1. Distinguish performance-based assessment with
the traditional paper and pencil tests.
2. Construct tasks that are performance based.
Design a rubric to assess a performance based
Changes are taking place in assessment
Assessment should measure what is really
important in the curriculum.
Assessment should look more like instructional
activities than like tests.
Educational assessment should approximate the
learning tasks of interest, so that, when students
practice for the assessment, some useful learning
6. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT?
Testing that requires a student to create an answer
or a product that demonstrates his/her knowledge
or skills (Rudner & Boston, 1991).
7. FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Intended to assess what it is that students know
and can do with the emphasis on doing.
Have a high degree of realism about them.
Involve: (a) activities for which there is no correct
answer, (b) assessing groups rather than
individuals, (c) testing that would continue over an
extended period of time, (d) self-evaluation of
Likely use open-ended tasks aimed at assessing
higher level cognitive skills.
8. PUSH ON PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Bring testing methods more in line with instruction.
Assessment should approximate closely what it is
students should know and be able to do.
9. EMPHASIS OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Should assess higher level cognitive skills rather
than narrow and lower level discreet skills.
Direct measures of skills of interest.
10. PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION
Experience in constructing and using performance
tests is lacking among many educational
Performance tests take more time to construct,
administer, and score than objective tests.
Standardization, reliability, and validity will be
difficult to apply
11. GUIDELINES TO ESTABLISH VALIDITY OF
Consequences: Do teachers teach differently?
What do students learn?
Fairness: There is no guarantee
Transfer and generalizability: Extent of small tasks
generalized to larger tasks.
Cognitive complexity: no guarantee that high level
cognitive skills are tapped.
Content quality: limited sampling of content is
12. GUIDELINES TO ESTABLISH VALIDITY OF
Content coverage: number of tasks chosen is small.
Meaningfulness: evidence that the assessment is
meaningful for students
Cost and efficiency: time consuming and costly to
construct, administer, and score thn objective forms
Performance-and-product The emphasis is on the students’
ability to perform tasks by
producing their own work with their
knowledge and skills.
Alternative assessment Method that differs from conventional
paper-and-pencil tests, most
particularly objective tests.
Authentic assessment Direct examination of student’s ability
to use knowledge to perform a task
that is like what is encountered in real
life or in the real world.
14. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED
Students perform, create, construct, produce, or do
Deep understanding and/or reasoning skills are needed and
Involves sustained work, often days and weeks.
Calls on students to explain, justify, and defend.
Performance is directly observable.
Involves engaging in ideas of importance and substance.
Relies on trained assessor’s judgments for scoring
Multiple criteria and standards are prespecified and public
There is no single correct answer.
If authentic, the performance is grounded in real world
contexts and constraints.
15. LEARNING TARGETS
Communication and presentation skills
1. Speaking clearly, expressively, and audibly
a. Using voice expressively
b. Speaking articulately and pronouncing words correctly
c. Using appropriate vocal volume
2. Presenting ideas with appropriate introduction,
development, and conclusion
1. Presenting ideas in an effective order
2. Providing a clear focus on the central idea
3. Providing signal words, internal summaries, and transitions
16. 3. Developing ideas using appropriate support materials
a) Being clear and using reasoning processes
b) Clarifying, illustrating, exemplifying, and documenting ideas
4. Using nonverbal cues
a. Using eye contact
b. Using appropriate facial expressions, gestures, and body
5. Selecting language to a special purpose
a. Using language and conventions appropriate for the
17. Psychomotor skills
Fine motor: cutting papers with scissors, drawing a line
tracing, penmanship, coloring drawing, connecting dots
Gross motor: Walking, jumping, balancing, throwing,
Complex: Perform a swing golf, operate a computer,
drive a car, operate a microscope
Visual: Copying, finding letters, finding embedded
figures, identifying shapes, discrimination
Verbal and auditory: identify and discriminate sounds,
imitate sounds, pronounce carefully, blend vowels
Write promotional materials
Report on a foreign country
Playing a new song
19. VARIATION OF AUTHENTICITY
Relatively authentic Somewhat authentic Authentic
Indicate which parts of Design a garden Create a garden
a garden design are
Write a paper on Write a proposal to Write a proposal to
zoning change fictitious present to city council
zoning laws to change zoning laws
Explain what would Show how to perform Play a basketball
you teach to students basketball skills in game.
learning basketball practice
20. CONSTRUCTING PERFORMANCE BASED
1. Identify the performance task in which students
will be engaged
2. Develop descriptions of the task and the context in
which the performance is to be conducted.
3. Write the specific question, prompt, or problem
that the student will receive.
• Structure: Individual or group?
• Content: Specific or integrated?
• Complexity: Restricted or extended?
21. COMPLEXITY OF TASK
Narrowly defined and require brief responses
Task is structured and specific
Construct a bar graph from data provided
Demonstrate a shorter conversation in French about what is
on a menu
Read an article from the newspaper and answer questions
Flip a coin ten times. Predict what the next ten flips of the coin
will be, and explain why.
Listen to the evening news on television and explain if you
believe the stories are biased.
Construct a circle, square, and triangle from provided materials
that have the same circumference.
22. Extended-type task
Complex, elaborate, and time-consuming.
Often include collaborative work with small group of
Requires the use of a variety of information
Design a playhouse and estimate cost of materials and labor
Plan a trip to another country: Include the budget and itinerary,
and justify why you want to visit certain places
Conduct a historical reenactment (e. g. impeachment trial of
Diagnose and repair a car problem
Design an advertising campaign for a new or existing product
23. IDENTIFYING PERFORMANCE TASK
Prepare a task description
Listing of specifications to ensure that essential if
criteria are met
Includes the ff.:
Content and skill targets to be assessed
Description of student activities
Group or individual
24. PERFORMANCE-BASED TASK QUESTION
Task prompts and questions will be based on the
Clearly identifies the outcomes, outlines what the
students are encourage dot do, explains criteria for
26. CHARACTERISTICS OF TASKS
1. Should integrate the most essential aspects of the
content being assessed with the most essential
2. Should be authentic
Require judgment and innovation
Ask the student to do the subject
Replicates or stimulates
Assess the students ability to efficiently and effectively
use a repertoire of knowledge and skill to negotiate a
Allows opportunities to rehearse, practice, consult
resources, and get feedback and refine performances
27. 3. Structure the task to assess multiple learning targets
4. Structure the task so that you can help students
5. Think through what students will do to be sure that the
task is feasible
6. The task should allow for multiple solutions
7. The task should be clear
8. The task should be challenging and stimulating to
9. Include explicitly stated scoring criteria as part of the
10. Include constraints in completing the task
28. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
What you look for in student responses to evaluate
their progress toward meeting the learning target.
Dimensions of traits in performance that are used to
illustrate understanding, reasoning, and proficiency.
Start with identifying the most important dimensions
of the performance
What distinguishes an adequate to an inadequate
demonstration of the target?
29. QUESTIONS TO ASK:
What are the attributes of good writing, or good
scientific thinking, or good collaborative group
process, of effective oral presentation? More
generally, by what qualities or features will I know
whether students have produced an excellent
response to my assessment task?
What do I expect to see if this task is done
excellently, acceptably, or poorly?
30. Do I have samples or models of student work, from
my class or other sources, that exemplify some of
the criteria I might use in judging this task?
What criteria for this or similar task exist in my state
curriculum framework, my state assessment
program, my district curriculum guides, my school
What dimensions might I adapt from work done by
natural curriculum councils, by other teachers?
31. EXAMPLE OF CRITERIA
Students will be able to write a persuasive paper to
encourage the reader to accept a specific course of
action or point of view.
Appropriateness of language for the audience
Plausibility and relevance of supporting arguments.
Level of detail presented
Evidence of creative, innovative thinking
Clarity of expression
Organization of ideas
32. RATING SCALES
Indicate the degree to which a particular dimension
Three kinds: Numerical, qualitative, combined
33. Numerical Scale
Numbers of a continuum to indicate different level of
proficiency in terms of frequencyor quality
Complete Understanding 5 4 3 2 1 No understanding
No organization 5 4 3 2 1 Clear organization
Emergent reader 5 4 3 2 1 Fluent reader
34. Qualitative scale
Uses verbal descriptions to indicate student
Provides a way to check the whether each dimension
Type A: Indicate different gradations of the dimension
Type B: Checklist
35. Example of Type A:
Minimal, partial, complete
Never, seldom, occasionally, frequently, always
Consistent, sporadically, rarely
None, some, complete
Novice, intermediate, advance, superior
Inadequate, needs improvement, good excellent
Excellent, proficient, needs improvement
Absent, developing, adequate, fully developed
Limited, partial, thorough
Emerging, developing, achieving
Not there yet, shows growth, proficient
Excellent, good, fair, poor
37. Holistic scale
The category of the scale contains several criteria,
yielding a single score that gives an overall impression
level 4: Sophisticated understanding of text
indicated with constructed meaning
level 3: Solid understanding of text indicated with
some constructed meaning
level 2: Partial understanding of text indicated with
tenuous constructed meaning
level 1: superficial understanding of text with little or
no constructed meaning
39. Analytic Scale
One in which each criterion receives a separate score.
Criteria Outstanding Competent Marginal
5 4 3 2 1
Relevance of detail
Variety in words and
When scoring criteria are combined with a rating
scale, a complete scoring guideline is produced or
A scoring guide that uses criteria to differentiate
between levels of student proficiency.
42. Rubrics should answer the following questions:
By what criteria should performance be judged?
Where should we look and what should we look for to
judge performance success?
What does the range in the performance quality look
How do we determine validity, reliability, and fairly what
scores should be given and what that score means?
How should the different levels of quality be described
and distinguished from one another?
43. GUIDELINES IN CREATING A RUBRIC
1. Be sure the criteria focus on important aspects of
2. Match the type of rating with the purpose of the
3. The descriptions of the criteria should be directly
4. The criteria should be written so that students,
parents, and others understand them.
5. The characteristics and traits used in the scale
should be clearly and specifically defined.
6. Take appropriate steps to minimize scoring frame
44. PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT: EXPLORATION
Have you ever done a portfolio?
Tell me about this experience. Did you enjoy it?
What elements did you include in your portfolio?
Are the materials placed in the portfolio required?
45. WHAT ARE PORTFOLIOS?
Purposeful, systematic process of collecting and
evaluating student products to document progress
toward the attainment of learning targets or show
evidence that a learning target has been achieved.
Includes student participation in the selection and
“A collection of artifacts accompanied by a reflective
narrative that not only helps the learner to
understand and extend learning, but invites the
reader of the portfolio to gain insight about learning
and the learner (Porter & Cleland, 1995)
46. CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTFOLIO
Clearly defined purpose and learning targets
Systematic and organized collection of student
Preestablished guidelines for what will be included
Student selection of some works that will be
Student self-reflection and self-evaluation
Progress documented with specific products and/or
Portfolio conferences between students and
47. A PORTFOLIO IS:
Systematic and well-organized
Prestablished guidelines are set-up
Students are engaged in the selection of some
Clear and well-specified scoring criteria
48. PURPOSE OF PORTFOLIO
Showcase portfolio: Selection of best works.
Student chooses work, profile are accomplishments
and individual profile emerges.
Documentation portfolio: Like a scrapbook of
information and examples. Inlcudes observations,
tests, checklists, and rating scales.
Evaluation portfolio: More standardized. Assess
student learning with self-reflection. Examples are
selected by teachers and predetermined.
49. ADVANTAGES OF PORTFOLIO
Students are actively involved in self-evaluation and
Involves collaborative assessment
Ongoing process where students demonstrate
performance, evaluate , revise , and produce quality
Focus on self-improvement rather than comparison with
Students become more engaged in learning because
both instruction and assessment shift from teacher
controlled to mix of internal and external control.
Products help teachers diagnose learning difficulties
clarify reasons for evaluation
Scoring difficulties may lead to low reliability
Teacher training needed
Time-consuming to develop criteria, score and meet
Students may not make good selections of which
of which material to include
Sampling of student products may lead to weak
Parents find the portfolio difficult to underdstand
51. STEPS IN PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING
1. Determine the the purpose
2. Identify physical structure
3. Determine sources of content
4. Determine sources of content
5. Determine student reflective guidelines and scoring
6. Review with students
7. Portfolio content supplied by teacher and/or student
8. Student self-evaluation of contents
9. Teacher evaluation of content and student self-
10. Student-teacher conference
11. Portfolios returned to students for school
Based on specific learning targets
Ideal for assessing product, skill, and reasoning targets
Showcase portfolio-to illustrate what students are
capable of doing
Evaluation of portfolio-standardization of what to include
For parents-what will make sense to parents
“Provide specific attention to purpose and corresponding
implications when implementing a portfolio.”
53. PHYSICAL STRUCTURE
What will it look like?
How large will the portfolios be?
Where are they stored so that students can easily
Will it be in folders or scrap books?
How will the works be arranged in the portfolio?
What materials are needed to separate the works in
54. SOURCES OF CONTENT
Student and teacher evaluations
Select categories that will allow you to meet the
pupose of the portfolio.
Show improvement in the portfolio
Provide feedback on the students on the
procedures they are putting together
Provide indicator system
55. SELF-REFLECTIVE GUIDELINES AND SCORING
Establish guidelines for student self-reflection and
the scoring criteria
Scoring guidelines are explained to the students
before they begin instruction
56. IMPLEMENTING PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Review with students: Explain to students what is
involved in doing a portfolio.
Begin with learning targets
Give opportunities to ask questions
Provide just enough structure so that they can get
started without telling them exactly what to do.
Selection of content will depend on the age and
previos experience of students
Students and teachers decide together what to
include with nonrestrictive guidelines
58. STUDENT SELF-EVALUATIONS
Reflective and self-evaluation activities need to be
Some guide questions for students:
Can you tell me what you did?
What did you like best abut this sample of your writing?
What will you do next?
What did you learn from writing this piece?
What would you have done differently if you had more time?
What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses in this
What would you do differently if you did this over?
59. PEER EVALUATIONS
Analysis and constructive, supportive criticism of
strategies, styles, and other concrete aspects of the
Can include comments or a review by parents
Checklist of content
Portfolio structure evaluation: selection of samples,
thoroughness, appearance, self-reflection, and
Evaluation of individual entries: use rubrics
Evaluation of entire content: use rubrics
65. STUDENT-TEACHER CONFERENCES
Conference is conducted with sudents before
returning the portfolio
Scheduled throughout the school year; some have
Clarify purposes and procedure with students,
answer questions and establish trust
Give guidelines to prepare for each conference
Allow the students to do most of the talking
Have students compare your reflections with theirs
Weaknesses and areas for improvement need to be
communicated –show them what is possible for
66. STUDENT-TEACHER CONFERENCES
At the end of the conference there is an action plan
for the future
Limit the conference to no more than 10 minutes
Students are encouraged to take notes
Focus on one or two major areas of each
conference-helps to have a thoughtful discussion
68. Effect of Previous Practices: rank students on
achievement by graduation
New Expectation: Assure competence in Math, Reading,
Assessment and grading
procedures had the effect of
helping some students succeed
now must serve to help all
69. MISTAKEN BELIEFS ABOUT HOW TO USE ASSESSMENT
TO SUPPORT SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT:
1. High-stakes tests are good for all
students because they motivate
2. If I threaten to fail you, it will
cause you to try harder
3. If a little intimidation doesn’t
work, use a lot of intimidation
70. 4. The way to maximize learning is to maximize
5. It is the adults who use assessment results to
make the most important instructional decision.
71. PROFOUND MISTAKE
Teachers and leaders don’t need to
understand sound assessment practices – the
testing people will take care of us.
They do need to understand sound
72. ASSESSMENT LEGACY
1. Assessment has been far more a matter of compliance
than of teaching and learning
2. Disregard of the information needs students and
teachers who make the most frequent and highest impact
3. Assessment that drive as many students to give up in
hopelessness as they spur to more learning
4. And we fail to provide practitioners with the assessment
understandings needed to help