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Communication &Leadership Frameworks • Symbolic-Interpretive (SI) • Social Cognitive (SC) • Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) Adapted from Altman and Taylor (1973, cited in Caputo, Hazel, McMahon, & Dannels, 2004, pp. 110-111); Bandura (2001); Cronen (2001); Griffin (2009); Frey & Sunwolf (2005); IDEA (2010); Pearce (2004; 2008).
Storytelling FrameworksDigital Storytelling • Video & audio narratives of participants • Empowers the participant • Allows for team building/understanding • Participants choose the topic Adapted from CFDS (2010); Gubrium (2009); Halpern and Lubar (2003); Rulun (2010); The European Graduate School (2010).
Storytelling FrameworksNarrating the Self • Fosters individual identification • Empowers the individual Adapted from Denning (2005); Lipman (1999); McAdams (1993)
Storytelling FrameworksNarrating the Organization • Intended to unify the group • Constructs the experience Adapted from Denning (2005); McAdams (1993)
Consulting ApproachUsefulness • Separate past from future anchor point • Connect with the audience • Allows audience participation Adapted from Block (2009); Bruner (1991); Lipman (1999); McKee (2003)
Assessing the SituationWhat’s occurring in the organization? • Understand internal risks: changes in budget, layoffs, technology, conflicts, etc. • Understand the risks of storytelling • Storytelling requires courage
Consulting Method Design a storytelling workshop or retreat depending on the hours an organization wants to invest in this approach.
Design questions Adapted from Denning (2005); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010)
Design ObjectivesPurpose Increase team unity and morale through a relations-based method that requires self-disclosure, self-awareness & empathetic understanding Adapted from J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010); Rogers (1989)
Design ObjectivesTimeline • Workshop is 90 minutes to three hours • Retreat is one to three days • Content adjusted to meet allotted time
Design ObjectivesPacing • Interval pacing • Group activity interspersed with presentation by trainer • Breaks at 60 to 90 minutes
Design ObjectivesParticipant Skill Level • Allow for a diverse group • Participants must be: • Willing to participate • Open to other perspectives & stories
Design ObjectivesFacilitator Skill Level • Communicate clearly • Familiarity with method and presentation technology • Aware of socio-psychological needs • Ensure confidentiality • Willingness to listen • Engage feedback and participation • Flexible • Lead by example Adapted from Denning (2005); Gubrium (2009); Lipman (1999); Kouzes & Posner (2003); Rogers (1989)
Design ObjectivesStory Typology • Story of I • Story of We • Story of Place • Story of Future • I Want Adapted from Block (2002); Campbell (2009); Lefer (2008); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010)
Design ObjectivesGroup Size • Need at least two groups • Break groups into a minimum of three or four individuals
WorkshopPrior to conducting the workshop • Encourage participation through sharing in a public setting • Adaption to private settings • Adaption to mass audiences • Inform participants of desired outcomes • Preparation of own stories • Visual Aids incorporated into video Adapted from Gurbium (2009); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010)
WorkshopGround Rules • Establish the level of confidentiality for participants • Maintain a positive atmosphere • Participants should only present what they feel comfortable sharing Adapted from Gurbium (2009); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010)
WorkshopPhase 1: Introduction & Explanation • Facilitate a safe & relaxed learning space • Introduce the method of storytelling • Present examples • Explain the Seven Elements • Describe the conceptual framework & benefits behind personal narratives Adapted from Denning (2005); Denzin (2003); Gurbium (2009); McAdams (1993); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010); Silberman and Auerbach (2006)
WorkshopPhase 2: Co-create Content • Restate ground rules of respect • Provide an example that empowers participants with courage • Break into small groups • Reiterate the Seven Elements • Actively listen and respectfully comment on stories when complete Adapted from Denning (2005); Denzin (2003); Gurbium (2009); McAdams (1993); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010); Silberman and Auerbach (2006)
WorkshopPhase 3: Transition Content to Digital Process • Create a written script • Consider feedback from peers • Create stories as a group or individually • Brief tutorial of digital image editing • Instructions & tips about voice recording • Remind participants practicing will achieve competency • Allot a time frame for completion Adapted from Denning (2005); Denzin (2003); Gurbium (2009); McAdams (1993); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010); Silberman and Auerbach (2006)
WorkshopPhase 4: Finished Product • May be necessary to help complete digital story editing • Invite participants to share stories • Transition session to closure • Share what was learned • Seek feedback from participants • Suggestions for improvement • Conclude the workshop Adapted from Denning (2005); Denzin (2003); Gurbium (2009); McAdams (1993); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010); Silberman and Auerbach (2006)
Ethical implications • No repercussions for sharing • Establish confidentiality rules • Consider immunity clauses • Information only viewed by a select group • Always gain permission from participants to share any information • Keep organizations expectations in mind
Intention of Storytelling • Not a therapy session • Empower the participant • Improve moral • Improve team dynamics & unity • Only as successful as the participants allow • Facilitators need to lead by example Adapted from Denning (2005); J. Albert (personal communication, June 10, 2010); Kouzes & Posner (2003)
Conclusion • Learn from the past & create a future • Positive results include: • Self-awareness • Fosters dialogue • Presentation & technical skills • Boost morale • Inspire beneficial change • Engage heart and mind • Gain understanding of culture & the organization, teams & departments
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