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The reign of Elizabeth I witnessed the establishment of the Church of England as the Episcopal or Anglican community. It was a church defined by Elizabeth’s discomfort with the Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. The church adopted a Lutheran willingness to affirm a measure of political headship over the church, liturgical ritual in worship, and a mild Calvinism in theology. This troubled many, particularly those who had been influenced by Calvinism with its emphasis on simplicity in worship style. A movement gradually emerged in England as an alternative to Episcopalianism: Puritanism. This movement was suppressed during the reign of Elizabeth. Peregrine Falcon? In the Roman Empire visitors came to Rome speaking many different kinds of strange Latin. They were called “Peregrinus” or strangers . In later English, the spelling and pronunciation changed to Pilgrims.
Scrooby (Nottinghamshire, North England) separatists Some of these separatist groups immigrated to Holland. In 1620 one of the separatist congregations sailed for New England on the Mayflower. The ship sailed from Plymouth, England, on September 16, 1620, with 102 passengers, including 32 children. Two people died, two were born. The ship was headed for Virginia, where the colonists had been authorized to settle. As a result of cross-winds and dangerous sand bars, the vessel failed to make good its course, and on November 21 the Mayflower rounded the end of Cape Cod and dropped anchor off the site of present-day Provincetown, Massachusetts. On December 21, an area having been selected, the Pilgrims disembarked from the Mayflower near the head of Cape Cod and founded Plymouth Colony, the first permanent settlement in New England. The Pilgrims were probably more than 500 mi northeast of their intended destination in the Hudson River area of present day New York. The patent for their settlement in the New World, issued by the London Company, was no longer binding, and some among the passengers desired total independence from their shipmates. To prevent this, 41 of the adult male passengers, including John Alden, William Bradford, William Brewster, John Carver, Miles Standish, and Edward Winslow, gathered in the cabin of the Mayflower and formulated and signed the Mayflower Compact; all adult males were required to sign. This compact consolidated the passengers into a “civil body politic,” which had the power to frame and enact laws appropriate to the general good of the planned settlement. All colonists were bound to obey the ordinances so enacted. This compact established rule of the majority, which remained a primary principle of government in Plymouth Colony until its absorption by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.
Governor William Bradford wrote, “They had now no friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh their weather-beaten bodies; no houses or much less towns to repair to. … And for the season, it was winter. … What could they see but a hideous and desolate wilderness? … What could now sustain them but the Spirit of God and his grace?”
201 vs. 40,000-50,000 Both of these colonies united in 1691 to form Massachusetts
Puritans were not opposed to parties. They certainly did not have sexual hang-ups. They were not prudes. It’s true that promiscuity was absent from colonial New England. But for husband and wife, sex was important, and Puritan families were routinely large. A spouse could be punished by the authorities for withholding sex from his or her partner. Puritans were not teetotalers. Scholars estimate the Puritans had a rum-consumption rate that surpasses the alcohol-consumption rate in the twentieth century. They were intense lovers and intense haters. They were intensely reverent. They were alarmed about secularism, though they would have called it infidelity . The Puritans also feared the rising generation would not measure up to the piety of their fathers and mothers. They often talked about loss of faith in their children. Puritans had the yearning to build a Christian civilization, a new world order . Creating this was the adventure of a lifetime. In John Winthrop’s famous speech aboard the Arbella , the Puritans fixed on what I would call “a world-regenerative creed.” They believed, “We are reforming not only Anglicanism and Christendom but the whole world.” Ministers were enormously respected, people for whom the laity literally traveled the ends of the earth. The most famous case would be Anne Hutchinson, who convinced her family to follow her minister, John Cotton, to America. In America, only two “theocracies” have lasted for any length of time: the Puritans in New England, and the Mormons in Utah. The Puritans’ charter was revoked in 1689, so the Puritans could no longer compel assent. They had to tolerate Quakers and Anglicans. This created a real crisis of meaning: How do we survive in a pluralistic world? Today, we take religious toleration for granted. What would terrify us would be the exact opposite—a theocracy, such as we see in the Middle East. They exerted an influence in American culture disproportionate to their numbers. For instance, they gave us a world-regenerative creed, a vision that America is “a city set upon a hill.” That vision infuses American literature, foreign policy—our entire sense of identity. Listen to Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George Bush, or Bill Clinton. They often speak of “destiny” and “providence.” Or civil-rights leaders speak of a dream of equal treatment under the law. All of these people are drawing from Puritan roots, whether they know it or not.
Puritan ABCs: The New England Primer (1683) taught both the alphabet and faith. the letter U , for example, was remembered by Uriah’s beauteous wife Made David seek his Life. The primer was so popular, Benjamin Franklin was printing it nearly a century later.
By 5 or 6 could read and write (private school or home schooling) Latin school for 7 years: Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Latin, Greek, Hebrew (not in seminary) College: 3 years Seminary: 3 years Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry & Astronomy Metaphysics, Ethics, Natural Science, Ancient History, … all taught in Latin 99% literacy, even on the frontier
The plain style is perhaps best known for the simple four-part outline all Puritan preachers used: Text : The preacher would “open up” a text—to explain one by one all the words, ideas, and concepts within a Bible verse (or verses). Doctrine : The preacher then stated in a single statement a “theological Axiom, either consisting in the express words of Scripture, or flowing from them by immediate consequence.” Uses : Next, the doctrine needed to be “established,” or proven to be in harmony with the rest of the Bible, and its general implications explained. The preacher would refute any objections that could be raised and point out the practical “uses” of the doctrine for consolation or correction. Applications : While the “uses” were generally discussed in the third person, the “applications” dropped directly into the second person and allowed the preacher to ask whether the congregation had taken the “doctrine” to heart. The plain sermon’s outline and logical development made memorization easy and encouraged note taking by the people for review at home.
By 1643, only 11% held church membership, excluding many wealthy Jeremiad: lamenting the loss of original fervor and exhorted people to amend their ways Puritan concept of church : all who give proof of regeneration, together with their children. Children are considered saints because they shared the covenant with their parents (sign: infant baptism) Problem : second generation (children) grew to maturity without a conversion. Are they members of the church? What about the children of the unsaved 2 nd generation? Yes : concept of church is altered No : no political privilege Result : Children of 2 nd generation could be church members and be baptized – but could not participate in the Lords Supper or Church elections. Further decline : membership granted to anyone of an ethical life. Solomon Stoddard : allowed unconverted to the Lord’s Table (they might become saved) – Grandfather of Jonathan Edwards Witch Trials : gave Puritanism a “black eye”
One of the most infamous episodes in Puritan history was the Salem Witch Trials of the 1690’s. The view of the day was that the affliction of Samuel Parris’s daughter and several others was caused by colonists who were in league with the devil. Had this been the case, a witch hunt would have been appropriate. Some recent historians have tried to find a sociological root for it. Others have suggested that the problem stemmed from demonic influence exerted through the girls that the accused were actually the innocent.
In February 1692, several young Salem girls, after they were caught practicing magic, claimed they had been afflicted by witches. Their parents begun searching for the witches, and hysteria mounted, especially as pastor Samuel Parris proclaimed, “In this very church, God knows how many Devils there are!” A public witch-hunt soon arrested 150 people; 19 were hanged for witchcraft, and one man was executed for refusing to testify. But witch-hunts did arise in other New England towns—Ambridge in 1659, Hartford in 1662–63, Boston in 1688, and infamously in Salem Village (now Danvers) in 1692. What tensions rose to the surface in 1692 and resulted in this witch-hunt? some tensions originated in the religious expectations of Puritanism. One expectation was that believers fulfill, to the best of their ability, their moral duties. Another was that they examine their motives—in Puritan parlance, their “hearts”—to see whether they had sufficiently repented of sin and trusted entirely in the mercy of Christ. Puritanism intensely and regularly posed this question: Are you sincere? Answering this question often resulted in self-doubt and uncertainty. One woman, Mary Toothaker, “had thoughts she was rather the worse for her baptism and had wished she had not been baptized because she had not improved it as she ought to have done.” Puritans practiced the ritual of confession, and confession became crucial to witch-hunting. To confess was to make visible the hidden sin that lurked in everyone. This was a crucial step, and well accepted, in the process of salvation. When men and women joined the church in early New England, for instance, they were asked to confess their sins. The magistrates and ministers who questioned the accused at Salem asked them to reveal their hidden allegiance to Satan. Because Puritans felt heavily the weight of their sin, and because confession was an integral part of their lives, we should not be surprised that some fifty men and women confessed to having joined with the Devil. The Puritans believed that God had entered into a special relationship with godly people. This relationship obliged them to purge themselves of sins, personal and communal, that inevitably accumulated. The ministers and magistrates in New England believed witch hunting, and the public executions that concluded it, cleansed the community of evil. 19 women and 2 dogs hanged. Puritan dream was that they’d establish “Kingdom of God” in America… a “City on a hill” Children would be saints, and beget children who were saints The dream failed in 100 years they forgot one things: God has no grandchildren. And the monopoly of church membership being required for civic office so angered a Virginian lawyer that he wrote “The Bill of Religious Freedom” Who?: Thomas Jefferson One of 3 things on his tombstone.
New England Colonization
The Settlement of New England
08/09/2009 Lutheranism Episcopal Anabaptist Congregational Mennonites English Separatists English Baptists Anglican Episcopal Church of England Reformation Groups } Reformed Presbyterian Scottish Presbyterian Dutch Reformed Lutheran 1517 Luther - Melanchthon French-Swiss 1532 Calvin - Beza German-Swiss 1519 Zwingli - Bullinger Swiss Brethren 1525 Grebel – Manz - Simonsz English 1536 Henry VIII - Cranmer
Puritanism <ul><li>Calvinism Institutes of the Christian Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predestination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good works could not save those predestined for hell. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one could be certain of their spiritual status. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Puritans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Separatist Beliefs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects, Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England. </li></ul></ul>Separatists
<ul><li>England -> Holland -> England -> America </li></ul><ul><li>1620: Plymouth to Plymouth Rock </li></ul><ul><li>102 passengers </li></ul><ul><li>Mayflower Compact </li></ul><ul><li>Plymouth Colony: 1 st permanent New England settlement </li></ul>08/09/2009 Pilgrims
<ul><li>1620 a group of 102 people [half Separatists] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt. </li></ul></ul>The Mayflower
The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 <ul><li>Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed by 41 adult males. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about 40% of men in the colony ~ higher percentage than in England) </li></ul><ul><li>However, in town government, all property-owning males could vote in town meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct democracy----self government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since idea of government was to enforce God’s laws, religious leaders were very influential </li></ul><ul><li>Clergy were barred from formal political office – early “church/state separation” </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan ideas: “calling” to God’s work, Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell </li></ul>
Covenant Theology <ul><li>“ Covenant of Grace”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between Puritan communities and God. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Social Covenant”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between members of Puritan communities with each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required mutual watchfulness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No toleration of deviance or disorder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No privacy. </li></ul></ul>
William Bradford <ul><li>Leader of the Pilgrim colony at Plymouth </li></ul><ul><li>Self-taught scholar. </li></ul><ul><li>Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections. </li></ul><ul><li>Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society. </li></ul>
That First Year…. <ul><li>Winter of 1620-1621 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 44 out of the original 102 survived. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of 1621 First “Thanksgiving.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1691 only 7,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony. </li></ul></ul>
The MA Bay Colony <ul><li>1629 non-Separatists got a royal charter to form the MA Bay Co. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1630 1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a colony with Boston as its hub. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Great Migration” of the 1630s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all Puritans 20,000 came to MA. </li></ul></ul>
John Winthrop We shall be as a city on a hill.. <ul><li>Well-off attorney and manor lord in England. </li></ul><ul><li>Became 1 st governor of Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years. </li></ul></ul>
Pilgrims vs. Puritans 08/09/2009 Few Many Early (1620) Later (1629-30) Poor class Upper middle class Uneducated Educated Separatists from state church Loyal Settled in Plymouth Salem, Boston Wm. Bradford, Wm. Brewster John Endicott, Miles Standish, John Winthrop
Puritan: Myths vs. Reality 08/09/2009 “ Haunting fear that someone, somewhere may be happy” Books, music, beer, rum, swam, skated, bowled Wore black Blue, violet, green, yellow Narrow minded +100: Oxford & Cambridge “ Dumme Doggs” Established Harvard after 6 years Women sheltered Literate, well read, managed household Song-less A capella , in unison Minority 1776: 75% of Puritan roots
<ul><li>Private Education Reading, Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar School Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic Latin, Greek, Hebrew </li></ul><ul><li>College Arts : Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy Philosophies : Metaphysics, Ethics, Natural Science Also : Greek, Hebrew, Ancient History </li></ul>08/09/2009 Education in Puritan New England
<ul><li>1643: 11% church membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preaching of the “Jeremiad” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1657: Half-Way Covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secularized state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1677: Stoddardeanism: Very open Communion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secularized church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1691: Massachusetts a Royal Colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No religious bans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1692: Salem Witch Trials </li></ul>08/09/2009 Decline of Puritan Theology
<ul><li>Martin Luther </li></ul><ul><li>John Calvin </li></ul><ul><li>William Bradford </li></ul><ul><li>John Winthrop </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of Justification (salvation through faith alone) </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination </li></ul><ul><li>Separatists </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pilgrims” </li></ul>08/09/2009 People and Terms to Know
Characteristics of New England Settlements <ul><li>Low mortality average life expectancy was 70 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Many extended families. </li></ul><ul><li>Average 6 children per family. </li></ul><ul><li>Average age at marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women – 22 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men – 27 years old. </li></ul></ul>
Patriarchy <ul><li>Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs. </li></ul>
Puritan “Rebels” <ul><li>Young, popular minister in Salem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemned MA Bay Charter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not give fair compensation to Indians. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1635 found guilty of preaching newe & dangerous opinions and was exiled. </li></ul>Roger Williams
<ul><li>1636 Roger Williams fled there. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal manhood suffrage later restricted by a property qualification. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed to special privilege of any kind freedom of opportunity for all. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters More liberal than any other colony! </li></ul>Rhode Island
<ul><li>Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened patriarchal control. </li></ul><ul><li>Antinomialism [direct revelation] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means “against the law.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried to logical extremes Puritan doctrine of predestination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy life was no sure sign of salvation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law of either God or man. </li></ul></ul>Puritan “Rebels” Anne Hutchinson
<ul><li>1638 she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct revelation was even more serious than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY?? </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan leaders banished her she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this! </li></ul></ul>Anne Hutchinson’s Trial
<ul><li>Indians especially weak in New England epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul. </li></ul><ul><li>Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1621 Chief Massasoit signed treaty with the settlers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autumn, 1621 both groups celebrated the First Thanksgiving. </li></ul></ul>Puritans vs. Native Americans
The Pequot Wars: 1636-1637 <ul><li>Pequots very powerful tribe in CT river valley. </li></ul><ul><li>1637 Pequot War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites, with Narragansett Indian allies, attacked Pequot village on Mystic River. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Only hope for Native Americans to resist white settlers was to UNITE. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacom [King Philip to white settlers] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massasoit’s son united Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston. </li></ul></ul>King Philip’s War (1675-1676}
<ul><li>The war ended in failure for the Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His son and wife sold into slavery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never a serious threat in New England again!! </li></ul></ul>King Philip’s War (1675-1676}