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Visual Dictionary-curing

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Visual Dictionary-curing

  1. 1. Visual Dictionary BSCI 2300 902451808 April 22, 2009
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper Sheet like material applied to the exterior sheathing. It permits water vapor to drain and limits water and air flow into the house.
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation 1 Soffit Vent The vent allows air to flow into the attic or under the roof sheathing. This air helps prevent moisture accumulation by circulation. It also helps moderate the temperature in the attic, which in turns helps with energy efficiency in the house.
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation 2 Ridge Vent This vent allows for the passage of air to exit that initially came from the soffit or gable vents.
  5. 5. Attic Ventilation 3 Gable Vent These are positioned on both sides of the gables. They allow for passage of air in the attic area.
  6. 6. Attic Ventilation 4 Roof Turbine Air flow and wind will cause this propeller device to spin. The spin pulls air out of the attic space providing ventilation.
  7. 7. Backhoe A machine used by many trades that has a mechanical elbow arm with a scoop type bucket on the end. It is used to excavate earth at a very efficient rate. Operator must be trained. Some examples would be foundation work, footers, underground piping, and trenching. This particular bucket measures W20”xL30”xD21.5”.
  8. 8. Batter Boards Batter boards form a temporary frame around the construction site that mark the foundation perimeter for underground work. Strings are pulled tight and strung between them to illustrate where the where the surface planes of the foundation will be.
  9. 9. Brick Arches Jack Arch 1 Roman Arch 2
  10. 10. Brick Arches 2 Roman arch with keystone
  11. 11. Brick Arches 3 Centering is the temporary frame under an archway so the bricks can be laid up without falling. The keystone or center bricks would be put in last and then the centering removed so the arch supports itself.
  12. 12. Brick Bonds 1 Brick bond 2 Brick bond 1 Running bond- each course is all Flemish bond- each course repeats stretchers repeated the pattern of stretcher, header.
  13. 13. Brick bonds 2 Rowlocks Headers
  14. 14. Brick bonds Soldiers Sailors
  15. 15. Brick bonds Stretcher Rowlocks (Shiners)
  16. 16. Brick Sizes Standard 3 ¾ x 2 ¼ x 8 ½ Modular 3 ½ x 2 ¼ x 7 ½
  17. 17. Bulldozer A piece of heavy machinery used in construction and demolition. It has a large flat blade on the front. It clears by pushing the material out of the way. Site clearing and leveling are some popular uses. Requires skilled operator.
  18. 18. Cladding 1 Brick clad structure
  19. 19. Cladding 2 EFIS clad structure Close up picture
  20. 20. Cladding 3 Wood board clad structure
  21. 21. Cladding 3 Wood shake cladding Wood shakes have a rough, uneven, split wood appearance. Wood shingles have a smooth, geometrical, even appearance.
  22. 22. Code Requirements 1 Measurements W35”x H23 ½” Area: 822 ½ sq. inches or 5.71 sq. feet Sill height: 27 ½” IBC Requirements: 20” minimum width, 24” minimum height, 5.7 sq. ft. minimum area, and less than/or equal to 44” sill height This window has a sill height within the requirement , and measurements that meet the minimum and total 5.71 sq. ft. It meets Egress code.
  23. 23. Code Requirements 2 Measurements Tread: 11 ½”, Riser: 7”, Nosing: 1” IBC Requirements: Tread must be a minimum depth of 10”. Riser can only measure to a maximum height of 7 ¾”. This stairs riser length is within the maximum and the tread length is over the minimum. This stair meets code.
  24. 24. Concrete Joints An isolation joint is when a space is A control joint is an intentional left between a foundation system line of weakness put in and another system due the structures to allow cracking to difference in forces between the occur due to force. It allows the two. For example, below, the side structure to crack there and not walk system needs to move randomly elsewhere. independently of the buildings foundation system. This permits movement with out damage.
  25. 25. Concrete Masonry Unit 1 CMU is concrete formed into stackable building blocks. The nominal of CMU is 8”x8”x16”. The actual size is 7 5/8”x7 5/8”x15 5/8”. It comes in a variety of sizes and can be used decoratively. Typically the block is stacked using mortar, then reinforced, then grouted. 1 CMU = 3 courses of brick
  26. 26. Concrete Masonry Unit 2 15 5/8” x 7 ½” x 7 ½” 15 ½” x 7 5/8” x 5 ¾” Typical Thin
  27. 27. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units Installed Split-block Installed Ribbed-faced
  28. 28. Doors 1 Exterior Flush Door
  29. 29. Doors 2 Exterior Panel Door Top Rail Stile Lock Rail Panel Bottom Rail
  30. 30. Doors 3 Transom- a window directly over a door, can be several different sizes. Sidelight- a tall, narrow window along the side of the door. Typically one on each side.
  31. 31. Electrical Components 1 Power pole with a transformer This element steps down the voltage of electricity so it will be safer for occupational use at a house or office.
  32. 32. Electrical Components 2 Service Head This assembly conducts the electricity from outside power lines to the meter.
  33. 33. Electrical Components 3 Meter The meter measures the amount of power usage for the house.
  34. 34. Electrical Components 4 Service Panel The service panel is the control center for electricity. It contains a main service switch and circuit breakers for the separate circuits. These act like individual fuses.
  35. 35. Electrical Components 5 Duplex Receptacle The duplex receptacle is a power source supplier within the house. Anything from water heaters to lamps and blenders can be plugged into these. They are a constant source of power that can only be used by a special plug converter.
  36. 36. Framing Elements 1 #1 Anchor Bolt #2 Sill Plate
  37. 37. Framing Elements 2 #3 Floor Joist #4 Subflooring
  38. 38. Framing Elements 3 #5 Sole Plate #6 Stud
  39. 39. Framing Elements 4 #7 Top Plate #8 Ceiling Joist
  40. 40. Framing Elements 5 #9 Rafter #10 Roof Decking
  41. 41. Framing Elements 6 #11 Sheathing #12 Stringer
  42. 42. Front End Loader Bucket: W81”x H38½”x D27” This heavy machinery is used for land excavation and build up. Its front bucket can scoop dirt and distribute it where needed, where as the bulldozer just pushes. Machine operator required.
  43. 43. Gypsum Board Gypsum board is an interior sheathing panel consisting of a gypsum core. This core is compressed in between two pieces of paper backing.
  44. 44. Heat Pump 1 Condenser/Compressor The condenser/compressors fan moves outdoor air across refrigerant contained coils to change the temperature of the liquid. The liquid is then transferred into the air handler.
  45. 45. Heat Pump 2 Air Handling Unit The handling unit sends the cooled refrigerant to a coil in the air supply duct which in turn cools the circulated air. A disadvantage of a heat pump is the fact that its very noisy. An advantage of a heat pump is its ability to cool and heat inside air.
  46. 46. Insulation 1 Insulation is a material that is used in between spaces of a building to reduce heat flow throughout the assembly. Batt or Blanket Insulation Loose Fill Insulation
  47. 47. Insulation 2 Rigid Board Insulation Foamed Insulation
  48. 48. Lintel Steel Lintel A lintel is a beam that carries the load above an opening in a wall, like a door or window.
  49. 49. Mortar 1 The mortar joint in this photo is tooled and is specified as raked. It is 9/16” wide and is used on a single family house. Probably type S mortar was used because of some of the structural requirements of the building.
  50. 50. Mortar 2 The mortar joint in this photo was troweled initially, then each brick and course was pushed down on to create an extruded, old-fashioned look. This is another single family house. The mortar is ¾” thick and is probably type N mortar. Reason is the cladding on this house is more decorative than structural.
  51. 51. Oriented Strand Board OSB is not a veneered panel product. It is small strand-like pieces oriented in a particular pattern and bonded together under pressure. Typical size is a 4’x 8’ sheet.
  52. 52. Plumbing 1 Lavatory Water Closet 1 ½” piping used to drain 3” piping used to drain
  53. 53. Plumbing 2 Plumbing Roof Vent Manufactured Shower The VTR is stabilizing the drains and waste lines by exposing them to atmospheric pressure in the outside air.
  54. 54. Plumbing 3 Kitchen Sink Flush Mount
  55. 55. Plywood Wood panel product composed of a number of layers of wood veneer. These layers are bonded together under pressure. Typical size is 4’ x 8’ sheet. Veneer means a thin layer, sheet, or facing.
  56. 56. Radiant Barrier A reflective foil panel placed on the inside of the roof sheathing to help reflect infrared energy into the house.
  57. 57. Rebar Rebar size: ½” diameter, # 4 The deformations along the rebar are there to add friction and help it bond tightly to the concrete.
  58. 58. Steep Roof Drainage 1 Downspout: this metal pipe transfers the water from the gutter to the ground and/or splash block Gutter: this piece of metal acts as a funnel for water running off the roof. The runoff water is guided to a downspout
  59. 59. Steep Roof Drainage 2 Splash block: typically this piece is made of concrete and is used to disperse the runoff water evenly, so erosion will not occur
  60. 60. Steep Roof Materials 1 Underlayment: waterproof material laid on top of roof sheathing to help with moisture control under the shingles Clay Tile Roof Shingles: small units applied to roof in overlapping fashion with vertical grooves
  61. 61. Steep Roof Materials 2 Slate Roof
  62. 62. Steep Roof Materials 3 Metal Panel Roof Typical materials used are aluminized or galvanized steel Others could be copper, tin, brass, lead, nickel, ch romium, bronze,
  63. 63. Steep Roof Shapes 1 Gable Roof Gambrel Roof
  64. 64. Steep Roof Shapes 2 Hip Roof Mansard Roof
  65. 65. Steep Roof Terms 1 Ridge: the level intersection of two roof planes Valley: a trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes
  66. 66. Steep Roof Terms 2 Eave: the horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof Rake: the sloping edge of a steep roof
  67. 67. Steep Roof Terms 3 Soffit: the undersurface of a horizontal element of a building, like a roof overhang Fascia: the exposed vertical face of an eave
  68. 68. Steep Roof Terms 4 Building without Fascia: typically this is done when the overhang is not enclosed, which leaves the rafter tails exposed and no fascia. However there is still an eave present even though its unseen.
  69. 69. Stone 1 Random Rubble Coursed Rubble
  70. 70. Stone 2 Random Ashlar
  71. 71. Stone 3 Coursed Ashlar
  72. 72. Vapor Retarder Vapor Retarder: layer of material intended to obstruct the flow of water vapor through an assembly, it is typically installed on the warm in winter side of insulation
  73. 73. Waterproofing Waterproofing: an impervious membrane applied to the exterior of the foundation/building, it repels water. This particular waterproofing shown in the picture was liquid applied.
  74. 74. Weep Hole Weep Hole: a small opening whose sole purpose is to permit the drainage of water that accumulates inside a building assembly or cladding
  75. 75. Welded Wire Fabric Welded Wire Fabric: W78” x L216” x D6”
  76. 76. Windows 1 #2 Double-Hung Window: this window has two overlapping sashes that slide vertically in tracks, therefore it is a double- hung window #1 Casement Window: this window pivots on an axis near a vertical edge of the sash, therefore it is a casement window
  77. 77. Windows 2 #3 Fixed Window: this top semicircle window is immovably mounted in the wall, therefore it can’t open and is a fixed window