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Confined Space Awareness

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Confined Space Awareness

  1. 2. Confined Space Awareness Captain Mo Johnson CRFA
  2. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize a Confined Space </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize a Permit Required C.S. </li></ul><ul><li>History of Confined Space Fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>Understand OSHA, NFPA and C.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the hazards of a C.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Required components </li></ul>
  3. 4. A Confined Space is… <ul><li>An area large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter to perform assigned work and: </li></ul><ul><li>Has limited or restricted means for entry/egress and; </li></ul><ul><li>Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy </li></ul>
  4. 5. A Permit Required Confined Space… <ul><li>Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere or , </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant or , </li></ul><ul><li>Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section or , </li></ul><ul><li>Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard </li></ul>
  5. 6. Silos Industrial or Agricultural
  6. 8. Manholes Sanitary or Storm
  7. 9. Types of Confined Spaces <ul><li>Sewers </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Vaults and pits </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels, silos, storage bins </li></ul><ul><li>Hoppers, pipelines </li></ul>
  8. 10. Reason for Entering A Confined Space <ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue </li></ul>
  9. 11. 1-13 1-13
  10. 12. 1-12 1-12
  11. 13. 1-10 1-10
  12. 14. 1-9 1-9
  13. 15. 1-8 1-8
  14. 16. Industrial Storage Tanks
  15. 27. Precious Time
  16. 28. NIOSH “139 Fatalities in 2 years …” <ul><li>100% had no detector or ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>95% had no Confined Space training </li></ul><ul><li>89% Management said “it’s safe to enter.” </li></ul><ul><li>80% employees “we always did it this way” </li></ul><ul><li>66% involved water/wastewater </li></ul><ul><li>60% were rescuers </li></ul>
  17. 29. Recognize the Danger: A major cause of confined space injuries/fatalities is the failure to recognize the incident for what it is…. A CONFINED SPACE INCIDENT !
  18. 30. Why is Confined Space Awareness Important? <ul><li>OSHA/NFPA compliant </li></ul><ul><li>Service to Community </li></ul><ul><li>Rescuer(s) Deaths </li></ul>
  19. 31. Always keep in mind <ul><li>Assess Survival Profile of Victim !!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>According to statistic we are going after victims not patients </li></ul><ul><li>Provision for non-entry rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Every C.S. incident will be investigated by OSHA. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry into a C.S. is mission specific </li></ul>
  20. 32. OSHA will be looking for… <ul><li>The C.S. to determine if it meets the requirements for a Permit Required Confined Space (p.r.s.c.) </li></ul><ul><li>Two permits </li></ul><ul><li>Training records (authorized) </li></ul><ul><li>Provision(s) for non-entry rescue </li></ul>
  21. 33. 3 Most Common OSHA Citations issued in Calif. <ul><li>Failure to provide hazard(s) communication to rescuers </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to provide appropriate equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to provide training on equipment </li></ul>
  22. 34. Regulations vs. Standards <ul><li>OSHA 1910.146 (Federal level) </li></ul><ul><li>(CCR) Title 8 sec. 5157 (State level) </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 1670 ( Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents) </li></ul>
  23. 35. Regulations <ul><li>AB 111 </li></ul><ul><li>“ be a manager – go to jail” </li></ul><ul><li>AB 1127 “The Big One” Jan. 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Title 8 CCR GISO 5156, 5157 & 5158 </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 1670, 1006 </li></ul>
  24. 36. AB 1127 “$$” ■ Enacted in January 2000. Says we show up, allow something to happen, somebody gets injured/killed, we share responsibility. ■ Employers, managers, or supervisors can be held liable Is Prosecuted as a Felony!!
  25. 37. AB 1127 cont’d ■ State, County, Districts no longer exempt from civil penalties levied due to Cal-OSHA ■ Time to file increased from 30 to 180 days ■ Increase in fines for misdemeanors from $5,000 to $15,000 ■ Prison terms from 6 months to one year
  26. 38. AB 1127 cont’d <ul><li>Willful misdemeanor or felony violations </li></ul><ul><li>causing death or permanent or prolonged </li></ul><ul><li>impairment </li></ul><ul><li>- From $70,000 to $250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>- Prison terms from 6 months to 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>- Repeat penalty $5,000 - $70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>- Failure to abate up to $30,000 per day </li></ul>
  27. 39. Title 8 CCR GISO <ul><li>5156 - 8 exclusions </li></ul><ul><li>5157 – how to enter a C.S. </li></ul><ul><li>5158 - minimum standards for those 8 exclusions </li></ul>
  28. 40. Title 8 CCR, 5156… <ul><li>Grants an exclusion to </li></ul><ul><li>Construction operations </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural operations </li></ul><ul><li>Marine terminal operations </li></ul><ul><li>Shipyard operations </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications manholes/Vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Grain handling facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical utility operations underground vaults </li></ul>
  29. 41. Title 8 CCR, 5157… <ul><li>Specific requirements on how to enter a Permit Required Confined Space. </li></ul><ul><li>Applies to Rescue Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Lists the mandatory components </li></ul><ul><li>Includes appendices that may be enforceable by OSHA </li></ul>
  30. 42. Title 8 CCR, 5158… <ul><li>Lists requirements for those 8 industries that are exempted under 5156(b) (2) </li></ul>
  31. 43. NFPA <ul><li>1670 - Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>1006 Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications </li></ul>
  32. 44. Hazards to Rescuers…. <ul><li>65% Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>13% Engulfment </li></ul><ul><li>7% Struck by Falling Objects </li></ul><ul><li>6% Heat Stress/Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>4% All Others </li></ul>
  33. 45. Reasons for Monitoring <ul><li>Assess the survival profile of the victim </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheres are the #1 killer of C.S. occupants </li></ul>
  34. 46. Hazardous Atmospheres <ul><li>Oxygen levels below 19.5% or above 23.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere at or above 10% of the LEL </li></ul><ul><li>Airborne combustible dusts which reduce vision to 5’ or less </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere with products/vapors at or above their IDLH levels. </li></ul>
  35. 47. What are we monitoring for ? <ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable/Explosive atmospheres </li></ul><ul><li>Selected toxics </li></ul><ul><li>Usually CO & H2S </li></ul>
  36. 48. Oxygen <ul><li>Recorded as a % </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA says 19.5% - 23.5% is </li></ul><ul><li>acceptable entry range </li></ul><ul><li>-Oxygen is always checked first </li></ul>
  37. 49. Percent Oxygen Physiological Effect 19.5% - 16% No visible effect 16% - 12% Respiration , heartbeat , thinking, attention & coordination 14% - 10% Bad judgement, poor muscular coordination, fatigue, respiration 10% - 6% Nausea, vomitting, slow to move Below 6% Difficulty breathing, unconsciousness, death
  38. 50. Flammable or Explosive atmospheres Usually recorded as % LEL, ppm or % gas 10% of the LEL is the upper limit for entry Difference between LEL 100% & vapor 100%
  39. 51. Automobile analogy
  40. 52. Hydrogen Sulfide H2S <ul><li>Colorless, odor of rotten eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys olfactory senses </li></ul><ul><li>10 ppm entry limit </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable & explosive in high % </li></ul>
  41. 53. Carbon Monoxide (CO) <ul><li>Colorless, odorless, explosive </li></ul><ul><li>ppm </li></ul><ul><li>25 ppm is limit for entry </li></ul>
  42. 59. Monitor care <ul><li>Calibration – known gas, monthly </li></ul><ul><li>Bump test – Daily to check alarm points of monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t immerse in fluids </li></ul>
  43. 60. How we monitor <ul><li>Prior to entry (approach monitoring) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously during entry </li></ul><ul><li>At 4’ intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Document!! </li></ul>
  44. 61. Stratification Methane Gas Carbon Monoxide + Air ?
  45. 62. Real world… <ul><li>You are on the scene of a confined space rescue for a report of a man down in a rail tank car. Witnesses on scene stated the man was cleaning the tank and hasn’t been heard from in 20 minutes. You are sitting on top of the tank car with a 4 gas indicator and your initial readings are 0 for CO, H2S and LEL. O2 reads 21.9%. A few minutes later you have 0 for CO, H2S and LEL and 20.9% O2. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the atmosphere safe to breath? </li></ul>
  46. 65. OSHA Says these are Mandatory Positions <ul><li>Entry Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Attendant </li></ul><ul><li>Entrant </li></ul><ul><li>Back-up entrant </li></ul>
  47. 66. Entry Supervisor <ul><li>Know the hazards that may be faced during entry and work </li></ul><ul><li>Verify the appropriate entries have been made on the permit </li></ul><ul><li>Terminate the entry </li></ul><ul><li>Verify rescue services are available </li></ul><ul><li>Deny unauthorized individuals from entering C.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine entry/work is consistent with permit </li></ul>
  48. 67. Attendant <ul><li>Know the hazards that may be faced during entry and work </li></ul><ul><li>Know the behavioral effects of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain accountability of entrants </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with entrants </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate rescue procedures if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent unauthorized entry </li></ul><ul><li>Perform non-entry rescues </li></ul><ul><li>Perform no conflicting duties </li></ul>
  49. 68. Entrant <ul><li>Know the hazards that may be faced during entry and work </li></ul><ul><li>Know the behavioral effects of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with Attendant </li></ul><ul><li>Alert Attendant of changing conditions </li></ul>
  50. 69. Entry <ul><li>The action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit required confined space, and includes ensuing work activities in that space </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrants body breaks the plane of an opening into the space </li></ul>
  51. 70. Back-up Entrant <ul><li>Know the hazards that may be faced during entry and work </li></ul><ul><li>Know the behavioral effects of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with Attendant </li></ul><ul><li>Alert Attendant of changing conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Be properly equipped and ready to enter if necessary. </li></ul>
  52. 72. Mandatory Components for a C.S. entry <ul><li>Written Policy (including Permit) </li></ul><ul><li>Lock out/Tag out </li></ul><ul><li>Provide rescue/standby </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation (unless it increases hazard) </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Line (provision for non-entry rescue) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate harness </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Advantage if > 5’ fall </li></ul>
  53. 73. Written Policy includes <ul><li>Department SOPs* for C. S. Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>General outline of operations </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Safety requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Includes permit </li></ul><ul><li>* Must be flexible </li></ul>
  54. 74. Entry Permit <ul><li>The written or printed document provided by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) to allow and control entry to a permit space </li></ul>
  55. 75. A permit is simply a checklist <ul><li>Not issued by the Federal, State or Local government </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum contents set by OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>Many formats </li></ul>
  56. 76. Permit Entry Confined Space Procedure <ul><li>Use of the Permit Entry Confined Space Program: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents unauthorized entry </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies and evaluates hazards before entry </li></ul>
  57. 77. The Entry Permit must provide the following information: <ul><li>Permit Space(s) to be entered </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of entry </li></ul><ul><li>Date and authorized duration of entry permit </li></ul><ul><li>Authorized entrants </li></ul><ul><li>Attendants </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Supervisors, by printed name and signature </li></ul>
  58. 78. <ul><li>Hazards of the permit space </li></ul><ul><li>Measures required to control hazards of the space </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable entry conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Test results with signature or initials of tester(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue services, and the means to summon them </li></ul>
  59. 79. <ul><li>Communication procedures and equipment are on site </li></ul><ul><li>All special equipment and procedures, including personal protective equipment and rescue equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Any other information needed to ensure safe entry </li></ul>
  60. 84. Lock out/Tag out Procedures performed to isolate any potential energy source that may adversely impact the entrant
  61. 85. Lock out/Tag out The key to a successful lockout/tagout is retaining someone intimately familiar with the electrical and mechanical systems in the area, plant or space you are making entry. Allow personnel to brief you on their systems!!
  62. 87. Establish Safe Practices… <ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Purging </li></ul><ul><li>Inerting </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Barricades </li></ul><ul><li>Lock-out/Tag-out </li></ul>
  63. 88. Isolation <ul><li>The process by which a permit required confined space is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and/or material into the confined space by such means as: </li></ul><ul><li>Blanking and bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Removing sections of lines, pipes or ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Double block and bleed </li></ul><ul><li>Lock-out, tag-out, or tryout of all sources of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking or disconnecting of all linkages </li></ul>
  64. 90. Lock-Out/Tag-Out Kit <ul><li>Padlocks </li></ul><ul><li>Hasps & tags </li></ul><ul><li>Plug &valve covers </li></ul><ul><li>Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Tester </li></ul>
  65. 92. Padlocks & Hasps/Tags
  66. 93. Covers & Limiting Devices
  67. 94. Locking Out a Plug
  68. 95. Lock-Out & Tag-Out of Electrical Disconnect Switch
  69. 97. Use of limiting device on quarter-turn valve
  70. 98. Use of chain to limit operation
  71. 99. When Lock-Out is not possible
  72. 100. <ul><li>Removing belt and chain drives, mechanical linkages when possible </li></ul><ul><li>A computer from a remote location can turn on equipment or release a product </li></ul><ul><li>Blanking and bleeding - pneumatic and hydraulic lines </li></ul><ul><li>Securing - mechanical moving parts within a confined space with chains, bars, chocks, blocks and other devices </li></ul><ul><li>Double block and bleed </li></ul>
  73. 102. Methods of Communication
  74. 103. Communications <ul><li>5157 states mandatory between Attendant & Entrant </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Hardwired </li></ul><ul><li>Rope signals O.A.T.H. </li></ul>
  75. 104. Radios <ul><li>Won't turn corners </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in thick cement structures </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty underground </li></ul><ul><li>May need to be intrinsically safe </li></ul>
  76. 105. Life Line “OATH” <ul><li>O - OK, 1 pull of rope </li></ul><ul><li>A - Advance line, 2 pulls of rope </li></ul><ul><li>T - Take up slake, 3 pulls of rope </li></ul><ul><li>H - HELP! 4 or more pulls of rope </li></ul>
  77. 106. <ul><li>Hand signals </li></ul><ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul>
  78. 107. Ventilation <ul><li>The planned and systematic release and removal of gases and the replacement of these gases with a supply of fresh air </li></ul><ul><li>The same objective as at a structure fire </li></ul>
  79. 108. Ventilation <ul><li>Increases survivability profile </li></ul><ul><li>- reduces LEL’s to safe levels </li></ul><ul><li>- temperature conducive for human </li></ul><ul><li>habitation </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces contaminated air </li></ul><ul><li>Air exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces explosion chances </li></ul>
  80. 109. Types of Ventilation <ul><li>Positive pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Negative pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Positive/negative pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Micro atmosphere </li></ul>
  81. 110. Consider Characteristics of Gases <ul><li>Vapor densities </li></ul><ul><li>Stratification </li></ul>
  82. 111. Recirculation Clean Air Exhaust Air Contaminated air
  83. 112. Blower considerations <ul><li>CFM (usually stamped on blower) </li></ul><ul><li>The length of blower hose and the number of bends will affect the CFM achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Tubing in hole should not obstruct exhaust gases, should allow one person to enter and exit </li></ul><ul><li>The blower should not be closer than 5 feet to confined space opening </li></ul>
  84. 115. What does this mean…. <ul><li>15’ duct w/ 1 90 º = 60% </li></ul><ul><li>25’ duct w/ 1 90 º = 55% </li></ul><ul><li>15’ duct w/ 2 90 º = 54% </li></ul><ul><li>25’ duct w/ 2 90 º = 49% </li></ul>
  85. 116. Retrieval System <ul><li>The equipment including a retrieval line, class III harness, wristlets, if appropriate, (and lifting device) used for non-entry rescue of workers from a permit-required confined space </li></ul>
  86. 117. Retrieval Line & Harness <ul><li>Rope attached to M.A. or fixed point outside of C.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Harness - full body type with connection at center of back at shoulder level. “Smallest possible profile” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rules of Dis-engagement” </li></ul>
  87. 118. Each entrant shall use chest or full body harness, with retrieval line attached at the center of their back near shoulder level, or above their head
  88. 120. Mechanical Advantage <ul><li>Required for vertical C.S. more than 5’ deep </li></ul><ul><li>Hand operated, approved winch w/ cable </li></ul><ul><li>Rope and pulleys with brake </li></ul><ul><li>Not considered the retrieval line </li></ul>
  89. 123. Optional C.S. Positions <ul><li>Monitoring officer </li></ul><ul><li>Rigger </li></ul><ul><li>Air Supply Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Line tender </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation officer </li></ul><ul><li>Safety officer* </li></ul>
  90. 124. Respiratory Protection <ul><li>When is it mandatory? </li></ul>
  91. 125. Types of Respiratory Protection <ul><li>APR - Air Purifying Respirator </li></ul><ul><li>SCBA – Self Contained Breathing Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>SAR - Supplied Air Respirator </li></ul>
  92. 126. SCBA and Supplied Air Units <ul><li>Compatible air system with supplied air systems </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied air system </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute escape bottle recommended </li></ul><ul><li>One person with the main system </li></ul><ul><li>Keep short distances for possible kinking of hose </li></ul><ul><li>300 foot maximum </li></ul>
  93. 130. Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Any condition that: <ul><li>Poses an immediate or delayed threat to life </li></ul><ul><li>Would cause irreversible adverse health effects </li></ul><ul><li>Would interfere with an individuals ability to self-rescue from a permit space </li></ul>
  94. 131. Weather <ul><li>The environment for time of season and day is extremely influencing: </li></ul><ul><li>Rain </li></ul><ul><li>Snow </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul><ul><li>Extremes in Humidity </li></ul>
  95. 132. Recognize overexposure to yourself and co-workers <ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Smell or rotten eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul>
  96. 133. Personal Protective Equipment <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>Hard hats </li></ul><ul><li>Lights </li></ul><ul><li>Radios </li></ul><ul><li>Boots </li></ul><ul><li>Eye and Hearing protection </li></ul><ul><li>Splash protection </li></ul><ul><li>SCBA </li></ul><ul><li>Turn-outs (fire gear) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials protection </li></ul>
  97. 134. Record keeping Types of records <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Permits </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Medical surveillance - can use OSHA's Hazardous Materials Regulations for this </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment maintenance </li></ul>
  98. 135. Record Retention <ul><li>Must be kept for a minimum of one year </li></ul><ul><li>(Permits) </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure records must be kept for 40 years or for 30 years after employment termination </li></ul>
  99. 136. Fire/Rescue Emergency Response Procedures
  100. 137. Initial Operations <ul><li>Recognize it as a Confined Space! </li></ul><ul><li>Institute Incident Command System </li></ul><ul><li>Call for appropriate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent unauthorized personnel from entering area </li></ul><ul><li>Determine survivability profile of victim </li></ul>
  101. 138. Set-up zones Cold Warm Hot
  102. 139. Hot = Operations zone is within 15 feet of victim. No person allowed except rescuers approved by operations officer. Warm = Control zone is within 50 feet of victim. All rescuer staging occurs in this area. No apparatus allowed in control zone. Cold = Exclusion zone is 150 feet of victim. Apparatus and media are staged in this area. Public is held outside exclusion zone.
  103. 140. Perimeters designated by barricade tape or rope and police guard Cold Warm Hot Zone distances may be adjusted as appropriate or circumstances allow
  104. 141. <ul><li>Protect portal </li></ul><ul><li>Visually check for hazards from outside </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor air quality with meter </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilate confined space </li></ul><ul><li>Set-up tri-pod or other fixed point </li></ul><ul><li>Set-up retrieval system and tag lines </li></ul><ul><li>Proper PPE </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Establish communications methods </li></ul>
  105. 142. Re-evaluate the plan when …. <ul><li>Conditions change within the space </li></ul><ul><li>New hazards are discovered </li></ul><ul><li>Crews are fatigued </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly </li></ul>
  106. 143. Planning <ul><li>Establish a confined space training program </li></ul><ul><li>Make personnel aware of hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Train personnel in tasks that your department can perform safely </li></ul><ul><li>Preplan a confined space rescue response </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a procedure for first in companies </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a response plan with local area fire departments and industry </li></ul>
  107. 144. The End Any Questions?