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  1. ‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫بسم‬ University of Khartoum Faculty of Postgraduate M.Sc. Agricultural Engineering Seminar on : GRAIN STORAGE Presented by: 1. Islam Elrayah 2. Hassan Sdeig 3. Nossiba Abdullah September 2021
  2. Seminar Outlines:  Introduction  Importance of grain Storage  Methods of grain Storage  Traditional Methods  Modern Methods  Conclusion
  3. Introduction:  Storage of cereals is a very important preservation method.  It is particularly important in Africa because agricultural production is mostly seasonal.  while the demand for agricultural commodities is more evenly spread throughout the year.  many techniques using in agriculture storage.
  4. The selection of a storage technique or structure depends on: Production level Climatic conditions. Quantity of grain to be stored Required duration of the storage
  5. Methods of Grain Storage: This can be categorized into:  Traditional Methods These storage facilities are made of local materials (plant materials and soil) and constructed by the villagers themselves. Advantages: Traditional storage structures are made from readily available local materials
  6. cheap methods for the storage grain. Disadvantages: cannot guarantee total protection of the grains in storage against adverse environmental conditions. increased microbial activity, and storage pest.
  7. Types of traditional methods:  Rhombus  A mud rhombus is a specially built structure made from a mixture of dry grass and clay.  It usually consists of a bin resting on large stones and covered with a thatched roof.  The shape could be cylindrical, spherical, or circular.
  8. Rhombus
  9. Thatch Rhombus showing tree stem external support.
  10. Traditional Cribs A crib is a storage structure used for temporary storage of grains.  It is usually rectangular with ventilated sides and is raised about a meter from the ground and with rodent guard. Cribs are constructed from bamboo grass straws or wire mesh.
  11. Traditional Cribs
  12. Underground Pit  An underground pit is commonly used in arid and semi arid regions.  The pit, which may be round or square in cross section, is usually 1 – 3 m deep and 1 - 3 m in diameter or square.  The underground pit is usually lined with straw.
  13. Underground Pit
  14. Open Stack Method  In the open stack storage method, grain quantities of upwards of 5000 tons or more.  Grain can be stored for short periods.
  15. Open Stack
  16. Modern Storage  Modern storage structures are mostly used for medium or long term and medium or large scale storage. Advantages: Complete control of aeration  Possible to store the grain for very long time periods  Very large storage capacity
  17. Low running costs due to larger quantities  Low labour requirements  Rapid handling, saving time  Effective and efficient fumigation operation  Possible to mechanize all operations  Complete protection against natural elements
  18. Disadvantages: The major challenge in the use of metal silos is the initial high cost of installation the unused space cannot be used for other activities .
  19.  A major motivation for the use of improved storage facilities is the protection of stored agricultural products against insect attacks .  These include: Improved crib Warehouse  Silo/ Bin
  20. Warehouse:  A warehouse is a building for storing goods including's grain .  Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport businesses, customs, etc.
  21. Warehouse
  22. Silo  Silos are an efficient method of storing grain.  Bulk grain takes less space and can be handled mechanically hence reducing bagging and handling costs.  There are different types of silos of various sizes for storing grain in bulk.
  23. Steel grain silos
  24. Concrete Silo
  25. References: Economic and Work Sector Report, 2011. Missing Food: The case of Postharvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa, Report No 60371-AFR. United State Agency for International Development, 2011. Staple Crops Storage Handbook, Washington.
  26. THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION
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