2. Research design is a plan of how, when and
where data are to be collected and analyzed.
Research design is a blue print to conduct a
research study which involves the description
of research approach, study setting, sample
size, sampling technique, tools and method
of data collection and analysis to answer a
specific research questions or for testing
4. Nature of the research problem
Purpose of the study
Researcher’s knowledge and experience
Researcher’s interest and motivation
Research ethics and principles
Possible control on extraneous variables
Users of the study findings
6. It is defined as observation under controlled
Experimental research design is a powerful
design for testing hypotheses of causal
relationship among variables.
7. True experimental research designs are
those where researchers have complete
control over the extraneous variables and can
predict confidently that the observed effect
on the dependent variable is only due to the
manipulation of the independent variable.
8. 1. Manipulation
It refers to the conscious control of the
independent variable by the researcher
through treatment or intervention to observe
its effect on dependent variable.
It refers to the use of control group and
controlling the effects of extraneous variables
on the dependent variable in which
researcher is interested.
The measures used are matching, counter
balancing and homogeneity by statistical test.
9. 3. Randomization
Randomization means that every subject
has an equal chance of being assigned to
experimental or control group.
Methods used are flip of a coin, lottery
method and random table.
14. The researcher manipulates two or
more independent variables
simultaneously to observe the effects on
the dependent variables.
FREQUENCY OF MOUTH
PROTOCOLS OF MOUTH CARE
CHLORHEXIDINE (a) SALINE (b)
4 HOURLY (I) aI bI
6 HOURLY (II) aII bII
8 HOURLY (III) aIII bIII
15. When there are large number of
experimental comparison groups, the
randomized block design is used to bring
homogeneity among selected different groups.
This is simple method to reduce the variability
among the treatment groups by a more
homogeneous combination of the subjects.
Diabetic patients with
A AI AII AIII
B BI BII BIII
C CI CII CIII
16. In this design , subjects are exposed to
more than two treatment, where subjects are
randomly assigned to different orders of
treatment. It is also known as ‘repeat
Groups Protocols of mouth care
Group I Chlorhexidine Saline
Group II Saline Chlorhexidine
17. Most powerful design
Causal relationship may be established
among the variables by experimentation.
Greater degree of purity in observation.
Conditions not found in a natural setting can
be created in an experimental setting.
Often conditions can be created in a short
period of time that may take years to occur
18. Ethical problems.
Danger to physical and psychological health.
In natural settings it is difficult to control
Difficult to get cooperation.
Doubt regarding representative as the
number of sample is small.
19. It involves the manipulation of independent
variable to observe the effect on dependent
variable, but it lacks at least one of the two
characteristics: randomization or a control
◦ Non randomized control group design
◦ Time series design
O1 O2 O3 INTERVENTION O1 O2 O3
•Measures the effects of a treatment
over a long period of time.
•Measure the effects a number of
times during the course of the
22. More practical and feasible to conduct
research studies in nursing.
More suitable for real world natural setting.
Allows the researchers to evaluate the impact
of quasi independent variables under
naturally occurring conditions.
Some of the hypotheses are practically
answered through this design only.
23. No control over extraneous variables.
Less reliable and weak.
24. This design is considered very weak because
the researcher has very little control over the
◦ One shot case design
◦ One group pre test – post test design
➢ Very simple and convenient to conduct in
➢ Most suitable design for the beginners.
Very weak experimental design.
Very little control over the research.
Higher threat to internal validity.
28. In non experimental studies, researcher
assesses or observes the research variable as
it is without any manipulation, alongside
researcher does not have any control over the
The researcher collects the data and
describes the phenomena as they exist.
Non experimental research is quite popular in
1. Univariate descriptive design
2. Comparative studies
3. Exploratory studies
Case control studies
a. Prospective design
b. Retrospective design
Cross sectional studies
1. Descriptive survey
2. Exploratory survey
3. Comparative survey
4. Correlational survey
30. It is a broad class of non experimental
The basic purpose of descriptive research is
to observe, describe and document aspects of
a situation without undue manipulation in
This may be used to develop theories,
identify problems with current practices,
make judgements or determine other
practices in similar situations.
31. This is undertaken to describe a single
variable under study or to describe the
frequency of occurrence of behaviour or a
condition rather than to study relationship.
Two types of descriptive studies are
prevalence studies (prevalence rate) and
incidence studies (number of new cases).
Eg. Researcher assesses the experiences of
patients suffering with oral cancer.
32. It involves the comparison of two or more
samples of study subjects on one or more
study variables, often at a single point of
Eg. A comparative study on health problems
among rural and urban older people at
33. Exploratory research provides an in-depth
explanation of a single event, case or
It is used to identify, explore and describe the
existing phenomenon and its related factors.
Eg. An exploratory study to assess the factors
affecting health seeking behaviour of people
staying in the selected rural communities.
34. The purpose of epidemiological research is to
study the distribution and determinants of health
problems in groups or population.
Cohort studies (prospective or cause to effect):
Longitudinal approach to investigate the
occurrence of a disease in existing presumed
causes. Eg. Observe the smokers for
development of lung cancer.
Case-control studies (retrospective or effect to
cause): The cause of a disease are investigated
after the occurrence of a disease. Eg. History of
smoking in patients diagnosed with lung cancer.
35. In correlational design, the researcher examines
the relationship between two or more variables
in a natural setting without manipulation or
Correlational studies have independent and
dependent variables, but the effect of
independent variable is observed on dependent
variable without manipulating the independent
This examines the strength of relationships
between variables. Magnitude and direction of
relationship is measured by using correlation
coefficient statistical measure.
36. Prospective research design: The researcher
relates the present to the future.
Eg. Effect of maternal infection during pregnancy
on fetal development and pregnancy outcome.
Retrospective research design: The researcher
studies the current phenomenon by seeking
information from past.
Eg. A study on substance abuse related high risk
factors among traumatic head injury patients.
37. Developmental research design examines the
phenomenon with reference to time.
This designs are used as adjunct research
designs with other research designs like
descriptive and correlational design.
Cross sectional design: In which researcher
collects data at particular point of time. This is
easier and more convenient to carry out.
Eg. Assessing the awareness regarding stroke
among rural population at selected village.
38. Longitudinal design: A design in which the nurse
investigator study the same subjects or the same
population over a period of time to study the change
over a period of time.
Eg. Identify the perception of students towards the
profession from the beginning to the end.
Trend studies: This permit researchers to examine
pattern and rate of changes and to make prediction
about future direction based on previously identified
Panel studies: The same people are contacted for two or
more times to collect data as they become more
informative on the phenomenon over a period of time.
Follow up studies: To determine the subsequent states
of subject with a specified condition or who have
received a specific intervention.
39. Survey research is used to collect information
from different subjects within a given
population having same characteristics of
Survey is the use of self report methods to
collect the information on variables of
Survey may be conducted by using telephone,
mail, online (web survey) or through personal
40. Depending on the nature
Depending on the method
of data collection
(describe the frequency
(phenomenon and its
(comparing two or more
two or more variables)
Written survey (with the
help of written,
structured tool such as
Oral survey (using face-
to-face or telephonic
conversation or oral
Electronic survey (using
emails, web forms,
41. Non experimental research designs are tend to
be closest to real life situations.
These are useful to understand the existing real
These are most suitable for nursing research.
Non experimental research are most suitable
when it is not practical to conduct true
experimental research due to lack of time,
shortage of funds, lack of administrative
Easy to design and plan and provide large
volume of information.
42. Delphi surveys were developed as a tool for
short term forecasting.
The techniques involves a panel of experts who
are asked to complete several rounds of
questionnaires focussing on their judgements
about a topic of interest.
Multiple iterations are used to achieve
Delphi is a method for the systematic collection
and aggregation of informal judgement from
group of experts on specific question and issues.
- Reid, et al.1998
43. It is weak to reveal the causal relationship
It lacks the use of intervention or manipulation.
Less applicability into practice.
Lack control and randomization between the
Prone to susceptibility and observation bias.
Mostly provide only the superficial background
information about the concept.
44. There are some designs, which cannot be
categorized under either experimental or non
experimental research designs.
1. Methodological studies
3. Secondary data analysis
4. Outcome research
5. Evaluation studies
6. Operational research
45. Methodological research is conducted to
develop, validate, test and evaluate data
collection tools, instruments, protocols and
◦ Defining the behaviour or construct to measure.
◦ Formulating the items for tool.
◦ Developing instruments for users and respondents.
◦ Testing the reliability and validity of research tool.
Eg. Methodological research to develop an audit tool to
audit the family health records.
46. Glass coined the term ‘meta-analysis’, it refers
to the analysis of analysis.
Meta-analysis is a statistical technique which
involves taking the findings from several
studies on the same subjects or topics and
analyzing them using standardized statistical
procedures for the purpose of integrating the
When results of several similar studies are
analyzed together, the finding of such studies
may be more effective or powerful.
47. Define hypothesis
Locate the studies
Calculate effect sizes
Eg. A meta-analysis study on the effect of
alcohol use disorder on suicidal thought and
48. Secondary data analysis is a useful research
strategy which makes use of pre-existing
findings to test new research question or
Secondary data analysis can be used for both
quantitative and qualitative findings.
Sometimes researchers collect lots of data in a
study, out of which some of the data is left
unused or unanalysed that is later taken up and
utilized by another researcher, which is called
secondary data analysis research.
49. This helps to re examine the existing projects to
serve new and important purposes.
It may be helpful to examine the unanalyzed
concepts, sub sample or a particular unit of
A researcher can choose ‘researcher quesrion
driven’ or ‘data driven’ approach for analyzing
the existing data.
Eg. A researcher used data from a previous study
of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease to test an explanatory model of factors
affecting functional status in this disorder.
50. Outcome research involves the evaluation of
care practices and systems in place.
It aims to document effectiveness of health
care services by a global assessment of
nursing and health care services.
This is planned to assess or record the end
result of health care services.
Eg. An outcome research study on patient’s
satisfaction with existing nursing care.
51. Evaluation studies are used to determine the
effectiveness or value of processes, personnel,
equipment and the material used in a particular
It can be either formative (focus on the process
of the programme rather than the outcome) or
summative (conducted after the completion of
Eg. An evaluation study on the implementation
of the National Rural Health Mission
Programme in selected districts.
52. Operational research is the application of
scientific method of investigation to the study of
complex human organizations and services.
The main objectives of the operational research
are to develop new knowledge about
institutions, programmes, use of facilities and
personnel in order to improve working efficiency
of an organization.
Eg. An operational research study on the patient’s
perception about different patient assignment
methods for providing nursing care in selected
53. 1. What are the elements
of research design?
2. What are the
characteristics of true
3. Discuss about quasi
4. List down the non
5. Name the other