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training novice teachers.pptx

  1. Training Novice Teachers Mr.Samir Bounab (Teacher trainer ) yellowdaffodil
  2. Training Novice teachers Meeting points • Teacher ’s documents • Introducing the Algerian Educational system ( 1st generation syllabus + 2 generation curriculum) • How to deal with the log book , teacher’s plan book and the board • Planning lesson • Teaching Grammar + Pronunciation items • TD session • The project work • Adapting the school manual • Testing • Test Report and remedial work
  3. 1. What words can you read in the following word cloud? 2. Which word from the word cloud do you see suits you? 3. Why did you choose to be a teacher? 4. How was your first contact with your learners? 5. Are you happy to be a teacher? Why . 6. If you had to choose between teaching and another job ,will you opt for teaching again? Why
  4. Approach & Method • Competency Based Approach & Integrated Situation. • 1. What is a competency-based- approach? • It is an approach aiming at establishing a link between the learning acquired at school and the context of use outside the classroom. • This approach enables the learner to learn how: to learn, to share, to exchange and to cooperate with others
  5. 2. What is a competency? It is a "know –how" which integrates and mobilizes a number of abilities and knowledge to be efficiently used in problem solving situations that have never been met before.
  6. Competency I : Interact orally in English At the end of the year , the pupil must be able to use the functional language acquired in class as well as verbal and non verbal means to come into contact with his schoolmates and his teacher
  7. How? With his schoolmates in pairs or groups. In situation related to (1) the class room (2) topics and subjects tackled at school (3) his needs (4) his interests Using communication breakdown strategies (mimming, gestures, mother tongue)
  8. Competency II : Interpret authentic documents, oral or written. At the end of the year , the pupil must be able to demonstrate his understanding or non-understanding of simple texts (short stories, legends ,fables , tales , songs , games) –narrative and descriptive –that match his cognitive level, verbally or non-verbally , with his teacher's help , using adequate visual and linguistic support .
  9. How ? Interact orally or in writing in everyday situations. With his teacher / mates Consult various sources {distionaries, the media, the internet…}
  10. Competency III : Produce simple messages, oral or written By the end of the school year, the learner should be able to express his ideas, organize them according to logic and chronology, take into account syntax, spelling and punctuation for (1) describing (2) narrating
  11. • How ? • The pupil is suggested a model to follow. • He is given access to new writing strategies. • In situations linked to (1) the class (2) the pupil's interests and (3) the pupil's needs. • With audio-visual support • Using pedagogical recreative activities • With clear and precise instructions • Taking part in groupwork (newspapers, magazines, cartoons, projects …) •
  12. • Situation of Integration  This phase is meant to the reinvestment of the resources in terms of the "knows" and the " know how to do “  The activities suggested in the previous phases should be built up towards the final output and help the pupils to be ready to produce a piece of writing in accordance with the situation of communication
  13. • New Criteria of the integration :
  14. Criteria Good Fair Poor Criteria Indicators 1. Relevance ' the criterion is reached when the student produces the piece of writing in accordance with the situation of communication -The student writes the piece of writing according to the theme - He uses the appropriate tense or structure - He uses the vocabulary related to the topic 2. Syntactic coherence and correct use of linguistic elements -Syntactic order - Correct use of tenses related to the situation of communication 3.Semantic coherence - The sentences produced have a meaning. / A logical link between the sentences. 4.Excellence Good presentation of the paper  Remark DO NOT PENALISE STUDENTS FOR SPELLING MISTAKES
  15. • Planning Lesson • Teachers should prepare a lesson plan before teaching. • Teachers should consider learners’ abilities, interests, learning preferences, and the institutional program while planning. • Teacher should analyze their lesson plans before and after teaching. • Lesson plans should include specific information. • Objectives should concretely state the communicative objectives of the lesson.
  16. • What preparation should a teacher make before planning a lesson? • Before planning, teachers should know what they are teaching and why. • Lessons should focus on helping learners develop communication skills – not finishing the curriculum, memorizing grammar rules or learning to transcribe words • They should consider learners’ ability, age, learning preferences, interests, available resources, previously taught information and the institutional program.
  17. • What should be included in a lesson plan? • 1- Guided Sheet = Lesson Focus : • To show you where to start and how to end and in between you have the resources .
  18. • 2- what does a guided sheet contain? • Learning objectives { Function +Grammar} • < they must be taken from the official syllabus and taking into account“The new slimming of the syllabus Mai 2013 & the deleted lessons for each level • Which skill(s) will students mainly practice during this lesson? (Speaking, listening, reading, writing) PPU or PDP frame works. • Which aspects of language will students focus on? • functions (polite requests, apologizing, etc.), • grammar point(s) (Use and review using a grammar point in discussion • vocabulary (words, phrases, idioms, etc.), =Vocabulary (related to pre-historic life in the Sahara), • pronunciation (phonemes, intonation, etc.) • Is there an aspect of culture in this lesson that needs to be clarified? If so, what is it? • Required Material or resources = Aids = VAKT =Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile • values: The assertion of the learner’s national identity in its three dimensions: Amazigh – Arab - Islam - National conscience - Citizenship - Openness to the world • Cross curricular competences ; Intellectual competency-Methodological competency- Communicative competency- Personal and social competencies • Aim of the lesson =SWBAT= ( students will be able to do…..< An observable behaviour >
  19. time Interaction procedure competency VAKT Time = is very important , teachers should master that . Interaction = In order to avoid TTT ( Teacher Talking Time) and split the role among his or her learners Procedure = here the teachers plans his or her lesson with different stages & steps. Competency = Since we are dealing with CBA < Competency Based Approach> teachers must know when his or her learners perform the “3IIP”{ Interact – Interpret – Produce} VAKT = Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile = Teachers must know which kind of aids must be used at any stage of teaching. Lesson Plan model sheet
  20. • The 3 Stages of a lesson 1.In all lessons there is a prep to teaching (icebreakers/ warmers/ lead in ) 1. While lesson which is split into presentation and practice/ others will refer to observation / analysis and practice , in case it is a grammar / vocabulary lesson . 2.The post lesson is the productive stage.
  21. • Teaching Frameworks • 4 ps= Preparation – presentation – practice – produce / 3 ps= presentation – practice – produce • PPU = Presentation – practice – Use /ju:s/ < Speaking ( grammar ) lesson> • PDP = Pre( reading/listening) During (reading/listening ) Post ( reading /listening) • PIASP( grammar or pronunciation item) P= presentation / I= Isolation / A = Analysis/ S= Stating rule / P= Practice (Oral or Written = 3 type of tasks < 1- based form 2- Meaning based 3- communicative based • Teaching Writing= writing process= Problem solving integrating situation= a- Brainstorming b- planning or organizing c- drafting d- editing e- publishing
  22. • Why PPU and PDP frame works • : The New curriculum 2015 • Au-delà de l’objectif de lecture ( reading skill) le recours à l’interprétation de textes doit servir au développement des deux autres compétences communicatives ( interaction/production), d’où possibilité de ‘PDP’ leçon, • et d’acquisition de connaissances linguistiques , d’où possibilité de ‘PPU’ leçon & PDP frame work
  23. • "How to apply Bloom's taxonomy in a grammar lesson?Using the PIASP teaching method. • 1-P= Presentation <Presenting the context in which the structure appears> • 2- I= Isolation: the focus is temporarily on the grammatical item itself and the aim is :to get the learner perceive & recognize the grammatical item what it looks like • 3- A= Analysis: Here you will try to make ur learners analyze the isolated items the aim is : to get your learners perceive how it is formed ( structure), how it functions and what it means and the rule that govern it • 4- S= Stating Rule : Here after they analyse you help them to formulate the grammar rule
  24. • Writing Process Process writing consists of the following stage • 1-brainstorming • 2‐planning or organizing • 3‐drafting(writing the first draft • 4‐editing • 5‐publishing
  25. THE MAIN APPROACHES TO TEACH GRAMMAR In the case of grammar teaching there are two main approaches. These are deductive approach and inductive approach. Not with standing the fact that deductive and inductive approaches have the common goal of teaching grammar they separate from each other in terms of way of teaching.
  26. 1. A Deductive Approach  Deductive teaching is a traditional approach in which information about target language and rules are driven at the beginning of the class and continued with examples.  The principles of this approach are generally used in the classes where the main target is to teach grammar structures. For instance, these principles are convenient for the classes that grammar transtlation method is applied(Nunan,1991).  According to Thornbury’s three bacic principles a deductive lesson starts with : 1. presentation of the rules by the teacher. 2. Secondly teacher gives examples by highlighting the grammar structures. 3. Then students make practise with the rules and produce their own examples at the end of the lesson (Thornbury, 1999).
  27. 2. An Inductive Approach  Nunan (1999) identifies inductive approach as a process where learners discover the grammar rules themselves by examining the examples.  In a inductive approach it is also possible to use a context for grammar rules. That is to say, learners explore the grammar rules in a text or an audio rather than isolated sentences.  Thornbury (1999) notes that in an inductive approach learners are provided with samples which include the target grammar that they will learn. Then learners work on the examples and try to discover the rules themselves. When students obtain the grammar rules and they practice the language by creating their own examples.
  28. THE MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A DEDUCTIVE AND AN INDUCTIVE APPROACH IN GRAMMAR TEACHING • A deductive and an inductive approach basically differentiate in: • 1- lesson procedures 2- learner roles 3- teacher roles 4- usage of meta language in the teaching process.
  29. A deductive approach is based on 1. the top-down theory which the presentation and explanation of grammar rules take the presence over teaching. 2. The language is taught from the whole to parts so learners understand the grammar rules and structures firstly.
  30. In contrast an inductive teaching is based on: 1- The bottom-up theory which accepts the view that language learners tend to focus on parts rather than the whole. For this reason teaching process begins with a text, audio or visual in a context, 2- Secondly learners work on the material to find the rules themselves , 3- In the final stage, they give their own examples. (Block, 2003)
  31. • The role of the learner • In a deductive approach learners are passive recipients when teacher elicits the rule on the board. However, • In an inductive approach they are active as they are responsible for exploring the rules themselves. That is to say, • While the process of learning is experimental in inductive approach it is more traditional and descriptive in deductive approach. more profound knowledge of language as learners study cognitively in order to discover the rules. • It has been pointed out that when learners take place in the learning process actively so as to discover the rules they develop their autonomy which makes them good language learner (Hinkel and Fatos, 2002).
  32. The role of the teacher One another significant difference is the role of the teacher. In a deductive teaching teacher is the authority in the classroom.  The main role of teacher is to present the new grammar item to the learners.  Second role is to prepare exercises for the students.  Teacher is the organiser and controller of the classroom.
  33. In an inductive teaching teacher behaves as:  a guide and helper while students study the grammar rules themselves.  It appears that while deductive approach is teacher-centered and traditional, inductive approach is student-centered.
  34. Applying deductive or inductive approach while teaching grammar depends on student variety in the classroom.  All learners are different and they learn in different ways. For instance their needs, ages, backgrounds and levels are the factors that are taken into consideration by the teacher for choosing suitable teaching strategy. To illustrate this, Brown (1994) remarks that adult learners are tend to deal with the rules when they use target language since their mentality is able to think abstract items. He has pointed out that deductive teaching is more appropriate for adult learners and meet their expectations as they give more importance to rules when they use the language so presentation of grammar rules firstly is more useful for them. On the other hand young learners are successful in exploring grammar structures from the examples rather than learning them deductively since they are more likely to learn by doing because grammar rules are complex and abstract for them .
  35. COMBINATION OF DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE APPROACHES  The comparison of these two approaches is the topic which has commonly discussed teachers but there is no certain answer for the question that which is more useful in teaching grammar.  The reason why there is no definite response for this question is the diversity in teaching and learning settings.  Today one another issue discussed by teachers is the applicability of combination of deductive and inductive approaches in one grammar session • Each method is based on different teaching approaches , • For example, while grammar translation method is based upon deductive teaching • Direct method relies on inductive teaching. • According to Andrews (2007), the audio- lingual method could be condisered as a method where the grammar is taught both deductively and inductively. • To illustrate this, in the audio- lingual method drills are used the basis of learning process. Pupils are engaged with drills until they learn by heart them. During this process they are not provided any information about grammar structures. • However, the main objective of this method is to be able to speak accurately in target language. Thus, in spite of the fact that drills are taught inductively, learners need to memorize grammar items in order to speak accurately
  36. According to Brown (1994: 351) “ There may be some occasional moments, of course, when a deductive approach -or a blend between the two- is indeed more appropriate”. For example, to teach the simple past tense, the teacher begins: Step 1: A conversation with a student. The teacher asks a student to tell his last summer holiday. Step 2: Student answers by using simple present tense as he has no information about past tense. Step3: Later, teacher corrects him by using past tense. Step 4 :Then, student repeats the correct sentence. Step 5: After that teacher writes the past forms of some verbs on the board to make learners practice. In this process grammar is taught by using a deductive and an inductive approaches at the same time • It is deductive by the aspect of writing the past forms of the verbs on the board, • It is also inductive since students practice the past tense by giving their own examples (Brown,1994)
  37. Furthermore, • It has been stated that it is highly probable to teach grammar by combination of deductive and inductive teaching. • It is more intensifier for as pupils’ attention is both directed to grammar rules and meaning at the same time (Mac Whinney, 1997 cited in Larsen-Freeman, 2003).
  38. P = Presentation < Presenting the context in which the grammatical structure / pronunciation item appears > Aim: To get the learner see the structure- its form and meaning-in contest. so here your learners will deal with the first Bloom's taxonomy category . knowledge < Learners recall knowledge: where they will define and identify the structure seen before . • The Learner will do that if he = defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states
  39. I =Isolation The focus is temporarily on the grammatical/ pronunciation .item itself. Aim : get the learner perceive & recognize the grammatical item what it looks like . This goes also with the second category of Bloom's taxonomy Comprehension: where your learners will be able to infer, interpret, paraphrase, predict, rewrite, summarize.…
  40. A= Analysis Here you will try to make your learners analyse the isolated items. Aim: To get the learner perceive how they are formed,how they function and what they mean,in short what rules govern them.The objective is that the learner should understand the various aspects of the structure. This has a great link with the fourth category Analysis" ( Bloom's Taxonomy) where your learners will be able to: analyse, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
  41. S = Stating rule Here after they analyse you help them to formulate the grammar / pronunciation rule And this what Bloom called "Synthesis" where the learners are able to Build a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure through the following key words "reconstruct, relate, reorganize, revise, rewrite, summarize, tell, write.
  42. P= Practice <Written /Oral Work> The practice stage consists of a series of exercises. Three (3) Types of tasks may be included a- Based form task: Mechanical manipulation < All the learners have to do is to produce the Correct form . They get practice is SAYING or WRITING The new structure( manipulation of the written and spoken Form)but do not use it to express meaning. Focus is on Form only> b- Meaning based task: Focus is on meaning. This time the production Of the correct forms involves meaning as well and cannot be done without Comprehension(they cannot be done through mere mechanical manipulation) c- Communicative based task: (emphasis is on transmitting message ) The target structure is used “To say” and “do things”.
  43. • Assessing The Lesson Plan • After writing the lesson plan teachers should check to be sure that it is well planned. • Teachers may check that the lesson communicates objectives to the learners, that it is well sequenced, has a balance of teacher and learner-centered activities, etc. • After teaching the lesson, teachers should make notes on the lesson plan about what was effective, what was not effective and strategies to make the lesson more effective next time they teach it. • Then they should file the lesson for future reference.
  44. • The Project Work • What is project work ? • Project work involves multi-skill activities which focus on a theme of interest . • In project work ,students work together to achieve a common purpose ,a concrete outcome ,(for example, a brochure, a bulletin board display , a video , an article ) . • Typically it requires students to work together over several days or weeks , both inside and outside the classroom ,often in collaboration with speakers of the target language
  45. • Why project work ? The benefits of a project work . • Fostering learner autonomy . • Independent and collaborative learning • Exercise choice • Write up reports • Make decisions • Collect data • Plan their work • Discuss with their group members the information to look for
  46. • b) Enhancing motivation • Introduce novelty in the language classroom by changing routine • rom passive recipients, learners start to play an active role • Since project work is achievement –oriented , learners will feel a sense of achievement , crucial to boosting confidence and motivation
  47. • Introducing tutorial classes (TD) In Middle school ( circulaire ministerielle N° 1313 du 30/06/2013) • The tutorial classes : What is it? Why ? when? For whom? How? How often? For whom? Where? • TD Tutorial means . TD is a teaching method that allows pupils to apply theoretical knowledge in the form of exercises. It usually take place in small numbers to facilitate the teacher's help .
  48. • Rational of TDs in Middle school • Activities in TDs: - Shows an extra value to learning operation - Aims at improving the quality of learning - It’s a mean and another path to “ reinforce – deeper and last the learning operation . - It’ new occasion for the leaner to acquire new learning strategies. - Promotes healthy environment for individual teaching and learning according to each learner needs and put into action a pedagogy of differentiation - Develops motivation and reflexion of the learners - it’s a chance to take part in dialogues and take part in active exchanges
  49. • - The Role of the teacher: • Prepares and organizes the progress of the TD activities. The teacher conceives them using situations that interest every leaner. Gives opportunity to his or her learners to interact and work in homogeneous small groups. • Emphasizes on the strong points of the learners and weak ones that prevents them from progressing. Equips the learners with methodological strategies in their work. Evaluates in continuous way the progress of the learners as well as the degree of their participation and contribution during each TD Evaluate the procedure used
  50. • To remember : In TDs we have to avoid : -Spend the time copying. -Marking TD -Re-teach or spend too much time making review -Answer the learners one by one -Don’t give enough time for reflexion for the learners.
  51. • RATIONALE FOR GROUP WORK IN ENGLISH COURSES A weekly group session will enable to adapt the learning process to students’ needs. Group work therefore will allow to reinforce language practice. Learners will have the necessary support so that their outcomes match the curriculum expectations. The teacher will plan language skills and knowledge oriented activities that take into consideration Individualised Instruction . In a group work class learners can develop their skills independently. They take responsibility in small group tasks. They work collaboratively and develop a positive attitude to learning.
  52. • Type one :Mixed ability groups • Mixed ability grouping enables learners to cope with real life working context , where people of different abilities work together. It has , therefore the advantage of a social inclusion and equal opportunities2 Suggested types for grouping students :
  53. • Type two:setting according to achievements: • This kind of grouping requires a diagnostic test. For the time being it will comply to the national exam type in English, the current written test. • The shortcoming of such diagnostic test is that it is not really accountable for being organized after a long summer holiday .It is based on academic achievement only. It would be better to take into account teachers evaluations of previous learners’ attainment of the last school year, in foreign languages. The advantage of such grouping is that it enables the teacher to organise the courses and plan activities according to learners’ needs.
  54. • Group work objectives throughout the middle school cycle: Four aspects are to be considered to plan a group work syllabus 1- Communicative competency and interaction 2-Language skills 3-Learning strategies 4- Social skills ( personal and interpersonal)
  55. • Typology of tasks and activities • -Product and process oriented tasks: -Meaningful and manipulative language activities -Project work -Role play and simulations -Survey/ questionnaire -Interview -Listing /categorizing -Information gapCloze test/gap filling -Matching/ jigsaw -Problem solving activities -Games -Songs -Story telling -Information transfer -Transformation
  56. • Advantages of using text books : • They are useful learning aid to the learners • They can identify what should be taught and the order it should be treated • They can indicate what methods should be used • They can provide attractively and economically most of the material needed • They can serve the teacher a lot • They are indispensible to the teacher who comments on the language may be insecure • They are indispensible for teachers who are untrained •
  57. • TEXT BOOK EVALUATION • EVALUATION : Three stages process • Initial evaluation • Detailed evaluation • In use evaluation
  58. • Apply the C A T A L Y S T  catalyst stands for 8 outers • Communicate • Aims • Teachable • Available • Levels • Your impression • Students interact • Tried and tested
  59. Erica and Lara
  60. • If positive apply • E nough / too much? • Right format / level ? • Integrated ? • Communicative ? • Appropriate ?
  61. • If negative apply  LARA • Leave out • Amend • Replace • Adapt
  62. • Or apply « SARS » • S= Select • A= Adapt • R= Reject • S= Supplement
  63. 1-Why are teachers of English blamed for bad results? 2- What are the causes of such weak results? 3- What solutions do you suggest to get better results?
  64. It is the “thing” or “product” that measures a particular behavior or set of objectives.
  65. Testing Vs Assessment? 5’ reflection
  66. Why testing? 5’ reflection Yet tests are powerful educational tools that serve at least four functions :  First, tests help you evaluate students and assess whether they are learning what you are expecting them to learn.  Second, well-designed tests serve to motivate students  Third, tests can help you understand how successfully you are presenting the material.  Finally, tests can reinforce learning by providing students with indicators of what topics or skills they have not yet mastered and should concentrate on
  67. Recommendatio ns to examination designers - When developing tests/ examinations, designers must consider the following questions: 1- Are the exams in accordance with the exit profile of middle school education? 2- Do they contain the three competencies (interact, interpret, produce)? 3-Do they contain the values set out in the curriculum (identity, national consciousness, citizenship, openness to the world)? 4- Do they reflect the crosscurricular competencies (intellectual, methodological, communicative, personal and social)? 5- Are the activities in accordance with the concept matrix of the curriculum in terms of global competencies, content , resources and descriptors? 6- Are there more grammar exercises than communicative activities? 7-Are the themes and the vocabulary of the official curriculum represented? 8-Do the assessment objectives match the learning objectives? 9-Do the reading comprehension activities measure the learner’s understanding of the text and/or his general knowledge?
  68. 10- Are these activities repetitive ?creative?- 11-Do they require the learner to find answers in the text or to deduce them from the context? 12- Do the vocabulary- related activities appear in a meaningful context? 13- Do the grammar –related activities appear in a meaningful context? 14- Do the pronunciation activities appear in a meaningful context? 15- Do the activities allow for the use of critical thinking or are they merely referential ? 16- Are the activities assessing the writing skill in accordance with the exit profile? Are they meaningful for the student? 17- Does the task at hand correspond to his level of proficiency or is it beyond his cognitive abilities? 18- Are the tasks communication- oriented ? 19- Do the BEM questions cover an important part of the curriculum? 20- Are the targeted competencies assessed objectively? 21- Are the assessors aware of the rubrics used by the designers of exams? 22- Do they use assessment criteria (relevance, correct use of language, coherence and development) and indicators to measure students ‘ production? 23- Are they aware of the four levels of mastery of competencies (maximum, minimum, partial or lack of mastery) 24 -Do they use these criteria when they assess the work of learners? Curriculum of English for Middle School Education May 2015
  69. when designing national examinations for the middle school, it is important to: a) target the learner’s exact level of performance. b) Examinations must reflect the difficulty levels described by the descriptors in the curriculum. c) Inspectors should supervise and assist teachers while designing assessment tools which are conform to the BEM examination materials. d) It is evident that the assessment of learning should focus on what was taught in class and based on explicit descriptors . e) In addition, the situations should be close to what was done in class in order not to confuse the learner, and must be varied; they should test listening and reading comprehension, speaking and written expression as well as the language skills (grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation ) Source: Curriculum of English for Middle School Education May 2015 In conclusion
  70. Construction of Effective Exams Prepare new exams each time you teach a course. Though it is time-consuming to develop tests, a past exam may not reflect changes in how you have presented the material or which topics you have emphasized in the course. If you do write a new exam, you can make copies of the old exam available to students. Make up test items throughout the term. Don't wait until a week or so before the exam. One way to make sure the exam reflects the topics emphasized in the course is to write test questions at the end of each class session and place them on index cards or computer files for later sorting. Software that allows you to create test banks of items and generate exams from the pool is now available. Cull items from colleagues' exams. Ask colleagues at other institutions for copies of their exams. Be careful, though, about using items from tests given by colleagues on your own campus. Some of your students may have previously seen those tests. Consider making your tests cumulative. Cumulative tests require students to review material they have already studied, thus reinforcing what they have learned. Cumulative tests also give students a chance to integrate and synthesize course content Prepare clear instructions. Test your instructions by asking a colleague (or one of your graduate student instructors) to read them. Include a few words of advice and encouragement on the exam. For example, give students advice on how much time to spend on each section or offer a hint at the beginning of an essay question or wish students good luck Put some easy items first. Place several questions all your students can answer near the beginning of the exam. Answering easier questions helps students overcome their nervousness and may help them feel confident that they can succeed on the exam. You can also use the first few questions to identify students in serious academic difficulty. Challenge your best students. Some instructors like to include at least one very difficult question–though not a trick question or a trivial one–to challenge the interest of the best students. They place that question at or near the end of the exam. Try out the timing. No purpose is served by creating a test too long for even well-prepared students to finish and review before turning it in. As a rule of thumb, allow about one-half minute per item for true-false tests, one minute per item for multiple-choice tests, two minutes per short-answer requiring a few sentences, ten or fifteen minutes for a limited essay question, and about thirty minutes for a broader essay question. Allow another five or ten minutes for students to review their work, and factor in time to distribute and collect the tests. Another rule of thumb is to allow students about four times as long as it takes you (or a graduate student instructor) to complete the test.
  71. Types of Tests Multiple-choice tests. Multiple-choice items can be used to measure both simple knowledge and complex concepts. Since multiple-choice questions can be answered quickly, you can assess students' mastery of many topics on an hour exam. In addition, the items can be easily and reliably scored. Good multiple-choice questions are difficult to write-see "Multiple- Choice and Matching Tests" for guidance on how to develop and administer this type of test. True-false tests. Because random guessing will produce the correct answer half the time, true-false tests are less reliable than other types of exams. However, these items are appropriate for occasional use. Some faculty who use true-false questions add an "explain" column in which students write one or two sentences justifying their response. Matching tests. The matching format is an effective way to test students' recognition of the relationships between words and definitions, events and dates, categories and examples, and so on. See "Multiple-Choice and Matching Tests" for suggestions about developing this type of test. Essay tests. Essay tests enable you to judge students' abilities to organize, integrate, interpret material, and express themselves in their own words. Research indicates that students study more efficiently for essay-type examinations than for selection (multiple-choice) tests: students preparing for essay tests focus on broad issues, general concepts, and interrelationships rather than on specific details Short-answer tests. Depending on your objectives, short-answer questions can call for one or two sentences or a long paragraph. Short-answer tests are easier to write, though they take longer to score, than multiple-choice tests. They also give you some opportunity to see how well students can express their thoughts, though they are not as useful as longer essay responses for this purpose. See "Short-Answer and Essay Tests" for detailed guidelines Problem sets. In courses in mathematics and the sciences, your tests can include problem sets. As a rule of thumb, allow students ten minutes to solve a problem you can do in two minutes. See "Homework: Problem Sets" for advice on creating and grading problem sets. Oral exams. Though common at the graduate level, oral exams are rarely used for undergraduates except in foreign language classes. In other classes they are usually time-consuming, too anxiety provoking for students, and difficult to score unless the instructor tape-records the answers.
  72. How to plan tests and exams? 5’ reflection
  73. All test and exams must be planned according to:
  74. Lexis  4 words in all the text [The words spread all over the whole text].  The words given must have at least “4” possible answers for each word.  The words given in lexis should be re- invested “likely” in the written Expression”
  75. : Syntax
  76. It must be: o Related Topically to the text . o Not taken from the text o Well worded o Well written o Contains “ topic – task – person addressed to” o Hints : must not be - questions . - nouns - verbs - prepositions Example(hints): - Place ( abroad / Algeria…. - Time ( holidays….. - Stay ( how long / hotels…..)  The instruction must be : “ Write about :”  No “ Use these hints”  Students are free to Not use the given hints  The ( corriger) must be conform to the BEM one.
  77. What should teachers do after delivering a test or exam? 5’ reflection section Typical correctio scoring Take into account all th possible , logical answers Respect the examiner guide scoring scale gather data using an evaluation sheet lesson where the weaknesses seen in the Evaluation sheet are taken into account
  78. • Resources: • Allegement document September 2013 • BEM guide October 2007 • How to teach PPU & PDP ‘ (Mr.Samir Bounab) • Rational for group work in English courses (Mrs.Ouzna Mekkaoui i.e.m) • 3- Google Images. From the hard copy book Tools for Teaching by Barbara Gross Davis; Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, 1993
  79. Mr.Samir Bounab (Teacher trainer )