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  1. OUTCOME BASED HIGHER EDUCATION:CONCEPT AND IMPLICATIONS Prof. Ramakanta Mohalik Dept. of Education RIE Bhubaneswar-751022
  2. What is OBE • Outcome-Based Education means clearly focusing and organizing everything in an educational system around what is essential for all students to be able to do successfully at the end of their learning experiences. • This means starting with a clear picture of what is important for students to able to ( then organizing curriculum, instruction, and assessment to make sure this learning ultimately happens. • Developing a clear set of learning outcomes around which all of the system's components can be focused.
  3. Outcome Curriculum Instruction Resources Assessment
  4. What is Outcome? • Outcomes are learning results that we want students to demonstrate at the end of significant learning experiences. • They are not values, beliefs, attitudes, or psychological states of mind. • Instead, outcomes are what learners can actually do with what they know and have learned they are the tangible application of what has been learned. • Outcomes are actions and performances that embody and reflect learner competence in using content, information, ideas, and tools successfully.
  5. • Outcomes involve actual doing, rather than just knowing or a variety of other purely mental processes, they must be defined according to the actions or demonstration processes being sought. • Outcomes are stated in observable action verbs like describe, explain, design, or produce rather than vague or hidden non demonstration processes like know, understand, believe, and think. • For example, the possible outcome "explain the major causes of inflation in capitalist economies" implies that to be successful the learner will be expected to develop both the competence of explaining and the knowledge of the major causes of inflation in capitalist economies.
  6. • Outcome is not a collection or average of previous learning experiences, but a manifestation of what learners can do once they have had and completed all of those experiences. • Outcomes are not simply the things students believe, feel, remember, know, or understand these and other similar things are all internal mental processes, rather than clear demonstrations of learning.
  7. Outcomes Observable/Demonstratable Actions Creating: Create new product or point of view assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, plan, invent, produce Evaluating: Justify a stand or decision appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, check, hypothesize, test, detect Analyzing: Distinguish between the different parts appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, Applying: Use the information in a new way demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, manipulate, schedule, sketch, solve, translate Understanding: Explain ideas or concepts Classify, discuss, explain, exemplify, summarize, infer, compare, translate, paraphrase Remembering: Recall or remember the information Recognize, list, describe, identify, name, locate, find, retrieve
  8. Outcome Based Education • Based in clearly defined outcomes. Outcome is “end” • Cum and Instructional strategy are flexible and alterable • Time as alterable resources for students and teachers • Criterion-based • Focused on increasing students learning to highest level • Mistakes are steps for higher learning Traditional Education • Cum and assessment as “end” • Predefined and structured cum and instructional strategy • Time is inflexible and controls students and learning • Norm-based/group based • Few students do well • Mistakes are record of past
  9. Benefits of OBE • Help to formulate graduate attributes, qualification descriptors, programme learning outcomes and course learning outcomes that are expected to be demonstrated by the holder of a qualification. • Enable prospective students, parents, employers and others to understand the nature and level of learning outcomes (knowledge, skills, attitudes and values) or attributes a graduate of a programme should be capable of demonstrating on successful completion of the programme of study. • Maintain national standards and international comparability of learning outcomes and academic standards to ensure global competitiveness, and to facilitate student/graduate mobility. • Provide higher education institutions an important point of reference for designing teaching-learning strategies, assessing student learning levels, and periodic review of programmes and academic standards.
  10. Graduate attributes • The graduate attributes reflect the particular quality and feature or characteristics of an individual, including the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that are expected to be acquired by a graduate through studies at the higher education institution (HEI) such as a college or university.
  11. • Disciplinary knowledge • Communication skills • Critical thinking • Problem solving • Analytical thinking • Research skills • Cooperation/team work • Scientific reasoning • Reflective thinking • Digital literacy • Self directed learning • Multicultural competence • Moral/ethical awareness • Leadership • Life long learning
  12. Programme Learning Outcomes • Programme learning outcomes include subject-specific skills and generic skills, including transferable global skills and competencies, the achievement of which the students of a specific programme of study should be able to demonstrate for the award of the certificate/ Diploma/Degree qualification. • The programme learning outcomes also focus on knowledge and skills that prepare students for further study, employment, and citizenship.
  13. Course Learning Outcomes • Course-level learning outcomes are aligned to programme learning outcomes. Course-level learning outcomes are specific to a course of study within a given programme of study. • The achievement by students of course-level learning outcomes lead to the attainment of the programme learning outcomes.
  14. Teaching Learning Process • The outcome- based approach, particularly in the context of undergraduate studies, requires a significant shift from teacher- centric to learner-centric pedagogies, and from passive to active/participatory pedagogies.
  15. Assessment Strategies • A variety of assessment methods that are appropriate to a given disciplinary/subject area and a programme of study will be used to assess progress towards the course/programme learning outcomes. Priority will be accorded to formative assessment. •
  16. • time-constrained examinations; • closed-book and open-book tests; • problem based assignments; • practical assignment/ laboratory reports; • observation of practical skills; • individual project reports (case-study reports); • team project reports; • oral presentations, including seminar presentation; viva voce interviews; • computerised adaptive testing; • peer and self assessment etc.

Notas do Editor

  1. Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives