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Slides from the workshop @danny_bluestone and @duckymatt from Cyber-Duck Ltd gave at UX London 2013. The workshop focused on how by putting the user at the centre of design decisions you can deliver a better experience. With a mixture of theory and hands-on activities the workshop covered user research, activity mapping, card sorting and participative sketching techniques.
The central premise of user centred design isthat the best designed products and servicesresult from understanding the needs of thepeople who will use them.
SOME BENEFITS OF UCD1. Qualitative - Find out what customers actually want.2. Context – Discover the exact context to design for.3. Creativity – Combine UCD with branding.4. Focus - Avoid ‘analysis paralysis’.5. Remove egos– Verify decisions with real customers.
h"p://xkcd.com/773/ GIVING USERS WHAT THEY NEEDNOT WHAT YOU THINK THEY NEED
h"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/matski_98/8259750205/ TAKE TIME TO OBSERVEHOW PEOPLE USE YOUR DESIGN
TIMOTHY PRESTRO, CEO of DMT DESIGN FOR PEOPLE, NOT AWARDSh"p://designthatma"ers.org/por@olio/projects/
DESIGN FOR OUTCOMES www.ted.com/talks/Cmothy_prestero_design_for_people_not_awards.html and h"p://www.designthatma"ers.org/pictures/dtm_blog/Baby_in_Fireﬂy.JPG
If the engineers could, theyd give you 40 buttons, butwhen youre driving its not that easy to use them all, soits better to have the ones you really need.The key thing is to make it simpler without getting rid ofstuff that I might need to make the car go quicker.h"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/simonw92/8534697674/ LEWIS HAMILTON ON UCD
As we reform the delivery of public services,they are designed around the needs of the user, ratherthan has been far too often the case in the past, beingdesigned to suit the convenience of the government.Francis Maude, MP
FRONT-LOADINGSTAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS• Why is it being made?• Who are the key stakeholders and what are their goals?• How does it ﬁt in with the wider company objectives?• Gain insight into market and target audiences• Identify competitors early onh"p://goodkickoﬀmeeCngs.com/2010/04/stakeholder-‐frontloading/
TECHNIQUES FOREFFECTIVE INTERVIEWS• Create an informal and relaxed atmosphere• Stay ﬂexible• Keep it one-on-one• Allow them to speak ‘off-the-record’
The turning point in many interviews is when theinterviewee gets up and closes the ofﬁce door andlowers their voice.Paul Boag, Headscapeh"p://boagworld.com/business-‐strategy/how-‐to-‐improve-‐your-‐site-‐using-‐stakeholder-‐interviews/
DEFINING CONTEXT OF USE1. User proﬁles2. Activities3. Environment
• Speak to existing users if possible• Competitors• Ethnographic studies / research• Expert insightTIPS FOR GETTING INSIGHTINTO USER PROFILES
THE BEST USER PERSONASARE BASED ON REAL USERSh"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/patloika/7946438528
• Ethnio for existing users• Social media• Go to the physical locations where you’ll ﬁndyour users• Use professional recruitersHOW DO I FIND MY USERS?h"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/oatsy40/6783078815/
Accessibility is the degree to which anyone can access anduse a website using any web browsing technology.RNIBh"p://www.rnib.org.uk/professionals/webaccessibility/background/Pages/background.aspx h"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/furbyx4/2968376257/
WHAT ACTIVITIES DO YOURUSERS NEED TO PERFORM?h"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/fernando/36759033
FREQUENCYWHAT WILL THE USER NEED TODO MOST OFTEN?
CRITICALCAN BE INFREQUENT,BUT IT IS CRITICAL TO SUPPORT THEM
ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS• Physical• Social / cultural• Technical
CARD SORTING• The ‘base’ for your information architecture.• Gets insights and patterns into users ‘mental model’.• It helps to increase ﬁndability in a system.
The current recommendation is to test 15 users for cardsorting in most projects, and 30 users in big projects...Jakob Nielsen, Nielsen Norman Group
TECHNIQUES FORCARD SORTING• Use lots of post-it notes or cards• Get users to sort the cards in open or closed groups• Your main job is to observe and keep the momentum• Learn from the patterns of different groups via analysis• Helps to create a record of the structure/taxonomy
HICKS’S LAW “THE MORE CHOICES YOU HAVE TO CHOOSE FROM, THE LONGER IT TAKES FOR YOU TO MAKE A DECISION.” h"p://www.cirencalui.com/
INTRODUCINGINTERACTION DESIGN (IxD)• Helps to map out ‘ﬂows of control’• Progresses to sketching and prototyping• Pivotal at delivering functional speciﬁcations
“THE TIME REQUIRED TO RAPIDLY MOVE TO A TARGET AREA IS A FUNCTION OF THE DISTANCE TO AND THE SIZE OF THE TARGET” FITT’S LAW h"p://modetro.com/mb-‐games-‐simon-‐says-‐vintage-‐retro-‐game-‐70s
TECHNIQUES FORINTERACTION DESIGN (IxD)• Use personas and interviews to inform the design.• Competitor research see what is already out there.• Ethnography can help you to understand real users.• Validate what you do with real users as early as possible.
IxD –FLOW OF CONTROL EXAMPLEh"p://wc1.smartdraw.com/examples/content/examples/01_ﬂowcharts/4_other_ﬂowcharts/control_ﬂow_epc_diagram_ﬂowchart_l.jpg
START PROTOTYPESWITH PEN AND PAPERh"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/furbyx4/2968376257/
I do not know the cognitive reasons behind this, but Ihave never seen this not be true. The more human yourpicture, the more human will be the response.Dan Roam, Back Of The Napkinh"p://www.thebackokhenapkin.com/
PARTICIPATORY SKETCHING TIPS• Encourage low ﬁdelity• Review as a group• Frame critique with user stories
GUERILLA USER TESTINGh"p://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/5tein/3609261904
Lets us see how our study participants scan thesearch results page, and is the next best thing toactually being able to read their minds.Anne Aula and Kerry Rodden, User Experience Researchers, GoogleGOOGLE ON EYE TRACKINGh"p://www.japantoday.com/images/size/x/2013/03/urn%3Apublicid%3Aap.org%3A83a7bae63f044nc938d2f4bea94d862.jpg