All others "cede“ e.g. intercede,
         antecede, precede.



Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                         8
6.We double "l, f, and s" after a single short
    vowel at the end of a word.
Examples:                      Exceptions:
       call,                     us,
       tall,                      bus,
      toss,                       gas,
                                 if,
      miss,                      of,
       stiff,                    this,
       stuff.                    yes,
                                 plus,
                                 nil,
                                  pal.
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                           9
7. For words ending in a single "l" after a single vowel,
   double the "l" before adding a suffix, regardless of
   accent.
Examples:
    cancelled,
    traveller,
     signalling,
     metallic.



Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                               10
8. "all" and "well" followed by another syllable only
    have one "l".

Examples:
    also,
    already,
    although,
    welcome,
    welfare.



Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                 11
9. The Word + Word Rule
The Word + Word Rule explains how to join words to form compound words
such as fireworks.
Usually join two words without changing their spellings.


Examples:                                     Exceptions:
                                               almost,
book + keeper = bookkeeper                     already,
room + mate = roommate                         although,
fire + arms = firearms                         altogether,
                                               always,
                                               oneself,
                                               pastime, and
                                               wherever.
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                                 12
10. The Prefix + Word Rule
   Join a prefix and a word without changing the spelling
   of the prefix or the word.
Examples:
 mis + spell = misspell
 un + necessary = unnecessary
 dis + appear = disappear
There are                to the Prefix + Word Rule.



 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                              13
11. The Word + Suffix Rule
Usually join a word and a suffix without changing
the spelling of the word or the suffix.
Examples:
    usual + ly = usual
    clean + ness = cleanness
    poison + ous = poisonous




Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                            14
Final -e Rule
1. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used when adding suffixes to
   words that end in silent e.
2. When a word ends in silent -e, usually drop the -e if you are
   adding a suffix that begins with a vowel, but retain the -e
   when you are adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.
Examples:
  Silent -e is an -e such as the one in love, which you do not hear when
love is pronounced. Since love ends in silent e and the suffix -able begins
with a vowel, drop -e when joining love and -able:
    love + able = lovable
However, since the suffix -less begins with a consonant, retain the -e in
love when joining love and -less:
    love + less = loveless
 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                               15
Exceptions to this rule include words in which -e should
be retained but is dropped:
   acknowledgment,
  argument,
  awful,
   duly,
   judgment,
  ninth,
  truly,
  wholly, and
  wisdom.

 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                             16
include words ending in -ce or
-ge in which -e is not dropped when you add -
able or -ous:
   courageous,
   manageable,
   noticeable,
    outrageous,
    peaceable,
   serviceable, and
   traceable.


Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                             17
•We have to understanding why -e is not dropped from words
ending in -ce or -ge when adding the suffixes -able and -ous.
• The letters -c and -g are usually pronounced -s and -j before
the letters -e and -i, but -k and -g before the letters -a and -o.
•The incorrect spelling noticable would mean that you would
pronounce the -c as a -k rather than as an -s (you would say
notikable rather than notisable).
•Similarly, the incorrect spelling couragous would mean that you
would pronounce the -g as a -g rather than as a -j (you would
say couragous rather than courajous).
•The -e is retained to preserve the -s and -j pronunciations of -c
and -g.


Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                      18
Final -y Rule
1. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used when adding suffixes to
   words that end in -y.
2. When a word ends in -y, usually change the -y to -i when you
   are adding a suffix if the -y is preceded by a consonant, but
   do not change it if the -y is preceded by a vowel or if you are
   adding the suffix -ing.
Examples:
  study+ -ed = studied             study+ -ing = studying
  destroy + -ed = destroyed        destroy + -ing = destroying



 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                        19
Final Consonant Rules

A. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used to join suffixes to words that end in
   one consonant preceded by one vowel.
B. Final Consonant Rule No. 1 explains how to join suffixes to one-syllable
   words that end in the cvc combination.
C. When a one-syllable word ends in the cvc combination, usually double
   the final consonant when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel but
   do not double it when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.
Examples:
 Ship is a one-syllable word that ends in the cvc combination.
    ship + -ing = shipping
                    (a suffix begins with a vowel)
    ship + -ment = shipment
                    (a suffix that begins with a consonant)


  Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                             20
Rule No. 2
A. Final Consonant Rule No. 2 explains how to join suffixes to words of
   more than one syllable that end in the cvc combination.
B. When a word of more than one-syllable ends in the cvc combination
   and it is accented on the last syllable, usually double the final
   consonant when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel but do not
   double it when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.
Examples:
Commit is accented on the last syllable and ends in the cvc
combination.
 commit+ -ing = comitting
                 (a suffix begins with a vowel)
  commit+ -ment = commitment
                 (a suffix that begins with a consonant)



 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                           21
Works Cited
Eight Essential Spelling Rules
http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/AS/803.htm
Some Spelling Rules:
http://www.amity.org.uk/Training/Spelling%20Rules/Spelling%20Rules.htm
Reading from Scratch, Spelling Rules:
http://www.dyslexia.org/spelling_rules.shtml
Rules for Irregular Plural Formation of Nouns
http://www.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/pluralsl.htm




Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar                                                 22

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Spelling Rules Presentation By Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

  • 1. By: http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJAR Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  • 2. 1. Almost no English words end in "v" and none in "j". Exception: spiv. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  • 3. 2. "q" is always written as "qu". It never stands by itself. Examples: quick, queen, quarrel. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  • 4. 3. A. "i" comes before "e" when it is pronounced " ee". B. "i" before "e" except after " c “, C. or when sounding like "a" as in "neighbour, or weigh". Examples: Exceptions: neither, A. B. foreign, brief, receive, sovereign, field, deceive, seized, priest. ceiling. counterfeit, forfeited, leisure. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  • 5. Rule for -ie and -ei The rule is summarized as: The rule for ie and ei is in three parts: Usually spell the combination -ie, as in believe. However, spell -ei when the combination follows the letter -c, as in receive. Also, spell -ei when the combination has the sound of a long -a, as in weigh (wa). Exceptions to this rule include words in which the combination should be spelled -ie but is spelled -ei: caffeine, either, foreign, height, leisure, neither, protein, their, and weird. There are also words in which the combination follows -c and should be spelled -ei but is spelled -ie. In these words, -c is pronounced -sh: ancient, conscience, deficient, efficient, proficient, and sufficient. Remember to spell -ie rather than -ei after c when c spells the sound of -sh. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  • 6. 4."able" or "ible" endings. Use "able": After root words. e.g. available, dependable. After root words ending in "e". e.g. desirable, believable, usable (drop the "e"). After "i". e.g. reliable, sociable. When other forms of the root word have a dominant "a" vowel. e.g. irritable, durable, abominable. After a hard "c" or "g". e.g. educable, practicable, navigable. Exceptions: formidable, inevitable, memorable, probable, portable, indomitable, insuperable. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  • 7. Use "ible" After non-root words. e.g. audible, horrible, possible. When the root has an immediate "ion“ form. e.g. digestible, suggestible, convertible. After a root ending in "ns" or "miss". e.g. responsible, comprehensible, permissible. After a soft "c" or "g". e.g. legible, negligible, forcible, invincible. Exceptions: contemptible, resistible, collapsible, flexible. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  • 8. 5. "ceed", "sede" and "cede". Three "ceed" words; succeed, exceed, proceed. One "sede" word; supersede. All others "cede“ e.g. intercede, antecede, precede. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  • 9. 6.We double "l, f, and s" after a single short vowel at the end of a word. Examples: Exceptions: call, us, tall, bus, toss, gas, if, miss, of, stiff, this, stuff. yes, plus, nil, pal. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  • 10. 7. For words ending in a single "l" after a single vowel, double the "l" before adding a suffix, regardless of accent. Examples: cancelled, traveller, signalling, metallic. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  • 11. 8. "all" and "well" followed by another syllable only have one "l". Examples: also, already, although, welcome, welfare. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  • 12. 9. The Word + Word Rule The Word + Word Rule explains how to join words to form compound words such as fireworks. Usually join two words without changing their spellings. Examples: Exceptions: almost, book + keeper = bookkeeper already, room + mate = roommate although, fire + arms = firearms altogether, always, oneself, pastime, and wherever. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  • 13. 10. The Prefix + Word Rule Join a prefix and a word without changing the spelling of the prefix or the word. Examples: mis + spell = misspell un + necessary = unnecessary dis + appear = disappear There are to the Prefix + Word Rule. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  • 14. 11. The Word + Suffix Rule Usually join a word and a suffix without changing the spelling of the word or the suffix. Examples: usual + ly = usual clean + ness = cleanness poison + ous = poisonous Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  • 15. Final -e Rule 1. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used when adding suffixes to words that end in silent e. 2. When a word ends in silent -e, usually drop the -e if you are adding a suffix that begins with a vowel, but retain the -e when you are adding a suffix that begins with a consonant. Examples: Silent -e is an -e such as the one in love, which you do not hear when love is pronounced. Since love ends in silent e and the suffix -able begins with a vowel, drop -e when joining love and -able: love + able = lovable However, since the suffix -less begins with a consonant, retain the -e in love when joining love and -less: love + less = loveless Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  • 16. Exceptions to this rule include words in which -e should be retained but is dropped: acknowledgment, argument, awful, duly, judgment, ninth, truly, wholly, and wisdom. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  • 17. include words ending in -ce or -ge in which -e is not dropped when you add - able or -ous: courageous, manageable, noticeable, outrageous, peaceable, serviceable, and traceable. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  • 18. •We have to understanding why -e is not dropped from words ending in -ce or -ge when adding the suffixes -able and -ous. • The letters -c and -g are usually pronounced -s and -j before the letters -e and -i, but -k and -g before the letters -a and -o. •The incorrect spelling noticable would mean that you would pronounce the -c as a -k rather than as an -s (you would say notikable rather than notisable). •Similarly, the incorrect spelling couragous would mean that you would pronounce the -g as a -g rather than as a -j (you would say couragous rather than courajous). •The -e is retained to preserve the -s and -j pronunciations of -c and -g. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  • 19. Final -y Rule 1. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used when adding suffixes to words that end in -y. 2. When a word ends in -y, usually change the -y to -i when you are adding a suffix if the -y is preceded by a consonant, but do not change it if the -y is preceded by a vowel or if you are adding the suffix -ing. Examples: study+ -ed = studied study+ -ing = studying destroy + -ed = destroyed destroy + -ing = destroying Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19
  • 20. Final Consonant Rules A. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used to join suffixes to words that end in one consonant preceded by one vowel. B. Final Consonant Rule No. 1 explains how to join suffixes to one-syllable words that end in the cvc combination. C. When a one-syllable word ends in the cvc combination, usually double the final consonant when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel but do not double it when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant. Examples: Ship is a one-syllable word that ends in the cvc combination. ship + -ing = shipping (a suffix begins with a vowel) ship + -ment = shipment (a suffix that begins with a consonant) Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20
  • 21. Rule No. 2 A. Final Consonant Rule No. 2 explains how to join suffixes to words of more than one syllable that end in the cvc combination. B. When a word of more than one-syllable ends in the cvc combination and it is accented on the last syllable, usually double the final consonant when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel but do not double it when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant. Examples: Commit is accented on the last syllable and ends in the cvc combination. commit+ -ing = comitting (a suffix begins with a vowel) commit+ -ment = commitment (a suffix that begins with a consonant) Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21
  • 22. Works Cited Eight Essential Spelling Rules http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/AS/803.htm Some Spelling Rules: http://www.amity.org.uk/Training/Spelling%20Rules/Spelling%20Rules.htm Reading from Scratch, Spelling Rules: http://www.dyslexia.org/spelling_rules.shtml Rules for Irregular Plural Formation of Nouns http://www.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/pluralsl.htm Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22