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Republic Of The Philippines Pinaod,San Ildefonso Bulacan Bulacan Agricultural State College “Theoretical Models Of Reading” and “Factors That Affect Reading”Eng.135 Remidial Instruction In English Submitted to: Dr. Alicia S.P Gomez Submitted by: Clarissa A. Pelayo
Theoretical Model Of Reading It describes and explains how readers construct meaning from written text. A ccording to Murray’s interactive theory he postulates that reading is an interactioninvolving the reader and the text being read. Meaning is not only in the mind of person duringthe reading act nor is it only in the text being read. Instead the interaction between the textread and the readers various source that determine the amount and type of comprehensionthat take place.Ehri enumerates the various information sources as:1. Knowledge of language which enables the reader to recognize and1.1 syntax or the way in which words put together to form a phrase , clauses ,sentences ,harmonious arrangement of parts of elements;1.2 semantics or the study of meaning;1.3 pragmatics or practical use of language2. . Knowledge of the word/background. Knowledge including both encyclopedia andexperiential knowledge which supply readers with background for understanding ideas andfilling in parts that are left implicit (assumed known) rather than stated explicitly in the text.3. Metacognitive knowledge which enables readers to monitor their own comprehension toascertain whether the information make sense and meets specific purpose. Metacognitiveknowledge about corrective strategies such as reading and questioning the self enables thereader to remedy comprehension failures;4. Knowledge of the alphabetic-phonemic (letter sound) system involves knowing how thespelling system represents speech, including how to transfer graphemes into phonemes, thesmallest unit of sound. Lexical knowledge refers to the reader’s dictionary of words held inmemory including words known by sight .all of these knowledge can contribute tocomprehension. Memory is important for linking the meaning of a text to previously read text.
Factors That Affect ReadingFixation - is made when the eyes stop. Good readers have fewer fixations than poor readers.Inter fixation movements are caused by the eyes which move from one stopping to another.Return sweeps - refer to the quick swinging back of the eyes from the end of the line to thebeginning of the next line.Regression - are backward or right-to-left movements made in a reverse direction. Readersusually regress as a result of habit, although some do so to double-check a point. Even goodreaders usually fewer than those made by the poor ones.Span of recognition - or perception span is the number of words taken every time the eyesstop. It is synonymous with the length or distance recognize within one fixation.Duration of fixation - is the length of the time the eye pause. Most readers make average offour eye stops per second, but poor readers require more time to pause in order to seeaccurately. A person who pause in order to see accurately. A person who makes fewer fixationshas a longer duration.Linguistic factor To read well, the reader must understand sound symbol relationships intonation,stress, rhythm, and pauses. Reading efficiency is defendant on context meaning usage, andsentence structure.Intellectual factors The innate capacity to clear, intelligence, and mental maturity affect readingperformance. The higher the IQ, the better the reading skills.Social factors Reading is a social process affected by attitudes, loyalties, conflicts and prejudices.Reading ability is enhanced by social acceptance, self- reliance, and cooperation in group.Psychological factors Feelings about self and others affect reading performance. Emotional stability leads tobetter concentration; interesting topics and an attractive presentational style promote thedesire to read. Source: Teaching Reading In Elementary Grades By: Erlinda G. Tajero and Gerry C. Catchillar (Coordinator) Published By: National Bookstore Copy 2004