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Personality Mapping, Conflict management and Team building

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Personality Mapping, Conflict management and Team building

  1. 1. Personality Mapping in Conflict Management and Team Building Dr. D. Dutta Roy, Ph.D. Psychology Research Unit Indian Statistical Institute 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata – 700 108 E-mail: ddroy @ isical .ac.in http://www.isical . ac.in/~ddroy/invt.html Venue : Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 29.11.08
  3. 3. Myths About Personality - 1 Personality can be assessed by appearance
  4. 4. Myths About Personality - 2 Personality can be assessed by one’s Conscious behavior
  5. 5. Myths About Personality - 3 It is inherited and Environment has no role. Therefore, we can not change our personality.
  6. 6. What is Personality ? <ul><li>Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those Psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to its environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allport </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Jamsetji Tata
  7. 7. Characteristics of Personality
  8. 8. Dynamic <ul><li>It varies with changes in Person-Environment fit across situations. It is developed through self monitoring and learning. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organization <ul><li>It can not be studied with only one attribute. Therefore, it is multi dimensional. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Psychophysical <ul><li>It is related to changes in physiological system. There is a body-mind relationship. </li></ul>Ref: Dutta Roy, D. ( 2004 ). ANALYSIS OF GHQ-12 DATA COLLECTED FROM ANTARCTICA EXPEDITION, UNPUBLISHED PROJECT SUBMITTED TO ISI., KOLKATA
  11. 11. Unique <ul><li>It varies from individual to individual. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Determine unique adjustment <ul><li>It directs individual to cope with environment in unique way. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How Personality develops
  14. 14. Taxonomy of Personality (India) <ul><li>The major approaches are: </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of development : Physical, Mental, Psychic, Spiritual ( Shri Aurobindo) </li></ul><ul><li>Layers of Personality : Outer, Inner and Inner core (Shri Maa) </li></ul><ul><li>Types : Sattwik, Rajasik, Tamasik (Vivekananda) </li></ul><ul><li>Value : Himsa, Ahimsa (Buddha) </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution : Locus of control (Gita) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Consciousness Layers Outer Layer: -Missing -Anomalies Inner Layer -Vividness -Orderliness -Complexity <ul><li>Inner Core Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony with Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanliness </li></ul>
  16. 16. Taxonomy of Personality (West) <ul><li>The major approaches are: </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of development : Freud, Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>Types : Jung, Myers and Briggs, Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Trait : Eysenck, Cattell </li></ul><ul><li>Need : Murray, Maslow, Herzberg </li></ul><ul><li>Value : Allport, Rokeach </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution : Rotter’s Locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Culture specific personality : Individualism and collectivism </li></ul>
  17. 17. Freud’s Psycho sexual Development
  18. 18. Erikson’s Stages of Development
  19. 19. Jung’s Type <ul><li>Introvert : finds meaning within. They are introspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrovert : finds meaning outside the self/ surroundings. </li></ul>Jung’s Mandala
  20. 20. Eysenck’s Trait clusters Neuroticism Unstable Tense, Anxious Stable Relaxed High Sociable,Impulsive Low Unsocial, Cautious High Aggressive,Impersonal, cold Low Warm, aware of others, non-aggressive Extraversion Psychoticism
  21. 21. Cattell’s 16 P.F. <ul><li>RESERVED </li></ul><ul><li>LESS INTELLIGENT </li></ul><ul><li>AFFECTED BY FEELINGS </li></ul><ul><li>HUMBLE </li></ul><ul><li>SOBER </li></ul><ul><li>EXPEDIENT </li></ul><ul><li>SHY </li></ul><ul><li>TOUGH-MINDED </li></ul><ul><li>TRUSTING </li></ul><ul><li>PRACTICAL </li></ul><ul><li>FORTHRIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>PLACID </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEVATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>GROUP DEPENDENT </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSAL </li></ul><ul><li>RELAXED </li></ul><ul><li>OUTGOING </li></ul><ul><li>MORE INTELLIGENT </li></ul><ul><li>MORE EMOTIONALLY STABLE </li></ul><ul><li>ASSERTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HAPPY GO LUCKY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSCIENTIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>VENTURESOME </li></ul><ul><li>TENDERMINDED </li></ul><ul><li>SUSPICIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>IMAGINATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>SHREWD </li></ul><ul><li>APPREHENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENTING </li></ul><ul><li>SELF SUFFICIENT </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLED </li></ul><ul><li>TENSE </li></ul>A B C E F G H I L M N O Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
  22. 22. Big Five Personality Factors <ul><li>Extraversion : Talkative, Sociable </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness: Good-natured, Co-operative </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness :Responsible,Tidy </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stability :Calm, Composed </li></ul><ul><li>Culture : Artistic, Imaginative </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Costa and Mc Crae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy <ul><li>Human behavior is determined by the need fulfillment in hierarchical orders </li></ul>
  24. 24. Allport <ul><li>Theoretical : Importance on discovery of truth </li></ul><ul><li>Economic : Emphasizes the useful and practical </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic : highest value on form and harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Social : Highest value on love of people </li></ul><ul><li>Political : Acquisition of power and influence </li></ul><ul><li>Religious : Unity of experienceand understanding of the cosmos </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rokeach <ul><li>Instrumental : Preferable modes of behaviour ( Comfortable life, Social recognition etc.) 18 values </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal : End state of existence ( Obedient, Courageous etc. ) 18 values </li></ul>
  26. 26. Rotter <ul><li>Locus of Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal : Outcomes stem mostly from their own actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External : Outcomes stem from external causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(luck, fate etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Social Cognitive learning Orientation develops through social learning Role Model selection
  29. 29. Ambitious Planning <ul><li>Ambitious planning sometimes maximizes gap between corporate and social responsibility. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Personality conflict <ul><li>Mismatch between expected self and actual self causes conflict </li></ul>
  32. 32. What is Personality Mapping ? <ul><li>It is a Psychometric technique of profiling personality of individual or group of individuals for the purpose of classification. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Steps <ul><li>Exploring research variables </li></ul><ul><li>Development of instrument (Questionnaire, checklist or tests) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect large data </li></ul><ul><li>Determine distribution of association among the variables </li></ul><ul><li>Extract latent traits </li></ul><ul><li>Determine significant difference between the groups in latent traits. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Johari Window INVESTIGATOR C L I E N T Known Known Unknown Unknown OPEN DARK BLIND FAÇADE
  35. 35. Exploring Personality Variables
  36. 36. Exploring techniques <ul><li>FACADE </li></ul><ul><li>DARK </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION </li></ul><ul><li>FREE ASSOCIATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MINING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAPPING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROFILING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSAL RELATIONS </li></ul></ul>http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/sgitc/read5.htm
  37. 37. Participant observation <ul><li>Participant observation is a set of research strategies which aim to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub-cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, often though not always over an extended period of time. </li></ul>Malinowski in data collection
  38. 38. INTERVIEW MODEL Least control on Respondent More control on Respondent Informal Unstructured Semi-structured Structured
  39. 39. Probability for variable exploration Structured Unstructured High prob. Low prob
  40. 40. Focused group <ul><li>In focus group, a screened (qualified) group of respondents gathers in the same room . There are usually 6 to 10 members in the group, and the session usually lasts for 1 to 2 hours. A moderator guides the group through a discussion that probes attitudes about a client's proposed products or services. The discussion is loosely structured, and the moderator encourages the free flow of ideas. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Free Association <ul><li>Lying on a couch (a position imposing a certain state of relaxation), the patient speaks freely of anything that may cross his/her mind, without searching for some specific subject or topic. The flow of his/her thoughts is free, and followed with no voluntary intervention. The important thing is that the critical mind does not intervene to censor spontaneous thoughts. We truly have the drive to censure the products of our thinking, starting from various criteria: moral, ethic, narcissistic, cultural, spiritual. The method of free associations demands us to temporarily give up intellectual censorship and freely speak about any thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Freud explored principles of defense mechanisms based on free association techniques. </li></ul>
  42. 42. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE <ul><li>Unstructured stimuli to which individual responds. Stimuli ranged from complete unstructured to semi structured. Complete unstructured stimuli are inkblots suggested by Swiss Psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922). Projective techniques are used for revealing one’s innermost thoughts and feelings (Rapaport, 1942, 1970). </li></ul><ul><li>Rorschach noted the followings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large percentage of clearly visualized forms; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many kinaesthetic influences acting in the perceptive process; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A large number of whole answers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good conceptive types – W, W-D, or W-D-Dd; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimum rigidity of sequence of mode of apperception (orderlys); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small percentage of animal answers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither too large nor too small percentage of original answers; </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. DATA MINING http://www.csu.edu.au/special/auugwww96/proceedings/crawford/crawford.html
  44. 44. Data Mining
  45. 45. Complaints of School going Adolescents Cluster 1: Cognitive anxiety; Cluster 2: Social anxiety Burt Table: Counselling data Correspondence map
  46. 46. Cattell’s 16 P.F. <ul><li>RESERVED </li></ul><ul><li>LESS INTELLIGENT </li></ul><ul><li>AFFECTED BY FEELINGS </li></ul><ul><li>HUMBLE </li></ul><ul><li>SOBER </li></ul><ul><li>EXPEDIENT </li></ul><ul><li>SHY </li></ul><ul><li>TOUGH-MINDED </li></ul><ul><li>TRUSTING </li></ul><ul><li>PRACTICAL </li></ul><ul><li>FORTHRIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>PLACID </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEVATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>GROUP DEPENDENT </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSAL </li></ul><ul><li>RELAXED </li></ul><ul><li>OUTGOING </li></ul><ul><li>MORE INTELLIGENT </li></ul><ul><li>MORE EMOTIONALLY STABLE </li></ul><ul><li>ASSERTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HAPPY GO LUCKY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSCIENTIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>VENTURESOME </li></ul><ul><li>TENDERMINDED </li></ul><ul><li>SUSPICIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>IMAGINATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>SHREWD </li></ul><ul><li>APPREHENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENTING </li></ul><ul><li>SELF SUFFICIENT </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLED </li></ul><ul><li>TENSE </li></ul>A B C E F G H I L M N O Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
  48. 48. Personality Map (Based on Sten score)
  49. 49. How does it help ? <ul><li>In formulating personnel specification for job analysis and job evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>In development of performance appraisal system </li></ul><ul><li>In selecting right man for right job </li></ul><ul><li>In analysis of Management development needs (leadership/conflict mgt./team building etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>In identifying counseling or guidance needs </li></ul><ul><li>In managing conflict </li></ul><ul><li>In team building </li></ul>
  50. 50. Characteristics of Personality Mapping <ul><li>Psychometric : It is a study to explain psychological phenomenon (e.g. ability or competency/personality etc.) in terms of measurement principles. It covers measurement principles of test development (Item analysis, assessing reliability, validity, test standardization etc.), and of profile analysis (profile similarity and classification). </li></ul><ul><li>Profile : Graphical representation of the correspondence of the set of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Profiling : Plotting correspondence of the set of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement Principles : Next slide > </li></ul>
  51. 51. Measurement Principles Test Development <ul><li>Item Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability testing : Time and internal consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Validity : Content, Construct, Discriminating, Predictive </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization : Correlation of two sets of questionnaire data collected from same group </li></ul>
  52. 52. Measurement Principles for Profile comparison <ul><li>Single individual profile analysis : Frequency distribution, Percentage analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Individual to individual comparison : Rank order correlation coefficient </li></ul><ul><li>Individual to group comparison : Sten score/ standard score/T-score </li></ul><ul><li>Group wise comparison : t-statistics, F- statistics, Cluster analysis, Correspondence analysis, Discriminant function analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying latent traits : Factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting Criteria : Simple, Stepwise Multiple Regression analysis </li></ul>
  53. 53. Individualism VS Collectivism <ul><li>Fostering independence </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting personal choice </li></ul><ul><li>Upward mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with private property or individual ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting adherence to norms </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with hierarchical roles </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with shared property </li></ul>
  54. 54. What is Conflict ? <ul><li>Conflict is the cognitive appraisal of being pulled in two or more directions by opposing motives. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Why do we study Conflict Management ? <ul><li>Costs of conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of decision making efficacy, development of negative affectivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving towards external control from internal control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra personal, inter personal, inter group and inter departmental distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low productivity, Accident, Labour turnover, Strike and Lockout. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Types of Conflict <ul><li>Double Approach Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Double Avoidance Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Approach – avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Double approach – avoidance conflict </li></ul>
  59. 59. Double Approach Conflict <ul><li>Least Stressful Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution is not to vacillate the decision for long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze positive and negative powers of two forces and make decision. </li></ul>G + G + I
  60. 60. Double Avoidance Conflict <ul><li>More Stressful Conflict as two goals are negative. Avoiding one requires approaching other. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution is to Withdraw by focusing other matters. </li></ul>G - I G -
  61. 61. Approach-Avoidance Conflict <ul><li>Very Stressful Conflict as there is a single goal for which there is both a tendency to approach and a tendency to avoid. </li></ul><ul><li>it draws your attention and again distracts you from your goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution is self control. </li></ul>I
  62. 62. Double Approach and Double Avoidance Conflict <ul><li>Extreme stressful Conflict as the individual is faced with having to choose between two (or more) goals, each of which has both attracting and repelling aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution is Withdrawl or Self control. </li></ul>How can I show my face to family and to colleagues ? I <ul><li>G + </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>G + </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_ </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Conflict Management Assertiveness Cooperativeness Avoiding Accommodating Competing Collaborating Compromising
  65. 65. Competing <ul><li>When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Collaborating <ul><li>The intention is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Avoiding <ul><li>Where a person recognizes that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Accommodating <ul><li>Where one party seeks to appease an opponent, that party may be willing to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Compromising <ul><li>Each party in conflict seeks to give up some thing, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome. Here no one is loser or winner but solution provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns. </li></ul>
  70. 70. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL <ul><li>Unambiguous communication </li></ul><ul><li>Realigning work group </li></ul><ul><li>Altering rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>structural changes to disrupt status quo </li></ul>
  71. 71. How is Personality Mapping related to Conflict management and team building ? Personality Mapping data provides insight About the probability of taking into consideration what types of conflict ( definition , Types ) management styles ( different styles ) are likely to be followed by the individual or by the group.
  72. 72. Personality & Team building <ul><li>Five personality dimensions play critical role on team building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal orientation (Approval orientation, authoritarianism, cyclothymia (approach tendency), schizothymia (avoidance tendency); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sensitivity: Empathy, social insight, sociability among others; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascendant tendencies: Assertiveness, Dominance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependability: Personal integrity, Behavioural consistency; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional stability: Emotional control, defensiveness etc. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Publications on Personality <ul><li>Dutta Roy,D. (1992) Personality traits of Antarctic expeditioners , Psychological Studies, 37,2&3, 95-98. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy,D.(1994) Relative importance of personality factors in discriminating four occupational groups, Indian Journal of Applied Psychology , 31,1,34-38. </li></ul><ul><li>Mukerjee,M.and Dutta Roy, D. (1994) A Cross cultural study on similarity of personality profiles of teachers and physicians developed on the basis of 16 PF, Indian Journal of Psychology , 69, 3 & 4, 79-86. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (1994) Personality structure of teacher s , Indian Educational Review ,25, 34, 89-92. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D.(1995) Differences in personality factors of experienced teachers,physicians, bank managers and fine artists , Psychological Studies, 40,1, 51-56. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (1995) A comment on the similarities in the sixteen PF profiles of Indian and American creative artists , Indian Journal of Psychological Issues, 1,(1 & 2), 11-14. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (1995) Personality profile similarity of Indian and British physicians , Asian Journal of Psychology and Education, 28, 5-6, 5-8. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (2002) Personality differences across four metropolitan cities of India, Indian Psychological Review , 58,2,71-78. </li></ul>
  74. 74. THANK YOU Publications: http://www.isical.ac.in/~ddroy/abstract.html