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Atelier Mode

Par Séverine Richet
Alliance Française de Hong Kong - août 2020
English copy

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Atelier Mode

  1. 1. LA MODE 20TH CENTURY 1940 -> 2000
  2. 2. the 20th century of French is the century of fashion. It sees the greatest fashion designers: Lanvin, Chanel or Yves Saint-Laurent… They work only for rare wealthy clients. La “femme Lanvin” in November 1915. Founded in 1889, Lanvin is now the oldest Parisian couture house in operation. Gabrielle Chanel en 1928. Avant-garde et independence, Chanel's style launches the emblematic “boy” style of the 30’.
  3. 3. Fashion for All Electricity creates industrialisation, which creates the confection (the ancient of the prêt-à-porter) that creates the department stores.
  4. 4. 1939 -> 1945
  5. 5. The decade opens up to the horror of the Second World War. Clothing becomes a symbol of German oppression, forcing all Jews in the occupied area in France, aged 6 years and over, to wear a yellow star in June 1942. Juin 1942 1939-1945 : World War II During the Second World War, the Couture companies are in a difficult situation due to tissue restrictions (for the armaments industry). Silk is reserved for the manufacture of parachutes. Fashion must be ingenious to continue to exist under occupation until the release and arrival of Christian Dior’s New Look. Ticket, clothing restriction
  6. 6. Fashion is controlled very strictly: the skirt length goes back under the knee, which will mark the advent of the pencil shape skirt : la jupe crayon. 1939-1945 : LE SYSTÈME D* “Liquid tight” made from coffee or tea. The line was drawn1941. The curtains turn into a dress and the women dye their legs with tea to imitate the silk stockings. * System D is a shorthand term that refers back to the French word débrouillard, (one who is) skilled or resourceful at handling any difficulty. System D refers to a manner of responding to challenges that requires one to have the ability to think fast, to adapt, and to improvise when getting the job done.
  7. 7. This “DIY” mode is like the rough times: functional. The style is increasingly inspired by the male figure like the square shoulder coat, echoed in soldiers' uniform. Shoulders win in width, the hips are tight and skirts shorten below the knees. As far as the colour code is concerned, it is staggering at the time. Le kaki et le bleu marine. The Kaki and the Navy Blue of the regiment of the same name are inspired by the armed forces.
  8. 8. The emblematic dress code from 1939 to 1945
  9. 9. THE SQUARE SHOULDER JACKET AND “LA JUPE CRAYON” No more folds and other style effects: dresses and skirts adopt a straight cut, without fioriture, to save the fabric. THE CROSS-BODY BAG More practical than the purse, the cross- body bag also appears at that time. It is more practical, especially for bicycle circulation. It is wide and sometimes contains a compartment for the gas mask. THE COMPENSATED SOLES The Leather is required (for military industry). They are made of wood, heavy and uncomfortable.
  10. 10. HATS, BIBI, TURBAN The hat is beyond the tissue restriction. All the French women are putting their fashion effort on this accessory. HOLLYWOOD STARS and THE FEMININITY Cinema, theatre and song become escapes. These years, movies are passionate for fatal women, and the Hollywood star is called Rita Hayworth. The strip scene in the Gilda movie is worth a sensual and glamour reputation. She is called "goddess of love" for her pin-up attitude and her hair (blonde or red). It is also time for the first hair colouring.
  11. 11. Here is the female dress code during the Second World War. Why does this represent the iconic dress code of the Second World War?
  13. 13. Dior will sign the revolution with his “New look” that draws a feminissism figure. It will revolutionize the fashion of the 1950s and decades to come. PARIS BECOMES “LA CAPITALE DE LA MODE”. Le 12 février 1947 au 30 avenue Montaigne à 10h30. This is the star of the parade, the famous Bar tailor with his iconic jacket, symbol of the house. The war is over, and the Thirty Glorious years are starting. Women return to the home and can adopt a more female, less “comfortable” fashion. They dream of elegance and femininity, skirts, corsets, strangled hips, cleavage, refined lingerie
  14. 14. The fashion has never been so bold, making the director of Harper’s Bazaar Carmel Snow told: “It’s a new look”. The chest stands, shoulders are rounder, The waist is tight, the hips are wider, the breast is proud and the skirt is longer.. Dior just reinvented the woman's allure. 1947 THE NEW LOOK BY DIOR
  15. 15. Here is the female dress code after the Second World War. Why does this represent the iconic wardrobe of the post war era ?
  16. 16. The 50’s
  17. 17. “The 1950s marked the return of the “housewife”. After the war, she now dreams of elegance and femininity.” Fifties are elegant and very female. Now it is time to reinvent a happy and free fashion. It's a time of effervescence for fashion and a new era for Couture companies is starting.
  18. 18. 1. Pierre Balmain et l’actrice Ruth Ford en 19472. Grace Kelly en 1954 It is the golden age of the Couture that renders Paris its status as a world fashion capital. The whole planet is looking at Christian Dior, Hubert de Givenchy, Cristóbal Balenciaga and Pierre Balmain. They are at the top of the 1950s fashion. They dress Hollywood icons: Grace Kelly, Audrey Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe, Lauren Bacall…
  19. 19. Two headlights are facing each other in the heart of the women. Chanel’s tight tailor The very evaded Dior Corolle dress.
  20. 20. Technological advances in the period give rise to new materials: polyester, polyamide and acrylic are now being worked. This new leads to the creation of ready-to-wear lines.
  21. 21. In the 1950s, fashion and luxury are expressed through movie stars, thus raising to icons. Hubert de Givenchy makes Audrey Hepburn his muse by creating his outfits in "Breakfast at Tiffany's" (in particular the "Sack" dress with straight lines); and Marilyn Monroe becomes the emblem of glamorous style with her dresses (slit dresses), long gloves and pencil skirts.
  22. 22. Le col claudine : Audrey Hepburn appears the first in a red blouse in Claudine collar! The emblematic dress code of the 50’s This figure half child-half woman caused by this round-collar is worth the support of her entire generation, which also starts to imitate Colette’s famous heroin in "Claudine at school".
  23. 23. Long gloves, worn over the elbow for a very fancy effect! Hats and bibis : Women in the '50s cut their hair or adopt the chignon to wear the hat better! The round and oversize hat in was very tendency, but the bibi, its little version, too! These were signs of great elegance
  24. 24. The 1950s also see the advent of pigeon bras and panty girdle that make it possible to reach the shapes so coveted by the New-Look spirit. The bicolor shoes and needle heel, launched by the Raymond Massaro Bottier for Coco Chanel in 1957. According to Coco Chanel, the beige color was intended to extend the leg, and the black tip to shorten the foot, for aesthetic purposes!
  25. 25. Here is the female dress code during the 50’s. Why does this represent the iconic wardrobe of the decade ?
  26. 26. Mary Quant is significantly shortening her dresses and skirt. She starts to introduce the mini- skirt that will become one of the biggest phenomena in the Sixties. But a new wind blows in fashion…
  27. 27. The 60’s
  28. 28. The woman emancipates and her body adopts a new figure. It is the decade of the mini-skirt iconic, Pierre Cardin, Courrèges or Yves Saint Laurent. Fashion is multiform and it's coming from the street. The image of the woman is now flatter and more geometric figure. Body first ! The 60’s are a revolutionary phase in the history of fashion creation.
  29. 29. Never before, sociocultural changes are more realistic in dress trends. Fashion of the 60’s makes progress and challenge in a real revolution of appearances. The time is for the consumer society: the growing industrialisation of dress work encourages the growth of the ready-to-wear industries encouraging the decline of the Couture. Courrèges
  30. 30. In the youth of the baby boom, a new dress culture, which is based on the Anglo-Saxon model is rising. Music and groups impose their membership in a well-defined style : «yéyés », « black leather jackets», « mods », « rockers » are a symbol of a counterculture that is more than ever in appearances.
  31. 31. Fashion takes several faces : the fancy female figure like Brigitte Bardot is rising together with the chic Jackie Kennedy or Twiggy's androgyne look : Celebrities are seen as real fashion icons.  Brigitte Bardot, 1961 Jackie Kennedy, White House, 1961 Twiggy, 1961
  32. 32. The pants that are now more than ever becoming unisex. Yves Saint Laurent brings the trench and the tuxedo for men into the female wardrobe. Trench by Yves Saint Laurent 1969 Tuxedo by Yves Saint Laurent 1969 “Carotte” trousers
  33. 33. New trends are moving into the heart of French women like the mini-skirt, seen at André Courrèges fashion shows and inspired by the British Mary Quant. The flat boots In the 60's, it is the conquest of space. André Courrèges with its architectural collection called Space Age, makes the geometric pattern the moment’s print. These forms, as well as silver color, will have a strong influence on Paco Rabanne and Pierre Cardin.
  34. 34. Two creators, Pierre Cardin and Paco Rabanne, will contribute to dialogue between the fashion world and the show world. Paco Rabanne signs the Barbarella movie suits with Jane Fonda in 1968. Paco Rabanne provides the dresses of Casino Royal movie. Pierre Cardin is gonna create the Beatles costumes. Paco Rabanne collections are often made of plastic and metal. Paco Rabanne and Françoise Hardy.
  35. 35. THE TROUSERS They become the witness part of women’s dress release. TRENCH COAT The trench became popular and was brought by civilians in the 1960’s by Yves Saint Laurent. THE 3 HOLES DRESS The creators Courèges and Pierre Cardin made it one of their flagship pieces. Wear with ballerina, oversized sunglasses and a scarf, Jackie O made an iconic model. The emblematic dress code
  36. 36. MONDRIAN DRESS January 1966 Mondrian dress by Yves Saint Laurent. In 1966, Mondrian dress, inspired by Piet Mondrian abstract art, comes out of Yves Saint Laurent’s workshops. The prototype is created by Azzedine Alaia and the shoes are drawn by Roger Vivier. The feeling is complete, the fashion world remains flabbergasted in front of this sleeveless wool, right cut and modernist prints, which stops just above the knees. SAHARA JACKET Betty Catroux, Yves Saint Laurent and Loulou de la Falaise From military inspiration, the Sahara jacket is distinguished by its half-long length, the lace on the breast, and its wide pockets. A flagship play made by Yves Saint Laurent in 1967.
  37. 37. The oversized glasses were very popular because all the influential stars in the period had adopted them from Brigitte Bardot to Françoise Hardy, to Diana Ross. XXL ACCESSOIRIES Jackie Kennedy never came out without her oversizing glasses Nina Ricci. Audrey Hepburn THE MONOKINI The shapes are is getting younger. Brigitte Bardot, inspires a sexier fashion that highlights the forms. During the 1960s, the monokini appeared on the beaches. The two pieces swimming costume is reserved for actresses and pin-up.
  38. 38. Here is the female dress code during the 60’s. Why does this represent the iconic wardrobe of the decade ?
  39. 39. The 70’s
  40. 40. THE 70’S LOOK! Bold is undoubtedly what defines the 1970 fashion. We dare dots, stripes, superpositions, glitter, colour associations… the 1970’s are synonymous with extreme. Hippies, punks and disco fans are expressing both through music and through their dress clothes. Women wear both short and long hair and jeans sales in Europe increased by 300% between 1970 and 1976.
  41. 41. The Hippie wave gives birth to floral prints on shirts, on dresses and skirts. Major trend in the “Flower Power” and "Peace and Love" eras. It translates into clothes such as eph’s paws trousers, oversized blouses and accessories such as scarves or flowers in hair
  42. 42. MUSIC AS A WEALTHY DRESS CODE In the '70s, you have to be original. On the outfits, this will has resulted in a colour explosion (such as electric blue and orange), and materials (such as glitter). The style becomes unisex: women claim to be men with pants and blazers, while men opt for long hair. Disco music puts glitter on the light as demonstrated by the ABBA group, the gold color, but also the very strong colors such as yellow, red or apple green. It’s also the time for the famous pie server collar… Saturday Night Fever - 1977
  43. 43. But the punk movement begins in 1976, with the English band The Sex Pistols and the American The Ramones. The tartan is all-out, the blue-jeans holed under a kilt and the necessary accessories: nanny pins, nail bracelet and the Dr Martens boots. Malcolm mcLaren Siouxsie Sioux wears bracelets, Nancy Spungen, pulls out the nails, and Sid Vicious frequently wears a chain around the neck, the two ends are sealed by a lock
  44. 44. In the 1970s, creators replace the fashion designers: Issey Miyake et Karl Lagerfeld know their first Parisian successes, Kenzo et Jean-Charles de Castelbajac put it on color while Chantal Thomass is drawing sexy underwear collections. Kenzo 1976 Chantal Thomass 1976 Jerry Hall and the Zèbre sweater by Castelbajac Karl Lagerfeld with models at Maison Chloe, 1972 Stock Photo - Alamy. Karl Lagarfeld was famous for the long and fluid skirts and shirts. Hi collaboration with Chloé lasts for 20 years.
  45. 45. The long skirt was part of the essential outfit of the Seventy hippies. The skirts were fluid, ethnic or floral printed, always in very bright colors. The total hippie look was complemented with headbands and scarves in the hair, and a belt falling to the hips. The emblematic dress code The subsweater is a very convenient clothe. It was a major success in the 1970s. Flat boots worn with the skirts and plateform shoes worn with trousers Elephants paw trousers, iconic of the 70’s
  46. 46. Here is the female dress code during the 70’s. Why does this represent the iconic wardrobe of the decade ?
  47. 47. Les années 80
  48. 48. French designers of the ‘80s combined cottons, silks and new fabrics with silver or gold lamé, lace or tulle to create the glamorous attitude. EXCENTRICITY AND CARELESSNESS Bold colours and opulent fabrics.
  49. 49. SPORTY LOOKS '80s is the decade of the fitness queen, Jane Fonda. The actress became the first celebrity to imagine and participate in a gymnastics video. She started the fashion of the leg warmers and the lycra. The emblematic dress code
  50. 50. LE LOOK GLAM-PUNK Scrunchies, leather leggings and affirmative tutus... When she arrived on the pop stage in 1983, Madonna freaks. Everyone falls over the aura of the queen of pop. Her unique style and her stylistic experiences make it an unusual fashion icon. Madonna, Recherche Susan désespérément.
  51. 51. STRUCTURE AND ARCHITECTURE Thierry Mugler bring a revolution into the female wardrobe with his collection that he marries the body curves and an idea of sexy executive women. Black was his favorite color. Claude Montana is known for its architectural looks, wasp waist and its singular use of flashy colors. He was called the king of shoulders.
  52. 52. Here is the female dress code during the 80’s. Why does this represent the iconic wardrobe of the decade ?
  53. 53. The 90’s
  54. 54. 1990 ALL TRENDS OUT: We recycle the basic of the previous decades by accessorising them. Fashion is mainly between minimalist, grunge and bling-bling from Italian brands such as Versace or Gucci with a pinch of porno chic…
  55. 55. Grunge becomes a fashion movement, with Nirvana (music) group at the top of the list. Their look has been taken over by a generation: torn jeans, old sneakers and the indispensable shirt. From the '95's, with the Girl Band music, girls copy the Spice Girls style. They bring back the '70s, the platform shoes and glitter.
  56. 56. The 1990s see the development of luxury groups leading with them “the mercato” of fashion creators: John Galliano for Dior, Jean Paul Gaultier et Alexander McQueen for Givenchy. Martin Margiela Jean Paul Gaultier It’s also the trend of a minimalist fashion.
  57. 57. MADONNA’S ICONIC CONE BRA Madonna always surprised by her rebel and provocative style. Her scene suits are bold as her conical corset, created by Jean Paul Gaultier specifically for his Blonde Ambition tour, which will unleash the criticism. The emblematic dress code Jean Paul Gaultier and his famous “marinière” and Madonna - 1990 BestImage
  58. 58. The 1990’s are also the golden age of sportswear with jogging and sneakers are very present Nike and Cortez. Adidas sees Stan Smith's sales revived. THE DECADE OF THE ACCESSORIES Chokers. Hoop Earrings. Scrunchies, pony tails and buns… Overall Hip Hop oversized fashion inspiration
  59. 59. Here is the female dress code during the 90’s. Why does this represent the iconic wardrobe of the decade ?
  60. 60. The 2000’s
  61. 61. La mode des années 2000 Mocked, sometimes denied : the style of the 2000 is still a fashion trauma that keeps talking, paradoxically inspiring contemporary creators visibly determined to rehabilitate it. It's the air of the low-waist, cropped-top and belly piercing…
  62. 62. In the 2000 years, two trends appear: On the one hand, the appearance of clothing becomes less important than the brand, expression of consumer purchasing power and the image or life philosophy that he identifies. The need for profitability and return on investment increased the number of collections per year, accelerated the rolling of new products, while doing and defusing modes in very short times. On the other hand, there was a discontinuation of fashion and consumption, with the "No Logo" phenomenon. (Reference to Naomi Klein's book). This desire to resist diktats and appearances was illustrated in the refusal to wear marks with ostentatious logos.
  63. 63. Asmetryc top The short leg pant and the cropped top The emblematic dress code The association of low waist trousers and the smallest tee-shirt The slit dress
  64. 64. Jacket on jeans Bohemian or romantic top Camuflage and nailed bracelet jogging and sportswear coloured glasses no sleeve turtle neck
  65. 65. Here is the female dress code during the 2000’s. Why does this represent the iconic wardrobe of the decade ?
  66. 66. 2010’s and now
  67. 67. Between the dazzling speed and the slow fashion, the years 2010 have been able to emancipate dominant aesthetic carcans. Streetward, unpleasant taste, standardised genderless dressing room: trends surprise, provoke and reveal an industry in the middle of a shifting. It’s the time for a cool, casual luxury. Formal dressing like the urban wardrobe is more pragmatic, assuming our desire for comfort to the detriment of a tyrannical and so-called “chic”. Fashion is coming from the street, it also surfs on its heritage by giving new visibility to vintage shops. We play with the logos and, above all, we have fun. Fashion changes rapidly and offers micro-trends, but it is also more ethical and is concerned about the planet. The fashion pollutes, so we're doing new with old.
  68. 68. What is the symbol of French icon in fashion?
  69. 69. Thank you.