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Swarming 2015 copy powerpoint

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“Nature is to be considered much less of a sucker than humans.” - Nassim Nicholas Taleb

You’ve heard it before, “You are agile now, go self-organize” and yet exactly how to do it remains a mystery. Beyond giving permission to “go agile” what else can managers do to help teams capitalize on the power of self-organization? Who’s the real sucker here? Perhaps the question should be, “What can nature teach us about self-organization?” How can we as managers use the lessons nature provides to our advantage?

Swarming is a dynamic act of being, of exhibiting collective action to solve complex problems which are beyond the capabilities of top-down problem solving. Natural systems have iterated over millennia to hone into simple rules. Studies of ants and bees and other beings in the natural world have revealed some of the underlying principles and techniques. These have found applicability into wide variety of problem domains. e.g.. battlefields, drones, supply-chains, autonomous robots etc. But people aren’t robots…or insects. Is there a practical way to use these strategies, these lessons of nature, to help provide guidance for those of us trying to create an environment that supports and nurtures self-organizing teams?

The purpose of our talk is to first, elevate the conversation about Swarming in software development from the “psuedo-management-pop” notion of “every body work on the same thing” approach. Second, in light of the our understanding about how utterly un-understandable complexity really is, we invite you to join us in sharing the questions that truly unsettle us about prevalent management practices. 

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Swarming 2015 copy powerpoint

  1. 1. S W A R M I N G D H A V A L P A N C H A L © 2 0 1 5 S W A R M I N G B Y D H A V A L P A N C H A L I S L I C E N S E D U N D E R A C R E A T I V E C O M M O N S A T T R I B U T I O N - S H A R E A L I K E 4 . 0 I N T E R N A T I O N A L L I C E N S E .
  2. 2. throwing bodies at the problem is NOT swarming
  3. 3. S W A R M a large number of animate or inanimate things massed together and usually in motion. - M E R R I A M - W E B S T E R . C O M
  4. 4. S W A R M I N T E L L I G E N C E The collective behavior that emerges from a group of social insects has been dubbed “swarm intelligence” S W A R M I N T E L L I G E N C E : H B R [ 2 0 0 1 ]
  5. 5. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S • Flexibility C O L O N Y C A N A D A P T T O C H A N G I N G E N V I R O N M E N T • Robustness G R O U P C A N P E R F O R M I T S F U N C T I O N S E V E N W H E N I N D I V I D U A L S F A I L S • Self-Organization N E I T H E R C E N T R A L L Y C O N T R O L L E D N O R L O C A L L Y S U P E R V I S E D S W A R M I N T E L L I G E N C E : H B R [ 2 0 0 1 ]
  6. 6. 2 0 0 M I L L I O N I N S E C T S F O R E V E R Y H U M A N O N P L A N E T S O U R C E : B U G I N F O - S M I T H S O N I A N I N S T I T U T I O N
  7. 7. R E S E A R C H • Observe social insect behavior • Develop a model that explains • Use model as inspiration • Create practical experiments to solve similar problems ] B I O L O G I S T S
  8. 8. S O M E A P P L I C A T I O N S
  9. 9. What can nature teach us (humans) about organization? How can we apply principles learned from nature to our advantage? Is there a practical way to use these strategies?
  10. 10. D I S C L A I M E R R E S E A R C H E R E R U D I T E T I N K E R
  11. 11. S W A R M I N G : P E O P L E everyonedoing differentthings every one doing same thing Soldiers in Parade (little or no individual autonomy) People at a mall (high individual autonomy) S O M E K I N D O F C O O R D I N A T E D R E S P O N S E
  12. 12. C O N V E N T I O N A L N O T I O N S • swarming is a fire drill • swarming means every body works on the same thing • swarming means absence of rules or processes • swarming is equally useful in all environments
  13. 13. E R R O R I S A R C H I T E C T U R E contribute to their success by enabling them to discover and EXPLORE in add
  14. 14. P R I N C I P A L G O A L Swarming is about exploring for varieties in response and exploiting options that yield “good” outcomes. “varietyisabsenceofuniformity”-Ashby
  15. 15. A S H B Y ’ S L A W O F R E Q U I S I T E V A R I E T Y responsevariety demand variety from environment “Restrictions of variety in outcomes to the subset that is valued as “good” demands certain variety in response to variety in demand from environment” “survive” Vr > Vo “fail” Vr < Vo
  16. 16. E X A M P L E Scrum “Team Awesome” is facing a tight deadline with stakeholders (five) demanding increase in scope and cannot find agreement. Stakeholders frequently make direct requests to team members What are some possible outcomes ? • M I S S E D D E L I V E R Y D A T E • M I S S E D D E L I V E R Y S C O P E O N D A T E • M I S S E D D E L I V E R Y D A T E A N D S C O P E • “ T E A M A W E S O M E ” R E P R I M A N D E D • S T A K E H O L D E R ( S ) A P O L O G I Z E F O R C O N F U S I O N ; ) • P R O D U C T S H I P P E D O N T I M E , W I T H A L L S C O P E A N D P O O R Q U A L I T Y • E X P E C T A T I O N S A R E W E L L M A N A G E D A N D R I G H T P R O D U C T I S S H I P P E D A T T H E R I G H T T I M E W I T H T H E R I G H T Q U A L I T Y ( “ G O O D ” O U T C O M E ) • E T C . .
  17. 17. E X A M P L E How should this scrum team respond ? I D E O L O G I C A L Product Owner takes ownership of prioritizing product backlog and responsibility of managing stakeholder politics/expectations to effectively take ownership of date and scope changes. T Y P I C A L Every team member does their own thing. Some work late to meet their favorite/feared stakeholder’s requirements. Others feel overwhelmed and dig into their module of technical system. C O N V E R G E N C E D I V E R G E N C E O U T C O M E Depends on “talent” of product owner O U T C O M E Unpredictable, Luck dictates!
  18. 18. Trying to get stakeholder(s) to agree will eat away valuable time away from already tight schedule. Reducing scope will likely upset one or more stakeholders who may stand in way of funding next project or result in a crappy product or both. E X A M P L E : V A R I E T Y I N C H A L L E N G E S • Tight deadline • Multiple stakeholders • increase in scope • agreement between stakeholder(s) • Stakeholders assigning work to team members At least five (5), most likely much higher than 5, when stakeholder’s perspective is included.
  19. 19. Will NOT work “change one variable at a time” Classical Approach
  20. 20. “ V A R I E T Y D E S T R O Y S V A R I E T Y ” A S H B Y ’ S L A W Variety of challenge must be met with variety in response i.e., Must address all challenges simultaneously not individually
  21. 21. “ C O M P L E T E A C T I O N B R I N G S I N T E L L I G E N C E ” Theories, ideas, belief’s, dogma’s kill originality and create divides. Total action unites. - J I D D U K R I S H N A M U R T H Y Striving for Ideals of “being _____ (agile)” get in the way of doing.
  22. 22. S W A R M I N G E X A M P L E S ( P E O P L E ) • Open Space Technology • Wikipedia • Large Scale Agile team formation events • Open Source
  23. 23. W H E N A S I M P L E R L I N E A R * R E S P O N S E C A N B E A T T E M P T E D , T R Y T H A T F I R S T . * R E S P O N S E I N A L I G N M E N T W I T H P R O B L E M V E C T O R I S A L I N E A R R E S P O N S E . E X A M P L E A T E C H N I C A L R E S P O N S E T O A T E C H N I C A L P R O B L E M
  24. 24. S W A R M I N G T R I G G E R S • Typical linear response did not work • Feeling overwhelmed • Too many issues at the same time • Environment introduced new variety of challenge • Mismatched anxiety • Inability to understand pattern in demand variety
  25. 25. S W A R M I N G M I N D S E T
  26. 26. A C T I O N B I A S • Explore and Exploit are action states. “Try over think” • If a variation works, exploit it further; ask not why it works.
  27. 27. D Y N A M I C C O N T E X T • Do not assume environment to be unchanging. • Accept that solutions are valid merely to the point they are working
  28. 28. G I V E U P O N U N D E R S T A N D I N G • Do not attempt to “fully” understand. • Collect information/measurements necessary for job, no more.
  29. 29. P A T T E R N S K E P T I C • A recognizable pattern within; never describes the “whole”. • Knots : Utterly un- uderstandable areas of problem or solution.
  30. 30. S W A R M I N G T E N E T S
  31. 31. T E N E T : P E R S O N A L A U T O N O M Y Individual in a Swarm can choose to maintain “explore” or “exploit” state on their own accord, irrespective of the overall state of swarm.
  32. 32. T E N E T : P E R S O N A L A C C O U N T A B I L I T Y You are completely and exclusively responsible for your own actions. “just doing what I’m told” - is a cop out.
  33. 33. T E N E T : F E E D B A C K Anyone and Everyone impacted by a member behavior provides “impact feedback” (not judgmental) to member (only) AND Once and only once.
  34. 34. T E N E T : I M P R O V I S E Support, follow, help individual’s or group’s objective by your actions, in your own way.
  35. 35. T E N E T : M I M I C When in doubt, copy someone.
  36. 36. T E N E T : B Y E X A M P L E No one can decide for another. You decide - you act.
  37. 37. T E N E T : E X P U L S I O N If you are on your own, then you have divorced from swarm or expelled by swarm. To participate join others.
  38. 38. T E N E T : R E C R U I T I N G When others mimic or act in support of your task, you have recruited.
  39. 39. T E N E T : C O N N E C T E D R E S P O N S I V E N E S S “Vulnerability (fragility) is connectivity without responsiveness. Responsiveness enables connectivity to lead to opportunity.” - N . T A L E B ( A N T I F R A G I L I T Y )
  40. 40. T E N E T : O B J E C T I O N I Know it to be wrong. I think I guess experience
  41. 41. C H A L L E N G E S S W A R M I N G
  42. 42. M A N A G E M E N T B Y A B S T R A C T I O N R E S O U R C E = M E A T B A S E D F U N G I B L E P R O G R A M M I N G U N I T K E Y P E R F O R M A N C E I N D I C A T O R S P R O X Y A U T H O R I T Y E M P L O Y E E S E X P E C T E D T O D O W H A T T H E Y A R E T O L D L O C A L I Z E D M E T R I C S D I S S E C T E D G O A L S M A T R I X , H I E R A R C H I C A L , B U N C H O F B O X E S A N D A R R O W S P E R F O R M A N C E A P P R A I S A L S “ M O R E I S B E T T E R ” T A N T R U M D R I V E N : I W A N T A L L S C O P E , O N T I M E , O N B U D G E T , I W A N T I T , I W A N T I T , I W A N T I T … “ R U N I T B Y M E F I R S T ” L O C A L O P T I M I Z A T I O N S P R O X Y M E A S U R E M E N T S T O K E N M I L L E N N I A L S H A R E H O L D E R V A L U E O P T I M I Z A T I O N B A D P R O F I T S U N I N S P I R I N G L E A D E R S H I P R E P O R T I N G C H I E F M O T I V A T I O N A L F A C T O R : C Y A C H A I N O F C O M M A N D D I S E N G A G E D E M P L O Y E E S N O I N V E S T M E N T I N D E V E L O P I N G E M P L O Y E E C O M P E T E N C Y F E A R O F R E J E C T I O N M O D E L O B S E S S I O N I G N O R I N G “ R O U G H N E S S ” O F R E A L I T Y L A C K O F P R I O R I T I Z A T I O N W O R K E R S A R E P E R C E I V E D T O B E L A Z Y & M A N A G E M E N T T O B E D U M B “Thereisnoproblemthatadding anotherlayerofmanagement cannotresolve” OPERATINGMANTRA
  43. 43. MANAGINGTASKS MANAGINGPEOPLE
  44. 44. B L A M E Desire to have someone to blame will always impose hierarchical ineffectiveness to cooperation
  45. 45. L I M I T I N G O R G A N I Z A T I O N I N T E L L I G E N C E ? Managers often live with a problem they do not understand, but cannot accept a solution they do not understand.
  46. 46. - Y V E S M O R V E U X “When we don't cooperate we need more time, more equipment, more systems, more teams”
  47. 47. M A N A G E C O N T E X T C O N T R O L O U T C O M E S “All gardeners live in beautiful places because they make them so” - J O S E P H J O U B E R T
  48. 48. G R E A T E R C A U S E “We are little men serving great causes, but because the cause is great, something of that greatness falls upon us also.” - J A W A H A R L A L N E H R U , 1 9 4 6 RESHAPECULTURE
  49. 49. - C E O L E G O G R O U P : J O R G E N V I G K N U D S T O R P “Blame is not for failure. It is for failing to help or ask for help”
  50. 50. C H A M P I O N F O R M O R A L A N D E T H I C A L R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y
  51. 51. - D A V I D M A R Q U E T “When people feel like they matter, they make decisions as if the CEO is behind them or make even better decisions” H T T P S : / / W W W . Y O U T U B E . C O M / W A T C H ? V = O Q M D L C Y E S _ Q
  52. 52. T O B E C O N T I N U E D … E V O L U T I O N I S A W O R K I N P R O G R E S S
  53. 53. I N S P I R A T I O N Yaneer Bar-Yam : http://new.livestream.com/wikimania/saturday2014/videos/58728433 : Wikimania 2014 London Yves Morveux : https://www.ted.com/talks/yves_morieux_as_work_gets_more_complex_6_rules_to_simplify#t-7329 : Ted Talks 2013 Eric Bonabeau and Christopher Meyer: Swarm Intelligence Steven Johnson : Emergence Principles of self-organizing systems - W.Ross Ashby Requisite variety and its implications for control of complex systems - W. Ross Ashby 1958 David Marquet: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OqmdLcyES_Q Nassim Nicholas Taleb : Anti-fragility : Things that gain from disorder (Incerto) Dee Hock : Birth of Chaordic age
  54. 54. M E D I A C R E D I T S F I R E F L I E S S Y N C : H T T P S : / / W W W . Y O U T U B E . C O M / W A T C H ? V = S R O K Y E L A W B O T O O M A N Y C O O K S S P O I L T H E B R O T H : N E I L M O R A L E E : F L I C K R S T A R L I N G S W A R M : G A I L J O H N S O N : F L I C K R B E E C O L O N Y : U S D E P T O F A G R I C U L T U R E : 2 0 1 3 0 5 2 2 - N R C S - L S C - 0 1 8 0 S W A R M O F B I T I N G M I D G E S O N S O C C E R F I E L D : W O O D L E Y W O N D E R W O R K S : F L I C K R S O U T H W E S T 7 3 7 P R E P A R E S F O R E A R L Y M O R N I N G D E P A R T U R E : A N G E L O D E S A N T I S T H E R E T U R N O F T H E K I N G S C E N E 1 3 8 : A N D Y Z E I G E R T : F L I C K R Q U A D R A T U R E S : G R A S P L A B : H T T P S : / / W W W . Y O U T U B E . C O M / W A T C H ? V = Y Q I M G V 5 V T D 4 # T = 7 4 W R O N G W A Y : R O B E R T F O R N A L : F L I C K R R O B O T B U S I N E S S M A N : I O S P H E R E : H T T P : / / F R E E D I G I T A L P H O T O S . N E T I N D I A N A L P H O N S O M A N G O - P A R S H O T A M L A L T A N D O N : F L I C K R C H O C O L A T E B O X : J A S O N S E B B A R B E R : F L I C K R A N T S A S I M U L A T I O N : D I G I T A L F R O N T I E R S : H T T P S : / / W W W . Y O U T U B E . C O M / W A T C H ? V = K N 0 M 4 9 I Q F R C M E X I C A N W A V E 2 0 1 3 H D : H T T P S : / / W W W . Y O U T U B E . C O M / W A T C H ? V = 9 I F C F W S E T D Y T H E L I V E R P O O L C E N T R A L L I B R A R Y : T E R R Y K E A R N E Y : F L I C K R C O S C H D A : 4 6 / 3 6 5 : F L I C K R M I N D T H E G A P : M A R C O L E O : F L I C K R E A R T H E A S T : N A S A Y O U H A V E F A I L E D M E B R A I N : R O B O C O L D E C A L : C O P Y R I G H T U N C E R T A I N T H A N K S G I V I N G P O S T C A R D S - 0 9 5 : A R T V I N T A G E 1 8 0 0 S . E T S Y . C O M : F L I C K R D Y E : I K A M A Y A M A : F L I C K R T H E M I R R O R : R I C C A R D O C U P P I N I : F L I C K R M I R R O R M I R R O R : M A R K O K I V E L A : F L I C K R R A M B O : W I K I P E D I A B L A M E : 周 小 逸 I A N : F L I C K R D O N T B L A M E U S : R E D W O L F O Z : F I C K R C H I L D E R N P L A Y I N G A T G R E E N W I C H P A R K 4 : V I S I T G R E E N W I C H : F L I C K R S T O P 1 : T E U N I E V A N H E R N E N : F L I C K R J A N M A S H T A M I C E L E B R A T I O N S I N M U M B A I , I N D I A : S A N D E E P A C H E T A N : F L I C K R C O M P A S S S T U D Y : C A L S I D Y R O S E : F L I C K R R A N D O M S C A L E F R E E N E T W O R K : S I M O N C O C K E L L : F L I C K R C R Y S T A L C A S T L E G A R D E N W O R K E R S : J O H N : F L I C K R
  55. 55. l Panchal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 Int http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

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