15928354.ppt

Thailand Appreciative Inquiry Network
Thailand Appreciative Inquiry NetworkLecturer at Khon Kaen University, Thailand em Thailand Appreciative Inquiry Network
LANGUAGE LEARNING WITH
TECHNOLOGY
Lecture: Week 4
TABLE OF CONTENT
• History of Technology and Language
Learning
• Behaviourist Approach
• AudioLingual Approach
• Cognitive Approach
• Sociocognitive Approach
• Constructivist Learning
• Natural Approach
• Task Based Approach
TABLE OF CONTENT
• Current Technologies with Language
Learning
• Communicative CALL
• Benefits from Learning Writing with
Technologies
• Computer Assisted Language Learning
Benefits
• Criticisms of Technologies in Language
Education
• Open Courseware
HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LANGUAGE
LEARNING
• Phonograph, Audio Tape, Telephone
• Radio, Television
• Language Laboratories
• Teaching Machine
• Overhead projector
• Computer Software
• Multimedia Software
• Internet Web Era
BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH
• Based on behaviourist theory with the principles of
operant conditioning, i.e. a learning that involved
rewards and punishments.
• Skinner built a rote and drill teaching machine in
1958, which presented programmed instruction
and provided feedbacks to students with correct
answers. (Clark, D. 1999)
• Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
• PLATO
• BYKI
http://www.byki.com/lists/Japanese/Meeting-and-
Greeting-1.html
Clark, D. (1999) A Time Capsule of Training and Learning
AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH
• ‘Audiolingual Method’ focuses on phonological and
accurate speech.
• Grammatical accuracy is less emphasized with this
method. (p.116-117)
• This method has its roots in behaviourism. The
procedure emphasizes language habit forming with
imitation and repetition.
• Students’ pronunciation and fluency is achieved by
listening to dialogue repeatedly and memorization
is encouraged.
Cerezal Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching
Methods:Some Issues and New Moves. Universided de Alcalá
COGNITIVE APPROACH
• The cognitive approach to communicative language
teaching is based on the view that learning a
language is an unique psycholinguistic process.
• Text-reconstruction Software
• NewReader, Text Tanglers
• Concordancing Software
• AntConc
• Multimedia Simulation Software
• Philippe
Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second
Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed)
Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
SOCIO-COGNITIVE APPROACH
• Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
• Zone of Proximal Development
• Computer-Mediated Communication
• Synchronous tools: Daedalus Interchange writing
programs, synchronous chatting (ICQ, MSN)
• Asynchronous tools: E-mail, conferencing
systems, ListServs, Newsgroups
• Computer-Assisted Discussions
• Blackboard
• WebCT
Vygotsky, L. 1978 Mind in society: The development of higher
psychological processes. (Chapter 6: Interaction between
learning and development, pp. 79-91). Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING
The term refers to the idea that learners construct
knowledge for themselves (Each learner individually
(and socially) constructs meaning as he or she learns).
Examples:
Computer Mediated Distance Education (CMDE)
• English for All
http://www.myefa.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=welc
ome
• Learner Web
http://www.screencast.com/users/mlm504/folders
/Jing/media/789b0a62-ccdd-472f-bffd-
477101e1a815
CECA. (1991) Constructivist Learning Theory. The Museum and
the Needs of People. CECA Conference. Oct 1991. Jerusalem.
Israel.
NATURAL APPROACH
Based on language acquisition refers to the
subconscious absorption of general principles of
grammar through real experience of communication
using L2. Example:
• Rosetta Stone
• http://www.rosettastone.com/personal/demo
Terrel, D. (1977) A Natural Approach to Second
LanguageAcquisition and LearningTracy. The Modern Language
Journal. Vol. 61. No. 7, 1977. pp. 325-337
TASK BASED APPROACH
The task-based model, emphasizes the organization
of tasks to facilitate the learners’ participation in
tasks which focus on rules and conventions of the
language system, communication, problem solving
activities, and situational tasks. Example:
• Webquest
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4rel5qOPvU
http://tarek169.tripod.com/yt/
Cerezal-Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods:
Some Issues and New Moves.Universided de Alcalá, 1995
CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES
• Blogs
• Podcasts
• Wikis
http://innovations.oise.utoronto.ca/edtech/index.p
hp/Home
• Internet Games
http://languageplaytown.languageplayhouse.com/s
ervice/displayHomePageExperience.kickAction?pag
e=Homepage&as=32486
• Facebook, YouTube
• Virtual World
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1IRkqbUoXY
COMMUNICATIVE CALL
Computer Assisted Language Learning technologies should base on
13 communicative language acquisition principles below:
• Promote acquisition practice
• Develop implicit grammar rules
• Encourage original language utterances
• Avoid judging and evaluation of structural accuracy
• Provide hints instead of pointing out errors
• No rewards for success
• No cute patronizing comments
• Use target language exclusively
• Be flexible
• Allow students to explore the subject matter
• Create a natural language learning environment
• Don’t function as a book
• Fun
Underwood, J. H. (1984). Linguistics, computers, and the language
teacher : A communicative approach. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury
House Publishers.
LEARNING WRITING WITH
TECHNOLOGIES
• provide motivation for students to write
• enhance students’ sense of audience
• teach students the importance of revision
• reduce stress in writing in target language, and
cultivate positive attitudes towards writing.
CHOI, J. (2008)The Role of Online Collaboration in Promoting ESL
Writing. English Language Teaching. Vol. 1. No. 1. June 2008.
Canada Centre of Science and Education.
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/viewFile/
508/490.
BENEFITS OF CALL
• More democratic
• Encourages equal participation
• More fully collaborative language learning
• Encourage student to notice and build on
other students’ ideas
• More planning time
Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second
Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed)
Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (p.8-9)
OTHER BENEFITS
• Language laboratories audio and later multimedia
lessons provide drills on oral and visual aspects of
language communication and vocabulary learning.
(Salaberry, R. 2000. p.44, 46)
• CAI (Computer Assisted Instructions) can provide
assessment, monitoring, recording, analysis of student
language performance (p.44)
• Electronic dictionaries could provide a full range of
synonyms, grammatical and stylistic information
efficiently. (p.45)
• Speech generating capabilities of computer makes
electronic language tutoring possible (p.46)
Salaberry, M. (2001) The Use of Technology for Second
Language Learning and Teaching: A Retrospective. The
Modern Langauage Journal, 85, I, 2001.
CRITICISMS ON CALL
Randall Davis argues that one of the issues with using
technology in language teaching is that language education is
being taken over by software developers, hardware vendors
and technicians.
• High Cost of Computer Programs
• Dragon Naturally Speaking
• Lack of Technical Support
• Negative Attitudes from teachers
Davis, R. (2006) Utopia or Chaos? The Impact of Technology on Language
Teaching. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XII. No.11. Nov 2006.
OPEN COURSEWARE
• 2001 MIT initiated the idea of “Open Courseware”
• University course material include: syllabi, lecture, notes,
assignments and exams.
• Open source model: free for download and modify
• 2006, 90 universities around the world participated.
• 2008, 6200 courses were developed.
• Language courses: English, German, French, Chinese, Japanese,
Spanish are offered.
• Many linguistics and language studies courses are also offered
REFERENCES
• Cerezal Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods:Some Issues and New Moves.
Universided de Alcalá
• CHOI, J. (2008)The Role of Online Collaboration in Promoting ESL Writing. English Language
Teaching. Vol. 1. No. 1. June 2008. Canada Centre of Science and Education.
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/viewFile/508/490.
• Clark, D. (1999) A Time Capsule of Training and Learning
• Davis, R. (2006) Utopia or Chaos? The Impact of Technology on Language Teaching. The
Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XII. No.11. Nov 2006.
• Salaberry, R. (1996) A Theoretical Foundation for the Development of Pedagogical Tasks in
Computer Mediated Communication. In Hubbard, P. (ed.) Computer Assisted Language
Learning. 2009. Vol. 3. p.39-67. CALICO Journal 14(1) (1996) p.5-34.
• Salaberry, M. (2001) The Use of Technology for Second Language Learning and Teaching: A
Retrospective. The Modern Langauage Journal, 85, I, 2001.
• Vygotsky, L. 1978 Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.
(Chapter 6: Interaction between learning and development, pp. 79-91). Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
• Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and
Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
ONLINE RESOURCES
• BIKI http://www.byki.com/lists/Japanese/Meeting-and-Greeting-1.html
• Mango http://www.mangolanguages.com/lesson/view/9
• English for All http://www.myefa.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=welcome
• Learner Web
http://www.screencast.com/users/mlm504/folders/Jing/media/789b0a
62-ccdd-472f-bffd-477101e1a815
• Rosestta Stone
http://www.rosettastone.com/personal/demo
• Webquest
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4rel5qOPvU
http://tarek169.tripod.com/yt/
• Wiki
http://innovations.oise.utoronto.ca/edtech/index.php/Home
• Internet Games
http://languageplaytown.languageplayhouse.com/service/displayHome
PageExperience.kickAction?page=Homepage&as=32486
• Virtual World
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1IRkqbUoXY
ONLINE RESOURCES
LEARNING ACTIIVITIES
Kern & Warschauer (2000) stated that with the
expansion of internet worldwide and in education that
computers and networks are linked to each other,
programmed applications has been used widely.
LEARNING ACTIVITIES
1. Lexical quizzes, games and other vocabulary learning specific activities
(e.g. lexical maps, concordances use, class dictionary building).
2. Grammar tutorials, exercises, simulations and games.
3. Listening and pronunciation virtual lab activities
4. Reading and writing web tasks: treasure hunts, WebQuests,
5. Multimedia web tasks: scrapbooking, samplers, podcasting, tasks with
authentic multimedia materials from social sites, ...
6. Computer Mediated Communication activities (email exchange,
collaboration projects, CoP)
7. Use of blogs and wikis for individual or group language learning e-
portfolios. (Arslan, 2008; p. 17)
FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF
TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A
TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Technology-enhanced language learning (TELL)
Despite the variety in the transformation of TELL, some distinct trends of TELL
have been identified. For example, contextual learning of language in certain
socialcultural contexts constitutes an essential stream of TELL.
From. TELL.
to
Future TELL Model (FTM)
FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF
TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A
TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
The FTM will elucidate the development and future trends of each dimension.
For example, in the case of learning objectives, recent TELL studies mainly
comprise three aspects, which are:
(1) language
(2) knowledge acquisition;
(3) (2) integrated use of language; and (3) social-cultural context learning.
FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF
TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A
TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
The FTM will elucidate the development and future trends of each dimension.
For example, in the case of learning objectives, recent TELL studies mainly
comprise three aspects, which are:
(1) language
(2) knowledge acquisition;
(3) (2) integrated use of language; and (3) social-cultural context learning.
FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF
TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A
TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
A gap exists between the development of technologies and education
technology applications.
To bridge this gap, it is critical to investigate recent advancements in
technologies and determine which cutting-edge research findings can be most
advantageously applied to TELL.
FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF
TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A
TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Collaborative learning in TELL
Collaborative learning in TELL refers to the use of technology to support
collaboration between students and teachers in language learning activities.
Flipped learning in TELL
The flipped mode has been popular in TELL due to its high dependence on
technologies.
Game-based learning in TELL
To better motivate English language learners and facilitate their language
learning, an increasing number of games have been developed for language
enhancement.
Mobile learning in TELL
With the development of mobile devices and wireless technology, mobile-
assisted language learning (MALL) has been increasingly utilized by English
language learners and educators.
FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF
TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A
TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
The future TELL model In this section, we introduce the Future TELL Model
(FTM.Specifically, the FTM contains three dimensions
1. Learning objectives
FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF
TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A
TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1247632.pdf
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  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENT • History of Technology and Language Learning • Behaviourist Approach • AudioLingual Approach • Cognitive Approach • Sociocognitive Approach • Constructivist Learning • Natural Approach • Task Based Approach
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENT • Current Technologies with Language Learning • Communicative CALL • Benefits from Learning Writing with Technologies • Computer Assisted Language Learning Benefits • Criticisms of Technologies in Language Education • Open Courseware
  • 4. HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING • Phonograph, Audio Tape, Telephone • Radio, Television • Language Laboratories • Teaching Machine • Overhead projector • Computer Software • Multimedia Software • Internet Web Era
  • 5. BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH • Based on behaviourist theory with the principles of operant conditioning, i.e. a learning that involved rewards and punishments. • Skinner built a rote and drill teaching machine in 1958, which presented programmed instruction and provided feedbacks to students with correct answers. (Clark, D. 1999) • Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) • PLATO • BYKI http://www.byki.com/lists/Japanese/Meeting-and- Greeting-1.html Clark, D. (1999) A Time Capsule of Training and Learning
  • 6. AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH • ‘Audiolingual Method’ focuses on phonological and accurate speech. • Grammatical accuracy is less emphasized with this method. (p.116-117) • This method has its roots in behaviourism. The procedure emphasizes language habit forming with imitation and repetition. • Students’ pronunciation and fluency is achieved by listening to dialogue repeatedly and memorization is encouraged. Cerezal Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods:Some Issues and New Moves. Universided de Alcalá
  • 7. COGNITIVE APPROACH • The cognitive approach to communicative language teaching is based on the view that learning a language is an unique psycholinguistic process. • Text-reconstruction Software • NewReader, Text Tanglers • Concordancing Software • AntConc • Multimedia Simulation Software • Philippe Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • 8. SOCIO-COGNITIVE APPROACH • Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory • Zone of Proximal Development • Computer-Mediated Communication • Synchronous tools: Daedalus Interchange writing programs, synchronous chatting (ICQ, MSN) • Asynchronous tools: E-mail, conferencing systems, ListServs, Newsgroups • Computer-Assisted Discussions • Blackboard • WebCT Vygotsky, L. 1978 Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (Chapter 6: Interaction between learning and development, pp. 79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 9. CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING The term refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves (Each learner individually (and socially) constructs meaning as he or she learns). Examples: Computer Mediated Distance Education (CMDE) • English for All http://www.myefa.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=welc ome • Learner Web http://www.screencast.com/users/mlm504/folders /Jing/media/789b0a62-ccdd-472f-bffd- 477101e1a815 CECA. (1991) Constructivist Learning Theory. The Museum and the Needs of People. CECA Conference. Oct 1991. Jerusalem. Israel.
  • 10. NATURAL APPROACH Based on language acquisition refers to the subconscious absorption of general principles of grammar through real experience of communication using L2. Example: • Rosetta Stone • http://www.rosettastone.com/personal/demo Terrel, D. (1977) A Natural Approach to Second LanguageAcquisition and LearningTracy. The Modern Language Journal. Vol. 61. No. 7, 1977. pp. 325-337
  • 11. TASK BASED APPROACH The task-based model, emphasizes the organization of tasks to facilitate the learners’ participation in tasks which focus on rules and conventions of the language system, communication, problem solving activities, and situational tasks. Example: • Webquest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4rel5qOPvU http://tarek169.tripod.com/yt/ Cerezal-Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods: Some Issues and New Moves.Universided de Alcalá, 1995
  • 12. CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES • Blogs • Podcasts • Wikis http://innovations.oise.utoronto.ca/edtech/index.p hp/Home • Internet Games http://languageplaytown.languageplayhouse.com/s ervice/displayHomePageExperience.kickAction?pag e=Homepage&as=32486 • Facebook, YouTube • Virtual World http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1IRkqbUoXY
  • 13. COMMUNICATIVE CALL Computer Assisted Language Learning technologies should base on 13 communicative language acquisition principles below: • Promote acquisition practice • Develop implicit grammar rules • Encourage original language utterances • Avoid judging and evaluation of structural accuracy • Provide hints instead of pointing out errors • No rewards for success • No cute patronizing comments • Use target language exclusively • Be flexible • Allow students to explore the subject matter • Create a natural language learning environment • Don’t function as a book • Fun Underwood, J. H. (1984). Linguistics, computers, and the language teacher : A communicative approach. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers.
  • 14. LEARNING WRITING WITH TECHNOLOGIES • provide motivation for students to write • enhance students’ sense of audience • teach students the importance of revision • reduce stress in writing in target language, and cultivate positive attitudes towards writing. CHOI, J. (2008)The Role of Online Collaboration in Promoting ESL Writing. English Language Teaching. Vol. 1. No. 1. June 2008. Canada Centre of Science and Education. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/viewFile/ 508/490.
  • 15. BENEFITS OF CALL • More democratic • Encourages equal participation • More fully collaborative language learning • Encourage student to notice and build on other students’ ideas • More planning time Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (p.8-9)
  • 16. OTHER BENEFITS • Language laboratories audio and later multimedia lessons provide drills on oral and visual aspects of language communication and vocabulary learning. (Salaberry, R. 2000. p.44, 46) • CAI (Computer Assisted Instructions) can provide assessment, monitoring, recording, analysis of student language performance (p.44) • Electronic dictionaries could provide a full range of synonyms, grammatical and stylistic information efficiently. (p.45) • Speech generating capabilities of computer makes electronic language tutoring possible (p.46) Salaberry, M. (2001) The Use of Technology for Second Language Learning and Teaching: A Retrospective. The Modern Langauage Journal, 85, I, 2001.
  • 17. CRITICISMS ON CALL Randall Davis argues that one of the issues with using technology in language teaching is that language education is being taken over by software developers, hardware vendors and technicians. • High Cost of Computer Programs • Dragon Naturally Speaking • Lack of Technical Support • Negative Attitudes from teachers Davis, R. (2006) Utopia or Chaos? The Impact of Technology on Language Teaching. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XII. No.11. Nov 2006.
  • 18. OPEN COURSEWARE • 2001 MIT initiated the idea of “Open Courseware” • University course material include: syllabi, lecture, notes, assignments and exams. • Open source model: free for download and modify • 2006, 90 universities around the world participated. • 2008, 6200 courses were developed. • Language courses: English, German, French, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish are offered. • Many linguistics and language studies courses are also offered
  • 19. REFERENCES • Cerezal Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods:Some Issues and New Moves. Universided de Alcalá • CHOI, J. (2008)The Role of Online Collaboration in Promoting ESL Writing. English Language Teaching. Vol. 1. No. 1. June 2008. Canada Centre of Science and Education. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/viewFile/508/490. • Clark, D. (1999) A Time Capsule of Training and Learning • Davis, R. (2006) Utopia or Chaos? The Impact of Technology on Language Teaching. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XII. No.11. Nov 2006. • Salaberry, R. (1996) A Theoretical Foundation for the Development of Pedagogical Tasks in Computer Mediated Communication. In Hubbard, P. (ed.) Computer Assisted Language Learning. 2009. Vol. 3. p.39-67. CALICO Journal 14(1) (1996) p.5-34. • Salaberry, M. (2001) The Use of Technology for Second Language Learning and Teaching: A Retrospective. The Modern Langauage Journal, 85, I, 2001. • Vygotsky, L. 1978 Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (Chapter 6: Interaction between learning and development, pp. 79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. • Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • 20. ONLINE RESOURCES • BIKI http://www.byki.com/lists/Japanese/Meeting-and-Greeting-1.html • Mango http://www.mangolanguages.com/lesson/view/9 • English for All http://www.myefa.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=welcome • Learner Web http://www.screencast.com/users/mlm504/folders/Jing/media/789b0a 62-ccdd-472f-bffd-477101e1a815 • Rosestta Stone http://www.rosettastone.com/personal/demo • Webquest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4rel5qOPvU http://tarek169.tripod.com/yt/ • Wiki http://innovations.oise.utoronto.ca/edtech/index.php/Home • Internet Games http://languageplaytown.languageplayhouse.com/service/displayHome PageExperience.kickAction?page=Homepage&as=32486 • Virtual World http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1IRkqbUoXY
  • 22. LEARNING ACTIIVITIES Kern & Warschauer (2000) stated that with the expansion of internet worldwide and in education that computers and networks are linked to each other, programmed applications has been used widely.
  • 23. LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1. Lexical quizzes, games and other vocabulary learning specific activities (e.g. lexical maps, concordances use, class dictionary building). 2. Grammar tutorials, exercises, simulations and games. 3. Listening and pronunciation virtual lab activities 4. Reading and writing web tasks: treasure hunts, WebQuests, 5. Multimedia web tasks: scrapbooking, samplers, podcasting, tasks with authentic multimedia materials from social sites, ... 6. Computer Mediated Communication activities (email exchange, collaboration projects, CoP) 7. Use of blogs and wikis for individual or group language learning e- portfolios. (Arslan, 2008; p. 17)
  • 24. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) Despite the variety in the transformation of TELL, some distinct trends of TELL have been identified. For example, contextual learning of language in certain socialcultural contexts constitutes an essential stream of TELL. From. TELL. to Future TELL Model (FTM)
  • 25. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The FTM will elucidate the development and future trends of each dimension. For example, in the case of learning objectives, recent TELL studies mainly comprise three aspects, which are: (1) language (2) knowledge acquisition; (3) (2) integrated use of language; and (3) social-cultural context learning.
  • 26. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The FTM will elucidate the development and future trends of each dimension. For example, in the case of learning objectives, recent TELL studies mainly comprise three aspects, which are: (1) language (2) knowledge acquisition; (3) (2) integrated use of language; and (3) social-cultural context learning.
  • 27. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE A gap exists between the development of technologies and education technology applications. To bridge this gap, it is critical to investigate recent advancements in technologies and determine which cutting-edge research findings can be most advantageously applied to TELL.
  • 28. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Collaborative learning in TELL Collaborative learning in TELL refers to the use of technology to support collaboration between students and teachers in language learning activities. Flipped learning in TELL The flipped mode has been popular in TELL due to its high dependence on technologies. Game-based learning in TELL To better motivate English language learners and facilitate their language learning, an increasing number of games have been developed for language enhancement. Mobile learning in TELL With the development of mobile devices and wireless technology, mobile- assisted language learning (MALL) has been increasingly utilized by English language learners and educators.
  • 29. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The future TELL model In this section, we introduce the Future TELL Model (FTM.Specifically, the FTM contains three dimensions 1. Learning objectives
  • 30. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH ISSUES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING: A TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1247632.pdf