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Query Design for Digital Methods by Richard Rogers

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The question of what constitutes a keyword is the starting point for query design for that is what makes querying and query design practically a part of a research strategy. When formulating a query, one often begins with keywords so as to ascertain who is using them, in which contexts and with which spread or distribution over time. In the following a particular keyword query strategy or design is put forward, whereby one queries competing keywords, asking whether a particular term is winning favour and amongst whom.

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Query Design for Digital Methods by Richard Rogers

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Richard Rogers University of Amsterdam 'Query design' with keywords, URL list-building and Twitter and Facebook data curation QUERY DESIGN FOR DIGITAL METHODS
  2. 2. QUERY DESIGN FOR DIGITAL METHODS 1) Why formulate a query? Search as research 2) Keyword list-building 3) Source set list-building 4) Querying engines with keywords 5) Querying platforms for hashtags / keywords and other curation and collection strategies (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube)
  3. 3. • Measure success or 'impact' (buzz of brand or leader's name) • Measure circulation, resonance or salience of a claim (climate change is human-induced) • Measure competition between ‘program’ and ‘anti- program’ (Akrich/Latour) as well as 'efforts at neutrality' (barrier between Israel and Palestinian Territories is for 'security' or for 'apartheid') Rationales for designing queries and 'search as research' ANALYTICAL STRATEGIES TO MAKE USE OF QUERY DESIGN
  4. 4. QUERY DESIGN FOR DIGITAL METHODS 1) Why formulate a query? Search as research 2) Keyword list-building 3) Source set list-building 4) Querying engines with keywords 5) Querying platforms for hashtags and other collection and curation strategies (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube)
  5. 5. >II. Actors' stance-taking terminology: Keywords as positioning efforts. Program, anti-program as well as efforts at neutrality (cf. Akrich & Latour, 1992) When words become keywords and “issue language” WHAT IS A KEYWORD? I. Developing meanings of known words (Williams, 1976) e.g., How 'culture' has changed over time from low/high to ethnographic or subcultural
  6. 6. Source: Five of top ten search results from http://images.google.com. “Apartheid Wall” and “Security Fence”: Image Search Results, Google images, July 2005 Security FenceApartheid Wall “Image Clash”
  7. 7. ©2005Govcom.org Term usage by official state delegates at the U.N. Security Council meeting, 14 October 2003. Source: United Nations Security Council, Transcript: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2003/sc7895.doc.htm Visualization from Réseau-Lu by Aguidel.com Design by Marieke van Dijk, Anderemedia.nl Legend Official state delegates Manner of speaking Co-occurrence analysis of keywords and sources. Coming to Terms. A conflict analysis of the usage, in official and unofficial sources, of ‘security fence,’ ‘apartheid wall,’and other terms for the structure between Israel and the Palestinian Territories. 20032003 China Guinea Pakistan US Brazil Jordan Italy Qatar EU Egypt Cuba France Cameroon Tunisia Bahrain United Arab Emirates Angola Nepal Iran New Zealand South Africa Japan Turkey Libya Chile Argentina Indonesia Lebanon League of Arab States Russia Malaysia Mexico Syria Spain Norway Palestine Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Yemen Sudan UK Norway Germany Israel UN (briefing) Saudi Arabia Bulgaria Separation Wall Security Wall Expansionist Wall Walled Bantustans The Barrier Separation Barrier Security Fence The Wall The Fence The Structure The Racist Wall of Separation The Racist Wall
  8. 8. ©2005Govcom.org Term usage by official state delegates at the U.N. Security Council meeting, 21 July 2005. Source: United Nations Security Council, transcript of meeting: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2003/sc7895.doc.htm Visualization from Réseau-Lu by Aguidel.com Design by Marieke van Dijk, Anderemedia.nl Legend Official state delegates Manner of speaking Co-occurrence analysis of keywords and sources. Coming to Terms. A conflict analysis of the usage, in official and unofficial sources, of ‘security fence,’ ‘apartheid wall,’and other terms for the structure between Israel and the Palestinian Territories. 20052005 Algeria France Egypt China Brazil Russia Benin Japan South Africa Indonesia Libya Tansania Tunisia Yemen Malaysia Morocco League of Arab States Philippines India Argentina UK EU Norway Cuba Palestine UN (briefing) Romania Iran Pakistan Lebanon Saudi Arabia Denmark Greece Kuwait (Arab group) Israel Syria Sudan Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Separation WallThe Wall Separation Fence Security Barrier Wall of Injustice Separation BarrierSecurity Fence Apartheid Wall Colonial Separation Wall the Barrier
  9. 9. • Identify and retain specific “issue language” per actor • Collection of terms is inclusive, so as to include all actors’ issue language (multiple terms for program, anti-program, etc.) • Design queries so as to study resonance of each actor's / program's terms • Consider actors’ terminological innovation (re-positioning), and watch over time actors adopting or distancing from new programs Guidelines for keyword list building and querying demarcated source sets SUMMARY: ISSUE LANGUAGE QUERY DESIGN
  10. 10. QUERY DESIGN FOR DIGITAL METHODS 1) Why formulate a query? Search as research 2) Keyword list-building 3) Source set list-building 4) Querying engines with keywords 5) Querying platforms for hashtags and other strategies (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube)
  11. 11. LIST-BUILDING OR DEMARCATING SOURCE SETS General approaches to building URL lists 1. EDITORIAL - Use Wikipedia for global category lists; or expert lists from web. 2. CROWD-SOURCING - Have Web users input URLs to be checked. 3. SEARCH ENGINE WORK - Search Google using query technique (associative snowballing, advanced operator, exclusion, ambiguous, etc.). 4. DEVICE STUDIES - Rely on devices/platforms for making 'top' lists of URLs per country, subject matter, or group 5. DYNAMIC URL SAMPLING - Crawl URL list(s); fetch outlinks with Issuecrawler
  12. 12. • Initial query: Grupos de Extrema derecha en Espana • First results: Plataforma Catalunya and Espana 2000 • Query: ["Espana 2000" "Plataforma Catalunya"] yields third group Approach to building, iteratively, a URL list using snowballing on Google SEARCH ENGINE WORK - ASSOCIATIVE QUERY- SNOWBALLING TECHNIQUE • Query: ["Espana 2000" "Plataforma Catalunya" "Democracia Nacional"] download instructions: http://bit.ly/associativequery
  13. 13. 1. “Google street view” privacy 2. “Google street view” privacy site:google.* (Google's view) 3. “Google street view” privacy -site:google.* (non-Google view) How is the issue of “google street view” and privacy is being treated when google- related sites are excluded from the search? SEARCH ENGINE WORK - QUERY DESIGN - EXCLUSION
  14. 14. SEARCH AS RESEARCH Dynamic URL sampling (list lengthening) 1. Use list(s) compiled from editorial, search engine work and/or other techniques. 2. Enter list into Issuecrawler.net, the network location software (request account).
  15. 15. For list view, 'retrieve startingpoints and network URLs'
  16. 16. QUERY DESIGN FOR DIGITAL METHODS 1) Why formulate a query? Search as research 2) Keyword list-building 3) Source set list-building 4) Querying engines with keywords 5) Querying platforms for hashtags and other strategies (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube)
  17. 17. • Monsanto "roundup ready" harvest • Monsanto "roundup ready" frankenfood Use "" for exact matches Query design example for 'program', 'anti-program' and efforts at neutrality QUERY DESIGN FOR STUDYING PROGRAM / ANTI-PROGRAM I • Monsanto "roundup ready" seed
  18. 18. Method Step 1. Query the term "rights" in national terminology per different Google country (e.g. google.de, google.co.uk) Step 2. Fetch the top 10 unique rights types. Step 3. Visualize top 10 issues per country and mark unique issues. https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/NationalityofIssues Can the search engine be repurposed to show which rights are specific per country? SEARCH ENGINE WORK - QUERY DESIGN - AMBIGUOUS QUERY NATIONALITY OF ISSUES: RIGHTS TYPES
  19. 19. Saving results for verification and retrieval • “Save page as” in the browser, name files and folder consistently • Collect rights types in a spreadsheet (incl. translation) • Merge results and collect saved files in one place SEARCH AS RESEARCH Research Practice Protocol
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
  21. 21. QUERY DESIGN FOR DIGITAL METHODS 1) Why formulate a query? Search as research 2) Keyword list-building 3) Source set list-building 4) Querying engines with keywords 5) Querying platforms for hashtags and other strategies (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube)
  22. 22. • Two-step query design for creating a tweet collection 1) Identify issue-related hashtags / kw (ask expert; close reading) 2) Query Twitter API over short period of time 3) Perform co-hashtag analysis, finding most significant hashtags 4) Use most significant hashtags and begin tweet collection proper QUERY DESIGN FOR TWITTER: TWEET COLLECTION AS 'ISSUE SPACE' Approach to creating a collection of tweets to study an issue space
  23. 23. Tweet collection studies Analytical procedures 1) hashtag analysis - hashtags are often embedded social issues 2) @mention analysis - allows to identify expertise (or dominant voice) 3) retweet analysis - most retweeted per day tells story overtime 4) URL analysis - shows content that is most referenced
  24. 24. • Two-step query design for creating a tweet collection 1) Identify core movement members, create @username list 2) Query @mention for each core member 3) Segment audience or subgroup according to those who @mention them all, @mentionthem all minus one, @mentionthem all minus two, and so forth. 4) Or: download tweets of core members, and capture whom they mention QUERY DESIGN FOR TWITTER: TWEET COLLECTION AS 'SEGMENTED AUDIENCE' Approach to creating a collection of tweets to study a subgroup
  25. 25. • Query design for creating a tweet collection 1) Identify public figures 2) Capture their tweets (consider limits) QUERY DESIGN FOR TWITTER: TWEET COLLECTION OF 'LEADERS' Approach to creating a collection of tweets to study public figures
  26. 26. POLITICALNAIONAL POLITICALINTENATIONAL NEUTRAL/NONPOLITICAL AGAINSTTHEUNIFICATIONOFTHE ANTI-MOROCCANS ANTI-ISLAM/ANTI-MOROCCANS ANTI-ISLAM 2244 3 63 5 1339 7 10 8 10785 30645 4024 8
  27. 27. QUERY DESIGN FOR FACEBOOK: FACEBOOK PAGES / GROUPS LIST CURATION Approaches to curating a list of Facebook pages/groups • Query Google for site:facebook.com and issue e.g., Rwandan diaspora [site:facebook.com Rwandan diaspora] • Query Facebook graph search for Rwanda diaspora, using Netvizz, https://apps.facebook.com/107036545989762/ • Add two lists (concatenate)
  28. 28. Facebook Studies Procedure for page list-building, inter-like network and engagement analysis to study social movements / causes 1) Optional: Create research account on Facebook - self-identify (as digital ethnographer for 'groups') 2) For each Facebook page, retrieve pageID. 3) Use Netvizz and retrieve 'most engaged with content' per page. 4) Perform inter-liked page network analysis, using Gephi
  29. 29. Somali Diaspora - U.K. Most engaged with content on Facebook 66 85 111 187 334 Midkee Baa Dooran Laheyd Akhiyaarey Afartaan Passport..? Hello Ethiopian and Kenya. Your Neighbor’s waking up from a coma gradually. Mogadishu Progressing…...Mogadishu taking its first steps. 1 - The largest Children's Hospital in East Africa is being established. 2 - A $150 million USD modernization project of Aden Adde International Airport. 3 - A $100 million USD Urban Renewal project of the city to start in June. Inaa Lilaalhi Wa inaa Ilaahi Raajicuun. We send our sincere condolences and prayers to the family and friends of Hussein Samatar who lost his battle to cancer. A great loss to the Somali community Worldwide and more so for those living in Minneapolis. May Allah swt forgive his shortcomings and make him one of the residents of Jannatul-Firdows. - Gacal. The Journey Back Home Documentary is online. Share with friends. Ramadhan Mubarak to all of you. May Allah SWT accept your good deeds, forgive your sins and may we reach the next one with good health and Iman. Pray for Somalia and all Somalis and Muslims who are in hardship this Ramadhan. Give more Saddaq. Kullu Caam Wa'ntum Bilkhayr. - WSSP London. SOMALIA VS KENYA 81-78......Xulka kubadda koleyga wiilasha Soomaaliya ayaa u soo gudbay semifinal-ka ciyaaraha FIBA AFRICA ZONE 5 ANC 2013 markii galabtay oo Talaado ah ay 81 -78 dhibcood kaga badiyeen Xulka kubadda koleyga wiilasha Kenya.....Forza SOMALIA..! [...] Eid Mubarak all members, supporters, friends and family. Have a blessed year ahead. Worldwide Somali Students & Professionals Eid Mubarak everyone ‫َت‬‫ق‬َ‫ب‬َّ‫ل‬َ ‫ّللا‬‫ه‬ُ ‫ِم‬‫ن‬َّ ‫َو‬ ‫ِم‬‫ن‬ْ‫ك‬ُ‫م‬ْ ‫ِص‬‫ي‬َ‫م‬َ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫َو‬ ‫ِص‬‫ي‬َ‫م‬َ‫ك‬ُ‫م‬ْ ‫ُك‬‫ل‬ُّ ‫َع‬‫ا‬‫ٍم‬ ‫َو‬ ‫َأ‬‫ن‬ْ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ْ ‫ِب‬‫خ‬َ‫ي‬ْ Somali Professionals Eid Dinner → ENGAGEMENT 258→ ENGAGEMENT 231 → ENGAGEMENT 187 → ENGAGEMENT 111 → ENGAGEMENT 100 → ENGAGEMENT 334 → ENGAGEMENT 87 → ENGAGEMENT 85 → ENGAGEMENT 71 → ENGAGEMENT 66
  30. 30. K NAAN UNHCR I Am a Star for Somalia London Somali Youth Forum Worldwide Somali Students& Professionals Rageh Omaar Somali Relief& Development Forum International Rescue Committee Barack Obama Bill& Melinda Gates Foundation The Community Cup Boys and Girls Club of Ottawa Ottawa Police Service - Service de police d Ottawa Jim Watson Somali Community Services Coalition KEXP Women s Refugee Commission Non-Profits on Facebook Human Rights Watch SOAR Youth in Focus United Way of King County SCHOOL S OUT WASHINGTON King County Youth Development Network Woodland Park Zoo University of Washington Seattle Children s Theatre Wing Luke Museum Seattle Art Museum Seattle Sounders FC The Seattle FoundationKUOW Public Radio Northwest Immigrant Rights Project OneAmerica Somali Family Service of San Diego Media Arts Center San Diego United Nations Human Rights Survivors of Torture International Somalia UNICEF Susan G. Komen SDCountyHHSA La Maestra Community Health Centers Foundation for Change The San Diego Voice& Viewpoint Newspaper The San Diego Foundation Mercy Corps San Diego Center for Civic Engagement Voice of San Diego KPBS San Diego Business Journal International Rescue Committee in San Diego 2-1-1 San Diego Alliance Healthcare Foundation San Diego Refugee Forum Columbus Chamber of Commerce The Ohio State University World Food Programme Mayor Mike Coleman Columbus Metropolitan Library USAID - US Agency for International Development North Market Somalia - The Nation of Poets Bristol Post BBC Radio Bristol Bristol City Council UNESCO GAVI Alliance UN Millennium Development Goals Volunteers SayNO - UNiTE to End Violence Against Women United Nations Global Compact United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) UN Women The United Nations Girls Education Initiative -(UNGEI) DFID - UK Department for International Development International Labour Organization (ILO) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) UNODC - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ReliefWeb UNFPA United Nations OCHA World Health Organization (WHO) United Nations News Centre United Nations UNAIDS Save the Children UK CARE Save the Children Somali Diaspora Facebook page like network US Somalia Transnational UK Netherlands Canada Norway Kenya Sweden Denmark in-degree Source page country
  31. 31. 20 12 8 7 Kwibuka 20 Flame is en route to Oxford from London today, members of the Rwanda Diaspora in London escorted the flame from Marylebone station to Rwanda House where they were greeted by the High Commissioner and thereafter continued the journey to Oxford The Rwanda High Commis- sion and The Common- wealth will be launching the Commemoration events of the 20th Anniversary of the Genocide against the Tutsi at Marlborough House on the 7th of January at 3pm. REMEMBRANCE FLAME CONTINUES ITS JOURNEY ACROSS UK -The Kwibuka20 Flame of Re- membrance continues it journey in UK this weekend when it leaves the city of Reading for the city of Cov- entry in West Midlands where its community is re- portedly ready to receive it. [...] The Kwibuka (Remembrance) Flame rep- resents the resilience and courage of Rwandans who have diligently and bravely worked hard to rebuild the country that was torn apart during the genocide against the Tutsi, 20 years ago. 20th Commemoratio n of the Genocide Against the Tutsi in Rwanda https://www.fac ebook.com/even ts/717197074997 748/ #Kwibuka20 We are currently listening to a testimony by Eric Murangwa Eugene at the launch of 20th Commemoration of the Genocide against the Tutsi at Marlborough House. The Yorkshire-Rwanda Community Association and constituents of Leeds City came together this Sunday to receive the Kwibuka 20 flame; The Kwibuka20 Flame of Remembrance reached the city of Manchester on Saturday afternoon, as part of its UK tour and was received by the Rwanda Manchester Community leader; Mr Noël Ntakirutimana and community members. The Kwibuka20 Flame of Remembrance reached the city of Nottingham this Saturday afternoon, as part of it tour of UK and was received by the Nottingham Rwandan Community. Wishing you all a Happy festive season. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2014. Diaspora Voting is under way: Rwandans in Manchester vote for the party of their choice at the Rwanda Parliamentary Elections. Rwanda Diaspora - U.K. Most engaging content on Facebook
  32. 32. ARB TwisangeAmbassade du Rwanda en France Pastor Rick Warren Martin Luther King Jr. Bienvenue à Paris Président Kagame Every Child is My Child PaulKagame Meddy Cécile Kayirebwa Canadian Association of Rwandan Youth - Ottawa (CARY-OTTAWA) Diaspora Business House - Kigali DRB Rugari-Bruxelles DRM - Diaspora Rwanda Montreal Israel in Montreal | Israël à Montréal CYMA - Canadian Youth Mission to Armenia CARY Toronto Living in Kigali Kamusi Project Le Mois de l Histoire des Noirs / Black History Month Rwanda Sports Club de Montreal Barack Obama ::: François Bugingo ::: Miss and Mister Rwanda Belgium New Rwanda Diaspora Global Network - RDGN Village* Global Computer School Thisisrwanda.com Landstar Hotel 3B Hotels Kigali MEDIA LTD Experience Rwanda kLab Tora Knowless muri Guma Guma Kigali Serena Hotel Rwanda Marketplace U.S.A Technology center Century Cinema Kigali Inzuki Designs Mosaic Gourmet Restaurant Brioche - bread and pastries Rwandan Diaspora in Canada Parti Populaire Rwanda - Imena Diaspora Private Sector Federation Rwanda PSF Raindrops Over Rwanda African Wildlife Foundation The Christian Science Monitor Women for Women International explore.org Rwanda Day 2011 Rwanda Diaspora All over the World Rwanda Diaspora in kenya Rwanda Diaspora Ottawa-Gatineau RwandaHCUK Kesho Amahoro The British Monarchy Carnegie Mellon Rwanda Bridge2Aid Urunana MAMMOTH e.quinox Rwanda igihe.tv igihe.com Igihe www.igihe.com Embassy of Rwanda Ryico (Rwandan Youth Information Community Organisation) Kenya High Commission Kigali Rwanda High Commission of the Republic of Rwanda-Pretoria-South Africa Rwanda High Commission India RwandAir Go Rwanda Rwandan Diaspora Diaspora Trade Fair 2010 Rwandan Genocide 20th Anniversary Enough Project Never Again International - Canada United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Rwandan International Network Association (RINA) Callsmadelocal Top Ten Rwandan Hits in Diaspora Everyweek Youth and Culture - Rwandan Diaspora Jean Leon Iragena Kagoma Best Hope Rwanda Rwanda Diaspora Facebook like network Rwanda Canada UKTransnationalFranceUSBelgium Kenya
  33. 33. QUERY DESIGN FOR INSTAGRAM: HASHTAGS AND GEO-COORDINATES Approaches to querying Instagram (whilst one still can) • Query Google with the associative query snowballing technique for hashtags • Build hashtag lists for program/anti-program • Query Instagram for hashtags • Analysis includes hashtag publics, filter activism and geolocating issue activism
  34. 34. Otherwise Engaged DMI Summer School ’15 project, ‘Does love win?’
  35. 35. Otherwise Engaged DMI Summer School ’15 project, ‘Does love win?’
  36. 36. Otherwise Engaged DMI Summer School ’15 project, ‘Does love win?’
  37. 37. SEARCH AS RESEARCH - RESONANCE OF ISSUES IN SOURCES Query URL list for Keywords 1. Enter URL list and keyword list into Google Scraper aka Lippmannian Device. 2. Output source cloud or issue cloud.
  38. 38. Lippmannian device. “Source cloud” Showing the partisanship or commitment of sources Climate Change Skeptics: Who recognizes them?
  39. 39. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sallie Baliunas) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Sallie Baliunas” Method_Search for query “Sallie Baliunas” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA climateark.org (2)marshall.org (6) realclimate.org (55) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) campaigncc.org (0) sourcewatch.org (0) climatescience.gov (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  40. 40. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sherwood Idso) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Sherwood Idso” Method_Search for query “Sherwood Idso” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA realclimate.org (42) sourcewatch.org (14) climatescience.gov (0) greenpeace.org (0) campaigncc.org (1) climateark.org (1) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) marshall.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  41. 41. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Steven Milloy) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Stephen Milloy” Method_Search for query “Stephen Milloy” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA bbc.co.uk (0) climateark.org (2) climatechallenge.gov.uk (1) climatechange.ca.gov (1) climatechangecollege.org (1) climatecrisis.net (1) dar.csiro.au (1) defra.gov.uk (1) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (1) ecy.wa.gov (1) eea.europa.eu (1) energy.gov (1) envirolink.org (1) epa.gov (1) exploratorium.edu (0) greenpeace.org (1) ipcc.ch (1) ltscotland.org.uk (1) metoffice.gov.uk (1) mofa.go.jp (1) nature.org (1) ncdc.noaa.gov (1) pewclimate.org (1) realclimate.org (33) sourcewatch.org (27) state.gov (1) unep.org (1) who.int (1) whoi.edu (1) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bom.gov.au (0) campaigncc.org (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatescience.gov (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ecokids.ca (0) eldis.org (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) iucn.org (0) marshall.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) nature.com (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  42. 42. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Timothy Ball) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Timothy Ball” Method_Search for query “Timothy Ball” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (6) marshall.org (2) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) climateark.org (0) realclimate.org (0) sourcewatch.org (0) climatescience.gov (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  43. 43. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Willie Soon) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Willie Soon” Method_Search for query “Willie Soon” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (2) marshall.org (4) realclimate.org (27) sourcewatch.org (0) climatescience.gov (0) greenpeace.org (0) climateark.org (1) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  44. 44. Lippmannian device. “Making an Issue cloud” An organization’s issue agenda (or commitment) Public Knowledge, a digital rights NGO, has issues. Which are they most committed to?
  45. 45. Lippmannian device. “Issue cloud” Showing the issue commitments of the NGO, Public Knowledge Public Knowledge's issue commitment. Lower six issues on Public Knowledge's issue list, ranked according to number of mentions of issues on publicknowledge.org, 2 October 2009.
  46. 46. Lippmannian device. “Making an Issue cloud” Greenpeace issues, http://www.greenpeace.org/international/campaigns. Stop climate change Protect ancient forests Defending our Oceans Say no to genetic engineering Eliminate toxic chemicals Demand Peace and Disarmament End the nuclear age Encourage sustainable trade Keep most significant issue language. "climate change" "ancient forests" oceans "genetic engineering" "toxic chemicals" disarmament "nuclear power" "sustainable trade"
  47. 47. Lippmannian device. “Issue cloud” Greenpeace’s issue agenda (distribution of commitment) Greenpeace's issue commitment. Greenpeace's campaign issue list, ranked according to number of mentions of issues on greenpeace.org, 11 October 2009.
  48. 48. http://tools.digitalmethods.net Tools and references
  49. 49. Google Settings • For the “universal Google” Go to http://google.com/ncr • Log out of your Gmail account • Google Preferences: Set interface and search language SafeSearch: Off Google Instant: Off Nr of Results: 100 per page USING GOOGLE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH Research protocol for using Google
  50. 50. Lippmannian Device to Gephi http://tools.digitalmethods.net/beta/lippmannianDeviceToGephi/ “The photoshop for network graphs” GEPHI.ORG

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