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Sanitary fittings

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Sanitary fittings

  1. 1. & Plumbing Systems
  2. 2.  Water closet, Tub Baths, Wash Hand Basins, Sinks etc.  Generally made up of fire clay, earthenware or chinaware.  Fire clay is heavy, strong and tough and hence used in public places.  Earthenware & Chinaware are impervious, light, elegant and aesthetically sound.  They are used for residential buildings.
  3. 3. Ordinary or wash down type – flushing cisterns – 2m above Siphonic Type – low level – generally will have two traps with an air gap to cause partial vacuum. This siphonic action helps a powerful cleansing action.
  4. 4. Generally two designs  The oriental design of the squatting style: ◦ Requires 10 – 15 litres of water for flushing and cleaning  The European design of the sitting style ◦ Requires a less water for flushing and cleaning.
  5. 5.  It is a tank which discharges a water for flushing a water closet, urinals and drain  Syphonic type– ◦ widely used, ◦ 10-15lit capacity, ◦ cast iron box, ◦ Has central outlet stand pipe covered by bell shaped cast iron vessel. ◦ This vessel is connected to a chain through a lever arrangement.
  6. 6. ◦ Vessel is receives a jerk when chain is pulled and splash water. ◦ When water runs down – takes some air with it. ◦ This results into partial vacuum in the top of the bell shaped vessel. ◦ The water inside get empty within few seconds due to the siphonic action. This causes a powerful flush in the closet below. ◦ The water to the cistern is supplied through the ball valve arrangement. ◦ These cisterns always remains full without any wastage of water and are provided with an overflow pipe to help in case ball valve dose not close.
  7. 7.  Made up of cast iron or steel coated with enamel  Provided with hot and cold inlets  Also Provided outlet for waste  Length – 165 to 180cm  Breadth 55 – 57cm  Depth – 40-45cm  Legs may or may not be provided.
  8. 8.  Either pedestal type or Bracket type  They are made of pottery or porcelain ware or porcelain enameled case iron, pressed steel or plastic.  They are manufactured in different shapes and sizes.  Provided with hot and cold pipe inlet  Outlet of waste pipe and overflow  Basins are generally fixed 80cm above floor level.
  9. 9.  Made of white glazed fire clay, stainless steel, metal porcelain, enameled pressed steel and plastic.  They are manufactured in different sizes and shapes.  Generally 60x45x25cm  The height is kept at 85cm  Commonly used in residential building.
  10. 10.  Require to relieve the pressure of the foul gases developed in the house drains  The foul gas if not escaped will break the water seals in the trap.  Ventilation dilutes the foul air in the drain and reduces its obnoxious effects.  Ventilation can be accomplished by providing a low fresh air inlet connected to the house drain through the lower most chamber.  Ventilation can also be accomplished by providing an outlet pipe connected to the highest point on the underground drains and rising high above the roof level of the house.  This system takes off the drainage air mixed with foul gases.
  11. 11.  The inlet of the ventilation system of a house drainage usually consists of 100mm dia cast iron pipe.  A slotted cast iron head is fixed on the top of the inlet.  A light micaflap is hinged to the head so that it act as non return valve.  By this arrangement only fresh air is admitted inside but dose not allow fouls air to escape out.  A long 30 to 50mm dia cast iron pipe is used a the outlet.  A cowl or wire bulb is fitted on the top of the outlet pipe.  Cowl level is kept 1.2 to 1.5m above the eye level of the residence.
  12. 12.  There are four systems of the plumbing for building drainage  One pipe system of plumbing in multi storeyed building.  The lavotary blocks at different floors are so placed one above the other that the waste water discharging from the different units can be carried through common vertical stacks connected through short branch drains.  One pipe collects both soil waste and waste water from different appliances.  This main pipe is directly connected to drainage system.  All traps of water closets, basins etc are completely ventilated whereas Gully traps and waste pipes are completely dispensed with.  Single stack system of plumbing is similar to that of one pipe system but no ventilation of traps is provided
  13. 13.  Single stack partially ventilated system of plumbing is a compromise between one pipe system and single stack system.  In this case there is only one soil pipe for collecting the discharge from all fittings.  A relief vent pipe for ventilating only the traps of water closet is provided.
  14. 14.  In case of two pipe system of plumbing separate soils and waste pipes are provided.  The soil pipes are connected directly to the drain where as waste pipe are connected through the trapped gully.  All the traps used are completely ventilated.
  15. 15.  In multi storeyed building a sudden flush of water from an appliance on the upper floors causes the air in the short branch drain pipe connecting a fitting in the lower storey to be sucked out which creates partial vacuum at the waterseal in the traps of the lower floors fittings.
  16. 16.  The atmospheric pressure acting on the other side of the water seal therefore, forces the water up the trap and siphons it out into branch, thus breaks the seal.  Water seal in the traps can be got broken down by providing an anti-siphonage pipe which connects the down stream side of the water seal to the atmosphere.  This is achieved by connecting the ventilating pipe to the crown of the traps of the lower storey appliances using short branch pipe.

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