In partial fulfillment of the subject
MANUFACTURING PROCESS - 1
Prepared by :
PAVAN NARKHEDE :(130120119111)/Mechanical Department/3-B2
DARSHIT PANCHAL :(130120119114)/Mechanical Department/3-B2
JIGNESH PANCHAL :(130120119118)/Mechanical Department/3-B2
GANDHINAGAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
GRINDING (Abrasive machining)
Grinding is a surface finishing operation where very thin layer of material
is removed in the form of fine dust particles. (thickness 0.25-0.5mm)
Grinding can be defined as a material removal process by the abrasive
action between rotating abrasive wheel & the work piece.
Grinding machine is a power operated machine tool where, the work piece
is fed against a constantly rotating abrasive wheel which is also called as
Grinding wheel so that a thin layer of material is removed from the work
PRINCIPLE OF GRINDING
The work piece is fed against a constantly
rotating abrasive wheel so that a thin layer
of material is removed from the it.
INTRODUCTION TO GRINDING PROCESS
• It is the only economical method of cutting hard material like hardened
• It produces very smooth surface , suitable for bearing surface.
• Surface pressure is minimum in grinding. It is suitable for light work,which
will spring away from the cutting tool in the other machining processes.
CLASSIFICATION OF GRINDING MACHINES
Grinding machines are classified based on their
construction & type of surface produced.
1. Bench Grinding Machine
2. Surface Grinding Machine
3. Cylindrical Grinding Machine
4. Centerless Grinding Machine
5. Internal Grinding Machine
6. Special Purpose Grinding Machine
1. SURFACE GRINDING MACHINE
FIG. PRINCIPLE OF SURFACE GRINDING
Principle: The work piece is fed
against a constantly rotating abrasive
wheel so that a thin layer of material
is removed from the it.
Work Piece Type: Flat, Angular &
SURFACE GRINDING MACHINE
This machine may be similar to a milling machine used mainly to grind flat surface. However, some
types of surface grinders are also capable of producing contour surface with formed grinding wheel.
Basically there are four different types of surface grinding machines characterised by the movement
of their tables and the orientation of grinding wheel spindles as follows:
• Horizontal spindle and reciprocating table
• Vertical spindle and reciprocating table
• Horizontal spindle and rotary table
• Vertical spindle and rotary table
CYLINDRICAL GRINDING MACHINE
FIG. PRINCIPLE OF CYLINDRICAL
The work piece is held between two
centers & and the rotating grinding
wheel is fed against it.
External Grinding machine
Work Piece Type: Cylindrical surfaces
may be straight, curved or contoured.
CYLINDRICAL GRINDING MACHINE
This machine is used to produce external cylindrical surface. The surfaces may
be straight, tapered, steps or profiled. Broadly there are three different types of
cylindrical grinding machine as follows:
1. Plain centre type cylindrical grinder
2. Universal cylindrical surface grinder
3. Centreless cylindrical surface grinder
Universal cylindrical surface grinder
Universal cylindrical grinder is similar to a plain cylindrical one except that it
is more versatile. In addition to small worktable swivel, this machine provides
large swivel of head stock, wheel head slide and wheel head mount on the
wheel head slide.
Special application of cylindrical grinder
Principle of cylindrical grinding is being used for thread grinding with
specially formed wheel that matches the thread profile. A single ribbed wheel
or a multi ribbed wheel can be used as shown in Fig. below.
CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE
FIG. PRINCIPLE OF
Principle: The work piece is placed on work rest
blade between two wheels namely grinding &
regulating wheel, which are rotating in clockwise &
work piece rotates counter clockwise. Grinding
wheel remove material from W/P surface &
regulating wheel regulates the W/P.
Centerless: Means work piece is not held between
Work Piece Type: Curved or Cylindrical surfaces
of long slender rods which cannot be ground on
External centreless grinder
This grinding machine is a production machine in which out side diameter of
the workpiece is ground. The workpiece is not held between centres but by a
work support blade. It is rotated by means of a regulating wheel and ground by
the grinding wheel.
Internal grinding machine
This machine is used to produce internal cylindrical surface. The surface
may be straight, tapered, grooved or profiled.
Broadly there are three different types of internal grinding machine as
1. Chucking type internal grinder
2. Planetary internal grinder
3. Centreless internal grinder
Chucking type internal grinder
The workpiece is usually mounted in a chuck. A magnetic face plate can also
be used. A small grinding wheel performs the necessary grinding with its
peripheral surface. Both transverse and plunge grinding can be carried out in
Planetary internal grinder
Planetary internal grinder is used where the workpiece is of irregular shape and
can not be rotated conveniently as shown in Fig. below. In this machine the
workpiece does not rotate. Instead, the grinding wheel orbits the axis of the
hole in the workpiece.
Centreless internal grinder
This machine is used for grinding cylindrical and tapered holes in cylindrical
parts (e.g. cylindrical liners, various bushings etc). The workpiece is rotated
between supporting roll, pressure roll and regulating wheel and is ground by
the grinding wheel.