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Telecollaboration for CLIL Teachers in Secondary Education

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Introductory workshop on telecollaboration for secondary school teachers of Bilingual Education / CLIL in Spain. The workshop took place on 7 July 2016 at la Universidad Menéndez Pelayo de Valencia.

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Telecollaboration for CLIL Teachers in Secondary Education

  1. 1. Robert O'Dowd Universidad de León, Spain robert.odowd@unileon.es @robodowd 7 July 2016 University of Valencia, Spain Using Telecollaboration / eTwinning in Bilingual Classrooms
  2. 2. • All the links and resources you see here today can be found in this Google Collection: • https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/0kth3
  3. 3. • Objectives for our session today: • Discuss why Telecollaboration is important for CLIL classrooms • Learn about: – online platforms where you can find partner classes – different tools and platforms for online collaboration – Find tasks for your online exchange projects • You will have some ‘hands-on’ time to explore these resources • (If we have time) you will report what you’ve found 3
  4. 4. • First, let’s hear your opinions about some things… • Open your internet browser on your mobile phone or laptop… • Search for “Socrative Student”
  5. 5. http://www.bbc.com/news/business-36343602
  6. 6. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/competences_en.asp
  7. 7. What are the conditions for successful language learning? Conditions for successful language learning Motivation to listen, read, speak & write the language Sufficient exposure to real but comprehensible spoken & written language Sufficient opportunities to use the foreign Language to do things Focus on form / formal study
  8. 8. How does CLIL meet these requirements? • Motivation: – Can learning content in the FL give students a reason for using the foreign language? • Sufficient input/exposure to the foreign language: – Are learners exposed to much more content in the FL than normal EFL learners? • Focus on form/ formal study of language: – Time to study vocabulary and grammatical forms and use? • Sufficient opportunities to use the foreign language: – Do learners get many more opportunities to actually communicate in the FL and to develop speaking and writing skills?
  9. 9. “…in contexts where an L2 is learnt through content, students are not offered enough chances to speak or initiate a conversation, hindering their speaking and writing outcomes” (Sonia Casal: “Cooperative Learning in CLIL contexts”) Does this sound surprising? How can we adapt CLIL methodology to give more opportunities to use the foreign language?
  10. 10. This is where Telecollaboration comes in… Telecollaboration involves engaging your pupils in online intercultural exchange projects… with classes in other countries …under the guidance of the teacher. What’s in a name? • Virtual Exchange • COIL (Collaborative Online International Learning) - • OIE (Online Intercultural Exchange) – • eTandem, eTwinning, ePals
  11. 11. • Example: Spain – USA exchange (12-13 year olds)
  12. 12. Teachers’ reactions to the project (and link to CLIL subjects): Telecollaboration in the secondary language classroom: case study of adolescent interaction and pedagogical integration Paige Ware and Greg Kessler Computer Assisted Language Learning, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2014.961481
  13. 13. • Example: Environment project - Argentina – Denmark exchange (10-11 year olds) • Phase 1: • The children identified ‘green crimes’ in their schools and in their communities - They drew or videotaped these crimes and uploaded their drawings and videos to their virtual platform. • They engaged in a trash analysis mini-project in their schools, which involved them listing and classifying the trash in the waste bins. They compared and discussed results using the platform. • They carried out a survey among family members and friends regarding their environmental habits, uploaded results to the platform and discussed them. • Phase 2: • The Argentinian and Danish children collaboratively designed posters to raise awareness of environmental issues. They collaborated using Skype and the chat option in the platform. Working in mixed groups, they decided on the purpose, content and language(s) of the poster. • Phase 3: • The children in each country took action locally by carrying out civic actions in their communities. The Argentinians were interviewed by a local journalist and the collaborative posters appeared in the local newspaper. They designed a banner that they hung across the school street. In Denmark, students put up the collaborative posters in their school and their community; they contacted Greenpeace and the local
  14. 14. Ecological and intercultural citizenship in the primary English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom: an online project in Argentina Melina Porto (2014) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CRboXq2yZs
  15. 15. http://www.cisi.unito.it/tandem/etandem/ • Two native speakers of different languages communicate together with the aim of learning the other’s language (e.g. Spanish-English) • Partners provide feedback on content and foreign language performance • Teacher’s role is limited – learners keep a diary and/or portfolio of their work
  16. 16. An example of an American-Spanish e-tandem Hey Pablo! It was great to receive your letter. I was so happy to see that you responded to my questions. Thank you. Your responses were very informative and definitely showed me that family life in Spain was not all I'd expected it to be (I was surprised, for example, that your family is not religious. I assumed that most families in Spain are, and I'm sure you have many assumptions about life in America as well). Your English is very good. There are only a few suggestions that I have to correct it. Some of your sentences are too long, and would make more sense if you separated them into two or three sentences instead. For example, "My parents are not divorced in Spain there are very few cases of divorced" could be rewritten as "My parents are not divorced. In Spain there are very few cases of divorce." Your letter was great and made sense despite these things. Good work. Las fiestas en the ciudad de Nueva York son muy locas y emocionantes. Voy a las discotecas con mis amigas los jueves, los viernes, o los sabados. Vamos a los bars tambien. Nosotros volvemos a nos salons de dormitorio a las cuatro de la manana. Queremos bailar a las discotecas. Necesita tener veintiuno anos por beber el alcohol pero la mayoria de estudiantes en las universidades tenen los "fake IDs" y ellos beben el alcohol. … No sabo mucho de Espana. Sabo que hay un museo de Guggenheim en Bilbao y sabo que hay muchos castillos bonitos. Que sabes de los Estados Unidos? Como es la fiesta en Espana? Elena
  17. 17. Supporting pupils’ writing: • Dear partner/ .................................., • I will introduce myself to you in this letter. • I am ................. twelve/thirteen years old. • .........................a boy/girl. • .........................a twelve-year-old girl. • My surname is ............................... and my first name is........................ • People call me ............................................ • I have ..............two brothers .......................three sisters. • I don't have any brothers or sisters; I am an only child. • I live ................... with my father/stepfather • I like ................... football /......................./....................... • I love .................. music. • I like people who............................................................................................ • I don't like people who.................................................................................. • […] • I am looking forward to hearing from you. • Bye for now. (I must go now/ that’s all for now/ Bye/) • (Based on Schlieger, 2001: 19)
  18. 18. The Cultura Model http://cultura.mit.edu/
  19. 19. Questionnaires for both groups in mother tongue
  20. 20. Answers to the Questionnaires
  21. 21. Analysis in class
  22. 22. Written Discussion Forums –asking for clarifications of the questionnaires • Student 1 from Spain: Most of our words used to describe the United States are: fast food, Obama and patriotism. Are you surprised with our answers? • Student 1 from Princeton: Hi! I am particularly interested in the theme of fast food. This past summer I recognized how many fast food chains exist in Spain, such as Burger King and McDonald's. From my experiences with friends…, I had heard of students who eat fast food quite regularly that were not US citizens. It is intriguing for me to see how many people responded with the impression of fast food or junk food when hearing the word United States.
  23. 23. Where can I find Partner Classes?
  24. 24. https://www.facebook.com/ATSIreland
  25. 25. http://www.epals.com/#/connections
  26. 26. https://www.etwinning.net
  27. 27. • Take some time to explore one of these platforms and look for a possible partner for your classes… • ePALS Classroom Exchange http://content.epals.com/ • E-twinning: http://www.etwinning.net/
  28. 28. What tools should I use in my Virtual Exchange?
  29. 29. Find a Virtual Home for your Virtual Exchange - You’ll need one place where all the interactions, photos, texts, blogs and videos can be brought together…. Step one…
  30. 30. A typical Virtual Exchange will involve many different activities including…. sharingphotos… 32
  31. 31. …Using discussion forums to discuss issues related to culture and the relationship between the two countries… 33
  32. 32. …Making videos for their partners about their subject or their culture… 34
  33. 33. …Writing blogs about their local culture for their partner classes… 35
  34. 34. …and watching and reading movies, short stories, cultural products
  35. 35. Many options for Free Virtual Platforms
  36. 36. • Schoology: https://app.schoology.com/login • Edmodo: https://www.edmodo.com/ • Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ groups… • Google+ - Communities
  37. 37. Which Collaborative Tools to use?
  38. 38. Popular tools: blogger.com for making blogs http://studyingalife.blogspot.com.es/
  39. 39. Google docs for collaborative writing
  40. 40. Etwinning Collaboration in ‘Twinspace’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b96ILrBPqqw
  41. 41. • “Direct interaction with pupils in partner schools is still not frequent. Synchronous work by pupils in different countries appears to be unusual, constrained often by timetabling, time differences and lack of appropriately robust ICT infrastructure, and in most of the case study schools, email was the only form of online communication between pupils.” • Study of the impact of eTwinning on participating pupils, teachers and schools: Final Report (2013)
  42. 42. One experience of Videconferencing “My local secondary school (11-18 year-old children) was given vidoconferencing equipment by a local business, which also helped them find a partner school in France, close to the business's French HQ. The school experimented with videoconferencing for several months but finally abandoned it. The head of foreign languages told me that the main reasons were: 1. Difficulties in finding mutually convenient times when the two schools could link up. 2. Lack of time to plan for a session so that it ran smoothly and became really fruitful. 3. Embarrassment of teenagers confronting one another: reluctance to talk and lots of giggling about the hairstyles and clothing of their counterparts. 4. No measurable progress in the students' language skills as a direct result of the videoconferencing sessions. “ [Graham Davies – personal correspondence]
  43. 43. Choose the tool to fit your school • Spanish student feedback comparing oral and written discussion boards: • “I prefer the written one because you don’t get so nervous and you have more time to think about what you want to say. Also I did not like to speak in the computer lab with my classmates listening to what I was saying.” • “It’s easier to understand them in the written forum because it’s very difficult to speak with someone that you don’t see.”
  44. 44. Where can I find ideas for tasks for my Virtual Exchange?
  45. 45. http://www.epals.com/#/exploreExperience
  46. 46. https://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/collaborate.htm
  47. 47. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f6HDeGipd2o
  48. 48. https://iearn.org/cc/space-2
  49. 49. https://www.stem.org.uk/elibrary/collection/3023
  50. 50. Science across the world: Eating Habits Survey for you and your International Partners • Complete the following questionnaire in your class and return the results to your partner class. They will do the same with their results: • 1. Breakfast For breakfast, most students eat:… • 2. Eating Habits The sort of snacks and sweets we eat during the day are:… The arrangements for meals during the school day are: The people who choose and prepare our food are: Traditional beliefs about diet in our country are: The ways in which eating habits are changing are: • 3. Diet and Health • We think that most members of our class eat:  a balanced diet  enough dietary fibre  enough fruit and vegetables  too much salt  too much sugar  too much fat • Our main concerns about diet and health are:
  51. 51. Look for interesting tasks for your context: • Explore https://iearn.org/cc/space-2 • Epals: www.epals.com • Etwinning: https://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/collaborate.htm • Science around the world: https://www.stem.org.uk/elibrary/collection/3023
  52. 52. What should you remember when organizing a telecollaborative exchange?
  53. 53. Principle 1: A good telecollaborative task …provides opportunities for students to develop the skills of Online Intercultural Communication • A German student writes this opening message to her new partner in Ireland: • Hello, how are you? I study English and history and I want to become a teacher. This term we do some cultural studies concerning Ireland and I very interested in it because I actuallly do not know much about it. • Now I would like to ask you some questions. Do you live in Northern or in Southern Ireland? How many people live in your town? Are you a Catholic or a Protestant? I have heard that regular churchgoing declines more and more in your country-is it true? • What are you doing in your free time? Do you often go to pubs? What do you think about Germans? Irish people have the reputation of being very indirect and polite in their speaking style. I have read that there was an enormous economic change in Ireland. • How have you or your parents experienced the social and economic change in the past 20 years? • That's all for now. I am looking forward to hearing from you!
  54. 54. Create a blog to introduce your culture to partner classes in Germany and Israel… 57
  55. 55. Principle 2: A good Telecollaborative Task… goes beyond superficial self-presentation and exchange • Typical Telecollaborative tasks: – This task allows the partners to prepare a powerpoint presentation about places to go out at night in their hometown. – This task aims to have students explore and reflect on stereotypes… – Students have to post an image to the forum that exemplifies an aspect of their daily routine. – This presentation task allows the telecollaborative partners to speak about their daily lives by producing a video or a commented slideshow. • Kramsch and Ware (2005): “the illusion of commonality”: • Spanish Student 1: “I will say that I liked the exchange very much and that Missouri students looked like very nice people. I talked to them about my city and about theirs and it was nice to see that there are little differences but not as much as I thought.” • Spanish Student 2: “To my mind, we aren't too different, both of us like sports, music and spending time with our friends. We have different lifestyles but the same goal: helping people with our jobs.”
  56. 56. Developing tasks that lead to genuine collaboration and interaction • Challenge students to go beyond simply exchanging information and to actually collaborate in the co-elaboration of projects or products: • Allport (1958!!!): “The nub of the matter seems to be that contact must reach below the surface in order to be effective in altering prejudice. Only the type of contact that leads people to do things together is likely to result in changed attitudes.”
  57. 57. Example: Porto (2014): British/Argentinian Action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands conflict The first stage: Introductions and attitudes towards the war discussed online together The second stage: Dialogic and cooperative work online - collaboratively create an advertisement for peace Interviews with war veterans and sharing videos online The final stage: students became involved in civic action in their local communities - Students planned and taught lessons about the war in diverse educational settings Students created awareness-raising leaflets about the war, which they distributed in their city
  58. 58. Principle 3: A good Telecollaborative Task… should introduce learners to online intercultural interaction step by step: • Theme: Immigration and the Refugee Crisis • Step 1: Exchange messages with your partners discussing the following issues in your local towns or cities: • Are there many people from other countries living in your local town? • Where do they come from? How long have they been living here? • Do you think they are successfully integrated into your country? • Step 2: You should now think about how people from your country have moved to other countries - either in recent times or in history. Discuss the following with your partner: • Has any of your family ever moved to another country? If so, why? How was their experience? • In your country has there been a tradition of people moving abroad? Maybe in a certain period of history? Tell your partner about this. • Step 3: Working together with your online partners, create a powerpoint or Google slides presentation on the topic “Finding new homes: Two stories of emigration in our homelands”. The presentation should show how you and your partners’ countries have been affected by emigration - either recently or in the past.
  59. 59. Principle 4: A good Telecollaborative Task…provides opportunities for reflection on and discussion about the online interaction • Chun (2015, p.13): “…it is essential for teachers to help students to go beyond comprehending the surface meaning of words and sentences in order to understand what their intercultural partners are writing” • Students in Germany were asked about this email from a US student: – How do you react when you read this e-mail? – What questions could you ask this girl to better understand her cultural background? • I guess I'll just tell you about myself. I've grown up in Simpsonville, SC. It's a small town, but it's fairly close to a lot of big cities. I love it. It was a lot of fun growing up. I ran track and cross country through my middle and high school years and year at Bowling Green State University before transfering to Clemson. I work for an East Coast Hockey League team called the Greenville Grrrowl. I work in media relation and public relations. I love it. I'm in my third season working for the team and I hope to get hired on full time after I graduate. I have a boyfriend that I've been dating for a year and 6 months. We met at church. We hope to get married next December.
  60. 60. • One German student‘s reaction: • Somebody else in class wondered how she could have met her boyfriend in church, something that here in Germany probably would not happen any more, and I got to know that church in America is obviously something different than here (and that she therefore must not be a shy, tradional American girl). The point is that she simply has a culturally different background to me, and this cultural background of hers might throw a different light on the other things she said.
  61. 61. What Approach will you take? • What type of tasks would you choose for your exchange? • How would you assess your tasks? • What tools would you use? • Where would you like to have your partner class? – Can you find one in epals? • What problems do you imagine having when setting up such an exchange?
  62. 62. An Add-on or Integrated Approach? • There is a significant difference in educational outcome depending on whether a teacher chooses to incorporate online classroom connections as (1) an ADD-ON process, like one would include a guest speaker, or (2) an INTEGRATED process, in the way one would include a new textbook. The email classroom connection seems sufficiently complex and time consuming that if there are goals beyond merely having each student send a letter to a person at a distant school, the ADD-ON approach can lead to frustration and less-than-expected academic results... On the other hand, when the email classroom connection processes are truly integrated into the ongoing structure of homework and student classroom interaction, then the results can be educationally transforming. (Bruce Roberts in Warschauer, 1995, p. 95)
  63. 63. Thank you… • Write and tell me your experiences: – robert.odowd@unileon.es – Publications: http://unileon.academia.edu/RobertODowd – See this presentation again: http://www.slideshare.net/dfmro
  64. 64. • Other critical incidents – and learning opportunities • A German student writes this opening message to her new partner in Ireland: • Hello, how are you? I study English and history at the University of Essen and I want to become a teacher. This term we do some cultural studies concerning Ireland and I very interested in it because I actuallly do not know much about it. • Now I would like to ask you some questions. Do you live in Northern or in Southern Ireland? How many people live in your town? Are you a Catholic or a Protestant? • I have heard that regular churchgoing declines more and more in your country-is it true? What are you doing in your free time? Do you often go to pubs? What do you think about Germans? Irish people have the reputation of being very indirect and polite in their speaking style. I have read that there was an enormous economic change in Ireland. • How have you or your parents experienced the social and economic change in the past 20 years? That's all for now. I am looking forward to hearing from you!