Mais conteúdo relacionado

Apresentações para você(20)


Qualitative research

  1. Qualitative Research Fufa Hunduma (MD, MPH) Assistant Professor of FE
  2. Definition of Qualitative Research • Qualitative research is an interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and sometimes counterdisciplinary field. It crosses the humanities and the social and physical sciences. Qualitative research is many things at the same time. It is multiparadigmatic in focus. Its practitioners are sensitive to the value of the multimethod approach. They are committed to the naturalistic perspective, and to the interpretative understanding of human experience. At the same time, the field is inherently political and shaped by multiple ethical and political positions. • Nelson et al’s (1992, p4)
  3. Definition Cntd.. • ‘Qualitative Research…involves finding out what people think, and how they feel - or at any rate, what they say they think and how they say they feel. This kind of information is subjective. It involves feelings and impressions, rather than numbers’ • Bellenger, Bernhardt and Goldstucker, Qualitative Research in Marketing, American Marketing Association
  4. Contd. • Qualitative research is multimethod in focus, involving an interpretative, naturalistic approach to its subject matter. • Qualitative Researchers study “things” (people and their thoughts) in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.
  5. Contd.. • Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials - case study, personal experience, introspective, life story, interview, observational, historical, interactional, and visual texts-that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in individuals lives. • Deploy a wide range of interconnected methods, hoping always to get a better fix on the subject matter at hand.
  6. Positivist Paradigm • Emphasises that human reason is supreme and that there is a single objective truth that can be discovered by science • Encourages us to stress the function of objects, celebrate technology and to regard the world as a rational, ordered place with a clearly defined past, present and future
  7. Non-Positivist Paradigm • Questions the assumptions of the positivist paradigm • Argues that our society places too much emphasis on science and technology • Argues that this ordered, rational view of consumers denies the complexity of the social and cultural world we live in • Stresses the importance of symbolic, subjective experience
  8. Qualitative v's Quantitative Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Type of questions Probing Limited probing Sample Size small large Info. Per respondent much varies Admin Requires skilled researcher Fewer specialist skills required Type of Analysis Subjective, interpretative Statistical Type of research Exploratory Descriptive or causal
  9. Advantages of qualitative research Qualitative research often tries to preserve the voice and perspective of participants and can be adjusted as new research questions arise. Qualitative research is good for: • Flexibility- The data collection and analysis process can be adapted as new ideas or patterns emerge. They are not rigidly decided beforehand. • Natural settings- Data collection occurs in real-world contexts or in naturalistic ways. • Meaningful insights- Detailed descriptions of people’s experiences, feelings and perceptions can be used in designing, testing or improving systems or products.
  10. Popularity of Qualitative Research • Generation of new ideas- Open-ended responses mean that researchers can uncover novel problems or opportunities that they wouldn’t have thought of otherwise. • Usually much cheaper than quantitative research • No better way than qualitative research to understand in-depth the motivations and feelings of consumers • Qualitative research can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of quantitative research
  11. Disadvantages of qualitative research Researchers must consider practical and theoretical limitations in analyzing and interpreting their data. Qualitative research suffers from: • Unreliability -The real-world setting often makes qualitative research unreliable because of uncontrolled factors that affect the data. • Subjectivity - Due to the researcher’s primary role in analyzing and interpreting data, qualitative research cannot be replicated. The researcher decides what is important and what is irrelevant in data analysis, so interpretations of the same data can vary greatly.
  12. Contd.. • Labor-intensive- Although software can be used to manage and record large amounts of text, data analysis often has to be checked or performed manually. • Not representative of the population that is of interest to the researcher • Limited generalizability- Small samples are often used to gather detailed data about specific contexts. Despite rigorous analysis procedures, it is difficult to draw generalizable conclusions because the data may be biased and unrepresentative of the wider population. • The multitude of individuals who, without formal training, profess to be experts in the field
  13. Qualitative Data Collection Techniques • In depth Interviewing • Focus Groups • Participant Observations • Ethnographic Studies • Projective Techniques
  14. Qualitative research methods • Each of the research approaches involve using one or more data collection methods. • These are some of the most common qualitative methods: • Observations: recording what you have seen, heard, or encountered in detailed field notes. • Interviews: personally asking people questions in one-on-one conversations. • Focus groups: asking questions and generating discussion among a group of people. • Surveys: distributing questionnaires with open-ended questions. • Secondary research: collecting existing data in the form of texts, images, audio or video recordings, etc.
  15. Methods of Qualitative Research • Phenomenological Method • Ethnographic Model • Grounded Theory Method • Case Study Model • Historical Model • Narrative Model
  16. Approaches to qualitative research • Qualitative research is used to understand how people experience the world. • While there are many approaches to qualitative research, they tend to be flexible and focus on retaining rich meaning when interpreting data. • Common approaches include • grounded theory, • ethnography, • action research, • phenomenological research, • narrative research. • Case Study Model. They share some similarities, but emphasize different aims and
  17. Contd.. Methodology Approaches What does it involve? Grounded theory Researchers collect rich data on a topic of interest and develop theories inductively. Ethnography Researchers immerse themselves in groups or organizations to understand their cultures. Action research Researchers and participants collaboratively link theory to practice to drive social change. Phenomenological research Researchers investigate a phenomenon or event by describing and interpreting participants’ lived experiences. Narrative research Researchers examine how stories are told to understand how participants perceive and make sense of their experiences.
  18. Frequently asked questions about qualitative research 1. What’s the difference between quantitative and qualitative methods? • Answer: Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings. • Quantitative methods allow you to test a hypothesis by systematically collecting and analyzing data, while qualitative methods allow you to explore ideas and experiences in depth. 2. What are the main qualitative research approaches? 3. What is data collection? 4. How do you analyze qualitative research?
  19. Qualitative Research Analysis
  20. Approach of Qualitative analysis When to use Example Content analysis To describe and categorize common words, phrases, and ideas in qualitative data. A market researcher could perform content analysis to find out what kind of language is used in descriptions of therapeutic apps. Thematic analysis To identify and interpret patterns and themes in qualitative data. A psychologist could apply thematic analysis to travel blogs to explore how tourism shapes self-identity. Textual analysis To examine the content, structure, and design of texts. A media researcher could use textual analysis to understand how news coverage of celebrities has changed in the past decade. Discourse analysis To study communication and how language is used to achieve effects in specific A political scientist could use discourse analysis to study how politicians generate trust in election campaigns.
  21. 21  is the analysis of qualitative data such as text data from interview transcripts.  Unlike quantitative analysis, which is statistics driven and largely independent of the researcher, qualitative analysis is heavily dependent on the researcher’s analytic and integrative skills and personal knowledge of the social context where the data is collected.  A creative and investigative mindset is needed for qualitative analysis, based on a ethically enlightened and participant-in-context attitude, and a set of analytic strategies. Qualitative Analysis
  22. Qualitative data analysis • Qualitative data can take the form of texts, photos, videos and audio. For example, you might be working with interview transcripts, survey responses, fieldnotes, or recordings from natural settings. Most types of qualitative data analysis share the same five steps: 1.Prepare and organize your data. This may mean transcribing interviews or typing up fieldnotes. 2.Review and explore your data. Examine the data for patterns or repeated ideas that emerge. 3.Develop a data coding system. Based on your initial ideas, establish a set of codes that you can apply to categorize your data.
  23. Contd.. 4. Assign codes to the data. • For example, in qualitative survey analysis, this may mean going through each participant’s responses and tagging them with codes in a spreadsheet. • As you go through your data, you can create new codes to add to your system if necessary. 5. Identify recurring themes. Link codes together into cohesive, overarching themes. • There are several specific approaches to analyzing qualitative data. Although these methods share similar processes, they emphasize different concepts.
  24. 24 Coding Techniques • How can you analyze a vast set of qualitative data acquired through participant observation, in-depth interviews, narratives of audio/video recordings, or secondary documents? • One of the key techniques used for analyzing text data is coding – a process of classifying and categorizing text data segments into concepts or “codes,” which can then be used to uncover patterns in the data. • Coding is widely used in grounded theory research, but can also be used in other qualitative methods that involve interpretation of text data.
  25. 25 Content Analysis  Content Analysis is a technique for gathering and analyzing the content of a text.  The content refers to words, meanings, pictures, symbols, ideas, themes, or any message that can be communicated.  The text is anything written, visual, or spoken that serves as a medium of communication.  Possible artifacts for study could be books, newspaper or magazine articles, advertisements, poems, letters, laws, constitutions, dramas, speeches, official documents, films or videotapes, musical lyrics, photographs, articles of clothing, or works of arts.  All these works may be called as documents.
  26. 26 The documents can be: Personal – letters, diary, autobiography. Non-personal – interoffice memos, official documents, proceedings of a meeting. Mass media – newspapers, magazines, fiction, films, songs, poems, works of arts.
  27. contd.. 27  In content analysis, the researcher uses objective and systematic counting and recording procedures to produce a quantitative description of the symbolic content in a text.  It may also be called “textual coding.”  There are qualitative versions of content analysis.  The emphasis here is quantitative data about a text’s content.
  28. 28 Measurement and Coding  Careful measurement is crucial in Content Analysis because a researcher takes different and murky symbolic communication and turns it into precise, objective, quantitative data.  He or she carefully designs and documents the procedures for coding to make replication possible.  For Example,  A researcher wants to determine how frequently television dramas portray elderly characters in terms of negative stereotypes
  29. 29 Observations can be structured • Measurement in content analysis uses structured observation i.e. systematic, careful observation based on written rules.
  30. 30 Frequency Frequency simply means counting whether or not something occurs and how often (how many times). For Example,  how many elderly people appear on a television program within a given week?  What percentage of all characteristics are they, or in what percentage of programs do they appear
  31. 31 Direction  Direction is noting the direction of messages in the content along some continuum (e.g., positive or negative, supporting or opposed). For Example  The researcher devises a list of ways an elderly television character can act.  Some are positive (e.G., Friendly, wise, considerate) and some are negative (e.G., Nasty, dull, selfish).
  32. 32 Intensity Intensity is the strength or power of a message in a direction. For Example,  The characteristic of forgetfulness can be:  Minor (e.g. Not remembering to take the keys when leaving home, taking time to recall the name of someone whom you have not seen in years) or  Major (e.g., Not remembering your name, not recognizing your children.
  33. 33 Space  A researcher can record the size of the text message or the amount of space or volume allocated to it.  Space in written text is measured by counting words, sentences, paragraphs, or space on a page (e.g. square inches) for video or audio text, space can be measured by the amount of time allocated.
  34. 34 Manifest Coding  Coding the visible, surface content in a text is called manifest coding. For Example,  A researcher counts the number of times a phrase or word (e.g. Red) appears in the written text, or whether a specific action (e.g. Shaking hands) appears in a photograph or video scene.
  35. 35 Latent Coding  A researcher using latent coding (also called semantic analysis) looks for the underlying meaning in the content of a text. For Example,  the researcher reads the entire paragraph and decides whether it contains vulgar themes or a romantic mood.
  36. 36 Question Formulation:  As in most research, content analysis researchers begin with a research question.  When the question involves variables that are messages or symbols, content analysis may be appropriate. For Example,  How women are portrayed in advertisements?  The construct here is the portrayal of women which may be measured by looking at the activities they are shown to be doing, the occupations in which they are employed, the way decision making is taking place, etc. How to Conduct Content Analysis Research
  37. 37 i) Unit of Analysis:  A researcher decides on the unit of analysis (i.e. the amount of text that is assigned a code).  In the previous example each advertisement may be a unit of analysis.
  38. 38 ii) Sampling  Researchers often use random sampling in content analysis.  First, they define the population and the sampling element For Example,  The population might be all words, all sentences, all paragraphs, or all articles in certain type of documents over a period of specified duration.  Likewise, it could include each conversation, situation, scene, or episode of a certain type of television program over a specified time period.
  39. 39 iii) Inferences  The inference a researcher can or cannot make on the basis of results is critical in content analysis.  Content analysis describes what is in the text.  It cannot reveal the intentions of those who created the text or the effects that messages in the text have on those who receive them.
  40. 40 Use of Secondary Data I) Existing Statistics/Documents  Prior to the discussion of secondary data, let us look at the advantages and disadvantages of the use of content analysis that was covered in the previous slides.  In a way content analysis is also the study of documents through which the writers try to communicate, though some of the documents (like population census) may simply contain figures.
  41. 41 II. Advantages of Content Analysis 1) Access to inaccessible subjects:  One of the basic advantages of content analysis is that it allows research on subjects to which the researcher does not have physical access.  These could be people of old civilizations, say their marriage patterns.  These could also be the documents from the archives, speeches of the past leaders ( Quaid-e- Azam) who are not alive, the suicide notes, old films, dramas, poems, etc.
  42. 42 2.) Non-Reactivity:  Document study shares with certain types of observations (e.g., indirect observation or non- participant observation through one- way mirror) the advantage of little or no reactivity, particularly when the document was written for some other purpose.  This is unobtrusive.  Even the creator of that document, and for that matter the characters in the document, is not in contact with the researcher, who may not be alive.
  43. 43 3) Can Do Longitudinal Analysis  Like observation and unlike experiments and survey, document study is especially well suited to study over a long period of time.  Many times the objective of the research could be to determine a trend.  One could pick up different periods in past and try to make comparisons and figure out the changes (in the status of women) that may have occurred over time.
  44. 44 4) Use Sampling  The researcher Can Use Random Sampling.  One could decide on the population, develop sampling frame and draw simple random sample by following the appropriate procedure.  For Example, how women are portrayed in weekly English news magazines.
  45. 45 5) Can Use Large Sample Size Larger the sample closer the results to the population. In experimentation as well as in survey research there could be limitations due to the availability of the subjects or of the resources but in document analysis the researcher could increase the sample and can have more confidence in generalization.
  46. 46 6) Spontaneity  The spontaneous actions or feelings can be recorded when they occurred rather than at a time specified by the researcher.  If the respondent was keeping a diary, he or she may have been recording spontaneous feelings about a subject whenever he or she was inspired to do so.  The contents of such personal recording could be analyzed later on.
  47. 47 7) Confessions  A person may be more likely to confess in a document, particularly one to be read only after his or her death, than in an interview or mailed questionnaire study.  Thus, a study of documents such as diaries, posthumously published autobiographies, and suicide notes may be the only way to obtain such information.
  48. 48 8) Relatively Low Cost • Although the cost of documentary analysis can vary widely depending on the type of document analyzed, how widely documents are dispersed, and how far one must travel to gain access to them, documentary analysis can be inexpensive compared to large-scale surveys. • Many a time’s documents are gathered together in a centralized location such as library where the researcher can study them for only the cost of travel to the repository.
  49. 49 9) High quality  Although documents vary tremendously in quality, many documents, such as:  Newspaper Columns, are written by skilled commentators and  May be more valuable than, for example, poorly written responses to mailed questionnaires.
  50. 50 III. Disadvantages of Content analysis 1) Bias:  Many documents used in research were not originally intended for research purposes.  The various goals and purposes for which documents are written can bias them in various ways.  For Example,  Personal documents such as confessional articles or autobiographies are often written by famous people or people who had some unusual experience such as having been a witness to a specific event.  While often providing a unique and valuable research data, these documents usually are written for the purpose of making money.  Thus, they tend to exaggerate and even fabricate to make good story.
  51. 51 2) Selective Survival  Since documents are usually written on paper, they do not withstand the elements well unless care is taken to preserve them.  Thus, while documents written by famous people are likely to be preserved, day-to-day documents such as letters and diaries written by common people tend either to be destroyed or to be placed in storage and thus become inaccessible.
  52. 52 3) Incompleteness  Many documents provide incomplete account to the researcher who has had no prior experience with or knowledge of the events or behavior discussed.  A problem with many personal documents such as letters and diaries is that they were not written for research purposes but were designed to be private or even secret.  Both these kinds of documents often assume specific knowledge that researcher unfamiliar with certain events will not possess.
  53. 53 4) Lack of Availability of Documents In addition to the bias, incompleteness, and selective survival of documents, there are many areas of study for which no documents are available. In many cases information simply was never recorded.  In other cases it was recorded, but the documents remain secret or classified, or have been destroyed.
  54. 54 5) Sampling Bias  One of the problems of bias occurs because persons of lower educational or income levels are less likely to be represented in the sampling frames.  The problem of sampling bias by educational level is more acute for document study than for survey research.
  55. 55 6) Limited to Verbal Behavior By definition, documents: Provide information only about respondent’s verbal behavior, and Provide no direct information on the respondent’s nonverbal behavior, either that of the document’s author or other characters in the document.
  56. 56 7) Lack of Standardized Format  Documents differ quite widely in regard to their standardization of format.  Some documents such as newspapers appear frequently in a standard format.  Large dailies always contain such standard components as editorial page, business page, sports page, and weather report.  Standardization facilitates comparison across time for the same newspapers and comparison across different newspapers at one point in time.
  57. 57 8) Coding Difficulties For a number of reasons, including:  Differences in purpose for which the documents were written,  Differences in content or subject matter,  Lack of standardization, and  Differences in length and format, coding is one of the most difficult tasks facing the content analyst.
  58. 58 9) Data Must Be Adjusted For Comparability Over Time:  Although one of the advantages of document study is that comparisons may be made over a long period of time, since external events cause changes so drastic that even if a common unit of measure is used for the entire period,  the value of this unit may have changed so much over time that comparisons are misleading unless corrections are made.
  59. 59 Conclusions On Qualitative Analysis  In qualitative inquiry, it is acceptable to include numerical quantities and analyze such data using quantitative techniques.  Such analysis is called mixed-method analysis. For Example,  While qualitative data from an interview transcript can be analyzed qualitatively using content analysis,  quantitative data collected during the same process can be analyzed quantitatively using measures of central tendency, correlation, and so forth.
  60. Thank you!