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Role Playing and Simulation By Deborah Murdoch and Kim Knox
“You can never truly judge a person untilyou’ve walked a mile in their shoes”
“You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view […] until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” – Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird
Acting Taking on another identity What is Role Playing?Decision-making spontaneous
Definition of Role PlayEducational Role Play asks each student to take the role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impacts of the issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from the perspective of that person.
Objective of the teacherto challenge your students to eliminate allpersonal subjectivity and take on a different persona and perspective.
Types of Role Play1. Tableaux – A striking scene or picture created by organizing students in a staged pose, often in costume – A series of tableaux can be used effectively to recreate an event, especially when a narrator describes the various scenes and the progression of events – Benefits: can be less intimidating because while everyone can participate, not everyone has to speak – *The tableaux must is the debriefing after the activity to explain why and what the group has done.
Questions you should ask in the debrief:1. What was portrayed?2. Why was it important?3. Was it a plausible recreation of the event?4. What aspects do we need to learn more about?5. Are there other interpretations of what happened?6. What have we learned from this activity?
Types of Role Play2. Stepping into History – Involves students in role playing people in a painting or photograph – The idea is to assign a role based on the person in the picture. Students research their characters and then they can create a conversation about the issue that is the subject or reason for the picture. – Benefit: this activity stirs up the student’s historical imaginations, uses critical thinking and encourages them to research, discuss and identify people/places in history. – Caution: It should encourage some imaginative dialogue, but avoid inauthentic dialogue
Last Spikehttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/_tHyVWN_FhI0/TNdkO6xuvWI/AAAAAAAABEg/B9exqrM5c H8/s1600/last-spike.jpg
Father’s of Confederation at the Charlottetown conference http://www.uppercanadahistory.ca/pp/pp9p1.jpg
Types of Role Play3. Heritage or History in a minute – Help students choose or research a person, event or even a popular product of the time – Divide the class into small production teams and ask them to write a storyboard for their history minute – Students can choose between a video or presentation in front of the class – You could possibly be use this assignment for review
Types of Role Play4. Teacher Role Play – Teacher can take on a role of a certain character in history while teaching that class Clip from Glee
Types of Role Play5. Post-cards from the Past – Students are to create post-cards from the perspective of individuals living in a given time period – The post-card should be historically accurate, written in first- person narrative, proper post-card format and must include a picture of the person on the front. – Benefits: It is more engaging then simply writing a letter or drawing a picture. The students are able to take on a persona rather than write a biography. – www.histori.ca – www.archives.ca
Living history Enacting an event What is Simulation?Immersedinto anunfamiliar Premeditatedsituation and Planned
Definition of SimulationEducation simulation has three main components:1. Students take roles that are representative of the real world and involve them making decisions in response to their assessment of the situation that they have been placed in.2. Students experience simulated consequences which relate to their decisions and their general performance in the simulation3. Students monitor the results of their actions and are encouraged to reflect upon the relationship between their own decisions and the resulting consequences of their actions.Other aspects- Involve the use of social skills, which are directly relevant to the world outside of the classroom.- Deal with situations that change and therefore demand flexibility in thinking- Problem based and help in the development of long-term learning
Objective as a teacherThe creator of the simulation is to help thestudents to understand the situation ofthat person (or group of persons). It helpsstudents to develop a sense of empathy.
Types of Simulation Video games• Students are often already familiar with these interfaces and the “language” of interacting with and utilizing them.• creating authentic learning experiences is perhaps the most critical aspect and benefit to digital games and simulations—bridging the all-too-well-known gap between the classroom and the real world.• Games and simulations have been a key component of training doctors and military personnel• Researchers have found that games improve skills in communication and collaboration, problem-solving, and various number-related skills (McFarlane, Sparrowhawk, & Heald, 2002).
Although analogous to digital games and often included in the gaming spectrum, simulations are “analog[ies] of a real world situation[s]” (Prensky, 2001, p. 128), as they recreate a modeled or modified version of a real world situation.One essential aspect that separates digital games from simulations is the lack of game dynamics or the “win state” that exists in digital games.
CROSS-COUNTRY CANADA, integrated into the Elementary Schools in early 1990s.
What is the difference? Role Playing SimulationSpecific; each student has a General, group situationrepresentative roles Pre-meditated ; teacher-driven (orSpontaneous , student-driven computer driven)The action has a “past”; events have The events could have happened or canhappened already be hypotheticalThe focus is on what will happen Mimic real life; relatable and relevant“This is the problem; how shall would “This is the situation, what will/can we“this role” solve it/how was it solved?” do?” = reflective
Why is Role Play and Simulation important in the classroom?• Recreates dramatic quality of situation of historical setting• Teaches empathy to different cultural perspectives (social conscience)• Can sensitize students (poor losers)• Simulates authentic language experiences• Provides a memorable learning experience• Adaptable for multiple learning levels and learning styles• Promotes self-esteem and builds confidence• Student-driven; active learning
Adversarial Roles• Role play is an effective strategy used in teaching conflict resolution• If emotions are running high over a conflict or controversial issue, teacher can select simple conflicts and get them to each take on a role• Example, European contact with Natives• This helps students appreciate the complexity of a controversial issue.• Instead of taking on one role, students can assume many different roles related to the same issue, which allows students to gain different perspectives
What skills do they promote?• Combines cognitive and affective domains of learning (feel and think)• Oral and written communication; performance skills• Decision-making• Provides students with open-ended opportunities to analyse a problem or controversial situation• Thinking critically about an unfamiliar topic• Spontaneity
What must teachers do beforeimplementing role play or simulation into the classroom?
Preparing for Simulation and Role Play• You have to build a safe community• Modelling• Have realistic goals (this isn’t drama class!)• Use realistic situations and scenarios (historical inaccuracies)• Provide visual aids (props, costumes, etc)
Downfalls• Imposition of thought and subjectivity• Complexities and subtleties overlooked• May promote stereotypes• May not cater to all levels of maturity• Students may retain inaccurate information• Time consuming• Access to props• Space
“Dramatic activities provide some of the richest and most memorable experiences (students) have in their struggle with a second language” – Celce-Murcia
Assessment Assessment for learning - This is a memorable experience that will benefit the student’s learning, therefore does not necessarily require evaluation Assessment of learning- Historical relevance (research), Enthusiasm and effort in your assigned role, accomplishments with simulation Assessment as learning - Self-reflection
Assessment as learning; self-evaluationDuring the meetings, I acted in role Evidence to support my Almost never evaluation. About half the time All of the timeDuring the meetings, I contributed my ideas... Evidence to support my Almost never evaluation. A few times Whenever appropriate During the meetings, I supported other peoples Evidence to support my ideas... evaluation. Almost never A few times Whenever appropriateDuring the meetings, I work to find a win-win Evidence to support mysolution... evaluation. Not at all Made an effort Worked very hard