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  1. 1. Chapter 5 Gender and Gender Roles
  2. 2. Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles <ul><li>Sex: whether one is biologically female, male, or intersex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic sex : chromosomal and hormonal sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomical sex: our physical sex; gonads, uterus, vulva, vagina, or penis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender: social and cultural characteristics associated with being male or female </li></ul><ul><li>Gender identity: gender one believes self to be </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sex and Gender Identity <ul><li>Assigned gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on anatomical appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender variations </li></ul><ul><li>Gender identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internalized feeling of femaleness or maleness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The attitudes, behaviors, rights, and responsibilities that society associates with each sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by culture, age, ethnicity, other factors </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gender-Roles <ul><li>Gender-role stereotype: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rigidly-held oversimplified belief concerning all males or all females </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender-role attitude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief one has for self and others concerning what’s appropriate for male or female traits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender-role behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities or behaviors a person engages in as a female or male </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Masculinity and Femininity <ul><li>Sexes seen as polar opposites in traditional Western view, e.g. “opposite sex” </li></ul><ul><li>Different qualities associated with different genders </li></ul><ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>Some qualities are biologically based, some culturally based </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gender and Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Gender, gender identity, and gender role are conceptually independent of sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, many assume they are closely related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexuality has been assumed to be part of masculinity and femininity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, some believe that gay men can’t be masculine and lesbian women can’t be feminine. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Gender and Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Studies show a link between individuals’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And those individuals’ adherence to traditional gender roles </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Gender Theory <ul><li>What is our relationship between our biological sex as male or female and our gender role as masculine or feminine? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we act the way we act because our gender role is bred in us or because of socialization? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Theory developed as a field in the ’80s and ’90s to explore the role of gender in society </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gender Theory <ul><li>Seeks to understand society through understanding how its organized by gender </li></ul><ul><li>Views gender as a basic element in social relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines socially-perceived differences between genders that are used to justify unequal power relationships </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Gender Theory in Psychology <ul><li>In psychology, gender theory focuses on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How gender is created and what its purposes are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How specific traits, behaviors, and roles are defined as male or female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How gender creates advantages and disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender theory rejects the idea that gender differences are primarily biologically-driven </li></ul><ul><li>Operates from a social-constructivist framework </li></ul>
  11. 11. Theories of Socialization <ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development theory </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Emphasizes consequences as shaping gender related behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition: Mental processes such as evaluation and reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes ability to use language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Development Theory <ul><li>Focuses on children’s active interpretation of gender messages at various developmental stages </li></ul><ul><li>Argues that after age 6 or 7, motivation to act like one’s gender is primarily internal, and that gender-role behavior is intrinsic </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social Construction Theory <ul><li>Gender expression is an outcome of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship to sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Gender-Role Learning: Childhood and Adolescence <ul><li>Parents as socializing agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal appellation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections between sons and mothers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Gender-Role Learning: Childhood and Adolescence <ul><li>Teachers as Socializing agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Females are more common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bias in presentation of topics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peers as socializing agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gender Schemas: Exaggerating Differences <ul><li>Interrelated ideas which help information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive organization of world by gender </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize dichotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize valuing of the individual </li></ul>
  18. 18. Contemporary Gender Roles <ul><li>Women’s roles have changed </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s roles have changed </li></ul><ul><li>Must include diverse groups </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarian approach to gender roles </li></ul>
  19. 19. Traditional Male Gender Role <ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional toughness </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of superiority </li></ul><ul><li>Decisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Power orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul>
  20. 20. Traditional Male Sexual Scripts: Zilbergeld <ul><ul><li>Men should not have or express certain feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance is the only thing that counts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The man is in charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A man always wants sex and is ready for it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All physical contact leads to sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex equals intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse leads to orgasm </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Traditional Female Gender Role <ul><li>There are striking ethnic differences in female role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American middle-class Whites: women as wives and mothers. Recently includes work outside the home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans: more egalitarian roles for men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latinas: women subordinate to men out of respect; Gender role affected by age </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Traditional Female Sexual Scripts: Barbach <ul><li>Sex is good and bad </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not okay to touch yourself “down there” </li></ul><ul><li>Sex is for men </li></ul><ul><li>Men should know what women want </li></ul><ul><li>Women shouldn’t talk about sex </li></ul><ul><li>Women should look like models </li></ul><ul><li>Women are nurturers: they give, men receive </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one right way to have an orgasm </li></ul>
  23. 23. Changing Gender Roles <ul><ul><li>Egalitarian position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgyny: flexibility in gender roles, combining elements of each traditional role </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Contemporary Sexual Scripts <ul><li>Sexual expression is positive </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual activities involve a mutual exchange of erotic pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality is equally involving, and both partners are equally responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate sexual activities are not limited to intercourse but also include masturbation and oral-genital sex </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual activities may be initiated by either partner </li></ul><ul><li>Both partners have a right to experience orgasm, whether through intercourse, oral-genital sex, or manual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Non-marital sex is acceptable within a relationship context </li></ul>
  25. 25. Androgyny <ul><li>Unique combination </li></ul><ul><li>Combination or instrumental and expressive traits </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties with expression and expectation </li></ul>
  26. 26. When Sex is Ambiguous <ul><li>Intersexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Tran sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenderism </li></ul>
  27. 27. Intersexuality <ul><li>Describes people who possess mixtures of male and female genitalia or reproductive physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence ranges from .0128% to 1.7% of population. Known until recently as “hermaphrodites” </li></ul><ul><li>Shrouded in secrecy by families and medical establishments in the past </li></ul>
  28. 28. Intersexuality <ul><li>Hermaphrodites: Old terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous genitals: 1/2000 births </li></ul><ul><li>Blended gonads or both gonads </li></ul><ul><li>One ovary and one testis, or testes containing ovarian tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known until recently as “hermaphrodites” </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Chromosomal Anomalies: Turner Syndrome <ul><li>Females who lack a chromosome: XO rather than XX </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in 1/1666 live births </li></ul><ul><li>Female external appearance </li></ul><ul><li>No ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted fertility </li></ul>
  30. 30. Chromosomal Anomalies: Klinefelter Syndrome <ul><li>Males who have extra X chromosomes: XXY, XXXY, or XXXXY rather than XY </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in 1/1000 live births </li></ul><ul><li>Variable effects; many men never diagnosed. </li></ul><ul><li>Small firm testes; some female physical traits </li></ul><ul><li>Lower testosterone levels </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hormonal Disorders: Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome <ul><li>Inherited condition occurring in 1/13,000 individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic males whose tissues to not respond to testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Female genitals, no female internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>At puberty, develops hips and breasts, no pubic hair and no menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>Many experience female gender identity </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hormonal Disorders: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia <ul><li>A genetic female with ovaries and a vagina develops externally as a male </li></ul><ul><li>Due to malfunctioning of adrenal gland </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in 1/13,000 live births </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At birth, child has ambiguous genitalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the past, doctors and families choose to assign female gender at birth </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Hormonal Disorders: DHT Deficiency <ul><li>Internal male organs </li></ul><ul><li>Clitoris-like penis at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Undescended testes at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Testes descend at puberty and penis grows </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul>
  34. 34. A Related Condition: Hypospadias <ul><li>Urethral opening located at non traditional location </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra exists on underside of glans midway through the underside of the shaft or at the base of the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in 1/770 male births </li></ul><ul><li>Repair is possible </li></ul>
  35. 35. Gender Identity Disorder <ul><li>Defined by the APA as a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and persistent discomfort about one’s assigned sex (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis not associated as hormonal or physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Requires experience of distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning </li></ul>
  36. 36. Gender Identity Disorder <ul><ul><li>The goal of treatment for people with GID is “lasting personal comfort with the gendered self” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment is individual and multifaceted; can affirm cross-gender identification through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real-life experience living externally as desired gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-reassignment surgery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Transsexuality <ul><li>Gender identity and sexual anatomy are not congruent </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of transsexuality unknown: estimated 1/50,000 people over 15 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>May occur with heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Gender reassignment </li></ul>
  38. 38. Transsexual Phenomenon <ul><li>Transgender community embraces possibility of numerous genders and multiple social identities </li></ul><ul><li>Other cultures recognize more than 2 genders </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift of gender dichotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Employment protection </li></ul>
  39. 39. Summary <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Gender role learning </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary gender roles </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity and gender </li></ul>

Notas do Editor

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